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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 2 (January-2 2024) – 178 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): It is estimated that by 2050, there will be around 9.5 billion people on Earth, and ensuring the availability of healthy food is a challenge. As an alternative to conventional sources of animal protein, the use of edible insects in human food will become a sustainable and balanced alternative, with the expectation that conventional food sources will become scarce. The 3D printing of snacks with an innovative and attractive design is mainly aimed at the more conservative Western consumer, promoting the introduction of alternative sources of protein. View this paper
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14 pages, 2957 KiB  
Review
Leaching of Phytochemicals from Beans during Hydration, Kinetics, and Modeling
by Gaurav Kumar, Dilini Perera, Kundukulangara Pulissery Sudheer, Pangzhen Zhang and Sushil Dhital
Foods 2024, 13(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020354 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
In the current era, there is a growing emphasis on the circular economy and the valorization of waste products. Bean processing industries generate substantial nutrient-rich waste laden with valuable phytochemicals. Understanding the leaching patterns and kinetics of major phytochemicals is key to designing [...] Read more.
In the current era, there is a growing emphasis on the circular economy and the valorization of waste products. Bean processing industries generate substantial nutrient-rich waste laden with valuable phytochemicals. Understanding the leaching patterns and kinetics of major phytochemicals is key to designing better processes leading to increased sustainability. This review investigates phytochemical leaching mechanisms and kinetic modeling methods. Firstly we lay the foundation with a broad theoretical framework, and later deal with kinetic modeling approaches and promising areas for future research. Currently, the composition of industrial-scale bean wastewater remains undocumented in the open literature. Nonetheless, drawing from existing studies and general bean composition knowledge, we proposed a multi-phase leaching process. We hypothesize three distinct phases: initial leaching of phytochemicals from the outer seed coat, followed by a second phase involving polysaccharides, and concluding with a third phase wherein phenolic acids within the cotyledons leach into the hydration water. This review aims to shed light on the complex process of phytochemical leaching from common beans during hydration. By combining theoretical insights and practical modeling strategies, this work seeks to enhance our understanding of this phenomenon and ultimately contribute to the optimization of food processing methods with reduced environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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15 pages, 4972 KiB  
Article
Smart Pasta Design: Tailoring Formulations for Technological Excellence with Sprouted Quinoa and Kiwicha Grains
by Luz María Paucar-Menacho, Marcio Schmiele, Juan Carlos Vásquez Guzmán, Sander Moreira Rodrigues, Wilson Daniel Simpalo-Lopez, Williams Esteward Castillo-Martínez and Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Foods 2024, 13(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020353 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 961
Abstract
The pursuit of developing healthier pasta products without compromising technological properties involves a strategic approach via the customization of raw material formulations and the integration of grain germination and extrusion processes. This study explores the impact of incorporating sprouts from quinoa (Chenopodium [...] Read more.
The pursuit of developing healthier pasta products without compromising technological properties involves a strategic approach via the customization of raw material formulations and the integration of grain germination and extrusion processes. This study explores the impact of incorporating sprouts from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and kiwicha (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) on the physicochemical properties of pasta by employing a centroid mixture design. The desirability function was utilized to identify the optimal ingredient proportions necessary to achieve specific objectives. The study identified optimal formulations for two pasta variations: pasta with the substitution of sprouted quinoa and cushuro powder (PQC), and pasta with partial substitution of sprouted kiwicha and cushuro powder (PKC). The optimal formulation for PKC was determined as 70% wheat flour (WF), 15% sprouted kiwicha flour (SKF), and 15% cushuro powder (CuP), with a desirability score of 0.68. Similarly, for PQC, the optimal formulation comprised 79% WF, 13% sprouted quinoa flour (SQF), and 8% CuP, with a desirability of 0.63. The optimized pasta formulation exhibited longer cooking times (10 and 8 min), increased weight gain (235% and 244%), and minimal loss of solids (1.4 and 1.2%) for PQC and PKC, respectively. Notably, firmness (2.8 and 2.6 N) and breaking strength values (2 and 2.7 N) for PQC and PKC pasta formulations, respectively, were comparable to those of the control sample (2.7 N and 2.6 N for firmness and fracturability, respectively). This research underscores the potential of tailored formulations and innovative processes to enhance the nutritional profile of pasta while maintaining key technological attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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31 pages, 3618 KiB  
Review
Extraction and Separation of Natural Products from Microalgae and Other Natural Sources Using Liquefied Dimethyl Ether, a Green Solvent: A Review
by Tao Wang, Li Zhu, Li Mei and Hideki Kanda
Foods 2024, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020352 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Microalgae are a sustainable source for the production of biofuels and bioactive compounds. This review discusses significant research on innovative extraction techniques using dimethyl ether (DME) as a green subcritical fluid. DME, which is characterized by its low boiling point and safety as [...] Read more.
Microalgae are a sustainable source for the production of biofuels and bioactive compounds. This review discusses significant research on innovative extraction techniques using dimethyl ether (DME) as a green subcritical fluid. DME, which is characterized by its low boiling point and safety as an organic solvent, exhibits remarkable properties that enable high extraction rates of various active compounds, including lipids and bioactive compounds, from high-water-content microalgae without the need for drying. In this review, the superiority of liquefied DME extraction technology for microalgae over conventional methods is discussed in detail. In addition, we elucidate the extraction mechanism of this technology and address its safety for human health and the environment. This review also covers aspects related to extraction equipment, various applications of different extraction processes, and the estimation and trend analysis of the Hansen solubility parameters. In addition, we anticipate a promising trajectory for the expansion of this technology for the extraction of various resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction Methods in Food Systems)
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13 pages, 1852 KiB  
Article
Identification of Burkholderia gladioli pv. cocovenenans in Black Fungus and Efficient Recognition of Bongkrekic Acid and Toxoflavin Producing Phenotype by Back Propagation Neural Network
by Chen Niu, Xiying Song, Jin Hao, Mincheng Zhao, Yahong Yuan, Jingyan Liu and Tianli Yue
Foods 2024, 13(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020351 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Burkholderia gladioli pv. cocovenenans is a serious safety issue in black fungus due to the deadly toxin, bongkrekic acid. This has triggered the demand for an efficient toxigenic phenotype recognition method. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient method for [...] Read more.
Burkholderia gladioli pv. cocovenenans is a serious safety issue in black fungus due to the deadly toxin, bongkrekic acid. This has triggered the demand for an efficient toxigenic phenotype recognition method. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient method for the recognition of toxin-producing B. gladioli strains. The potential of multilocus sequence typing and a back propagation neural network for the recognition of toxigenic B. cocovenenans was explored for the first time. The virulent strains were isolated from a black fungus cultivation environment in Qinba Mountain area, Shaanxi, China. A comprehensive evaluation of toxigenic capability of 26 isolates were conducted using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography for determination of bongkrekic acid and toxoflavin production in different culturing conditions and foods. The isolates produced bongkrekic acid in the range of 0.05–6.24 mg/L in black fungus and a highly toxin-producing strain generated 201.86 mg/L bongkrekic acid and 45.26 mg/L toxoflavin in co-cultivation with Rhizopus oryzae on PDA medium. Multilocus sequence typing phylogeny (MLST) analysis showed that housekeeping gene sequences have a certain relationship with a strain toxigenic phenotype. We developed a well-trained, back-propagation neutral network for prediction of toxigenic phenotype in B. gladioli based on MLST sequences with an accuracy of 100% in the training set and an accuracy of 86.7% in external test set strains. The BP neutral network offers a highly efficient approach to predict toxigenic phenotype of strains and contributes to hazard detection and safety surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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25 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
Selection of a Probiotic for Its Potential for Developing a Synbiotic Peach and Grape Juice
by Virginia Prieto-Santiago, Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo, Jordi Ortiz-Solà, Marina Anguera and Maribel Abadias
Foods 2024, 13(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020350 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Due to recent interest in the potential of probiotics as health promoters and the impact of health and environmental concerns on eating habits, non-dairy probiotic food products are required. This study aimed to evaluate the viability of different probiotic microorganisms in peach and [...] Read more.
Due to recent interest in the potential of probiotics as health promoters and the impact of health and environmental concerns on eating habits, non-dairy probiotic food products are required. This study aimed to evaluate the viability of different probiotic microorganisms in peach and grape juice (PGJ) with or without the prebiotic inulin and their antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and the juice spoilage microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Firstly, the viability of seven probiotic strains was studied in PGJ with an initial concentration of 107 CFU/mL for 21 days at 4 °C and for 3 days at 37 °C. In parallel, the physicochemical effect, the antimicrobial effect and the lactic acid production in PGJ were evaluated. Secondly, the probiotic with the best viability results was selected to study its antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes and S. cerevisiae, as well as ethanol and acetaldehyde production by the latter. L. casei showed the highest viability and grew in both refrigerated and fermentation conditions (1 log), produced the greatest lactic acid (5.12 g/L) and demonstrated in vitro anti-Listeria activity. Although the addition of the prebiotic did not improve the viability, lactic acid production or anti-Listeria activity of the probiotics, under the conditions studied, the prebiotic potential of inulin, support the design of a synbiotic juice. Finally, although none of the probiotic, fermentation products, or postbiotics showed any antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes or S. cerevisiae, the addition of L. casei to the PGJ significantly reduced the production of S. cerevisiae metabolite ethanol (29%) and acetaldehyde (50%). L. casei might be a suitable probiotic to deliver a safe and functional PGJ, although further research should be carried out to determine the effect of the probiotic and fermentation on the nutritional profile of PGJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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17 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
Influence of Pasteurisation (Conventional vs. Radiofrequency) and Chill Storage on Retention of Ascorbic Acid, Tocopherol and Carotenoids in Salmorejo
by Marina Kravets, Francisco Javier García-Alonso, Andrés Abea, Maria Dolors Guàrdia, Israel Muñoz and Sancho Bañón
Foods 2024, 13(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020349 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Salmorejo, a Mediterranean tomato-oil puree, is considered a dietary source of antioxidant vitamins C and E and carotenoids lycopene and β-carotene, the latter endowed with provitamin A activity. However, these antioxidants can be degraded in oxidation reactions catalysed or not by enzymes during [...] Read more.
Salmorejo, a Mediterranean tomato-oil puree, is considered a dietary source of antioxidant vitamins C and E and carotenoids lycopene and β-carotene, the latter endowed with provitamin A activity. However, these antioxidants can be degraded in oxidation reactions catalysed or not by enzymes during pasteurisation and storage treatments used to stabilise the salmorejo before consumption. Due to its better penetration, the use of dielectric heating by radiofrequency (RF) may improve results of pasteurisation in this product. The objective was to assess the effects of pasteurisation temperature (70–100 °C, at 5 °C intervals) and storage time (0–5 months, at one-month intervals) on levels of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and carotenoids and antioxidant capacity (AC) in salmorejo pasteurised (over 10 s) by conventional (CH) or RF continuous heating. Two successive experiments were conducted to select an adequate pasteurisation temperature for use in the shelf-life study. Pasteurisation upon tested conditions allows a good retention of salmorejo antioxidants. Either CH or RF pasteurisers can be used with similar results. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acids) was more abundant (15–19 mg 100 g−1) than carotenoids (0.9–2.6 mg 100 g−1) (all-trans + cis lycopene and β-carotene) and α-tocopherol (0.8–1.2 mg 100 g−1) in the pasteurised product. Using excessively low temperatures (70 °C) resulted in partial losses of the three antioxidants, possibly due to oxidase residual activities. Intensifying thermal treatment improved this issue with minor losses of the thermolabile vitamin C and increased carotenoid content. Using a suitable temperature (80 °C) did not prevent most vitamin C from being degraded by the first month, while α-tocopherol, and, to a lesser extent, carotenoids, showed good retention levels during shelf life under refrigeration. Vitamins C and E and carotenoids, either by degradation, regeneration or releasing, likely contribute to the AC in salmorejo. Phenolic antioxidant response, radical-scavenging activities and redox potential values confirmed this finding. The pasteurised-chilled salmorejo shows good antioxidant properties with potential health implications, a positive nutritional aspect for consumers of this tomato-oil homogenate. The losses of antioxidants and AC due to pasteurization would be of little relevance compared to the losses accumulated during shelf life. Full article
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13 pages, 1711 KiB  
Article
Potential Antidiabetic Activity of Apis mellifera Propolis Extraction Obtained with Ultrasound
by Javier A. Hernández-Martínez, Armando Zepeda-Bastida, Irma Morales-Rodríguez, Fabián Fernández-Luqueño, Rafael Campos-Montiel, Stephanie E. Hereira-Pacheco and Gabriela Medina-Pérez
Foods 2024, 13(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020348 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 963
Abstract
Recent studies have linked phenolic compounds to the inhibition of digestive enzymes. Propolis extract is consumed or applied as a traditional treatment for some diseases. More than 500 chemical compounds have been identified in propolis composition worldwide. This research aimed to determine Mexican [...] Read more.
Recent studies have linked phenolic compounds to the inhibition of digestive enzymes. Propolis extract is consumed or applied as a traditional treatment for some diseases. More than 500 chemical compounds have been identified in propolis composition worldwide. This research aimed to determine Mexican propolis extracts’ total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and digestive enzyme inhibitory activity (ɑ-amylase and ɑ-glucosidase). In vitro assays measured the possible effect on bioactive compounds after digestion. Four samples of propolis from different regions of the state of Oaxaca (Mexico) were tested (Eloxochitlán (PE), Teotitlán (PT), San Pedro (PSP), and San Jerónimo (PSJ)). Ethanol extractions were performed using ultrasound. The extract with the highest phenolic content was PE with 15,362.4 ± 225 mg GAE/100 g. Regarding the flavonoid content, the highest amount was found in PT with 8084.6 ± 19 mg QE/100 g. ABTS•+ and DPPH radicals were evaluated. The extract with the best inhibition concentration was PE with 33,307.1 ± 567 mg ET/100 g. After simulated digestion, phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity decreased by 96%. In contrast, antidiabetic activity, quantified as inhibition of ɑ-amylase and ɑ-glucosidase, showed a mean decrease in enzyme activity of approximately 50% after the intestinal phase. Therefore, it is concluded that propolis extracts could be a natural alternative for treating diabetes, and it would be necessary to develop a protective mechanism to incorporate them into foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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17 pages, 2365 KiB  
Article
Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Structured Fatty Acids Enriched with Medium and Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids via Solvent-Free Transesterification of Skipjack Tuna Eyeball Oil and Commercial Butterfat
by Khurshid Ahmed Baloch, Umesh Patil, Khamtorn Pudtikajorn, Ebtihal Khojah, Mohammad Fikry and Soottawat Benjakul
Foods 2024, 13(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020347 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Human milk lipids generally have the maximum long-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. This positioning makes them more digestible than long-chain fatty acids located at the sn-1, 3 positions. These unique fatty acid distributions are not found elsewhere [...] Read more.
Human milk lipids generally have the maximum long-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. This positioning makes them more digestible than long-chain fatty acids located at the sn-1, 3 positions. These unique fatty acid distributions are not found elsewhere in nature. When lactation is insufficient, infant formula milk has been used as a substitute. However, the distribution of most fatty acids ininfant formula milk is still different from human milk. Therefore, structured lipids were produced by the redistribution of medium-chain fatty acids from commercial butterfat (CBF) and n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids from skipjack tuna eyeball oil (STEO). Redistribution was carried out via transesterification facilitated by Asian seabass liver lipase (ASL-L). Under the optimum conditions including a CBF/STEO ratio (3:1), transesterification time (60 h), and ASL-L unit (250 U), the newly formed modified-STEO (M-STEO) contained 93.56% triacylglycerol (TAG), 0.31% diacylglycerol (DAG), and 0.02% monoacylglycerol (MAG). The incorporated medium-chain fatty acids accounted for 18.2% of M-STEO, whereas ASL-L could incorporate 40% of n-3 fatty acids and 25–30% palmitic acid in M-STEO. The 1H NMRA and 13CNMR results revealed that the major saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid) and unsaturated fatty acids (DHA and EPA) were distributed at the sn-2 position of the TAGs in M-STEO. Thus, M-STEO enriched with medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 fatty acids positioned at the sn-2 position of TAGs can be a potential substitute for human milk fatty acids in infant formula milk (IFM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
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12 pages, 439 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sociodemographic and Anthropometric Variables on Nutritional Knowledge and Nutrition Literacy
by Nevin Sanlier, Funda Kocaay, Sule Kocabas and Pinar Ayyildiz
Foods 2024, 13(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020346 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Nutrition literacy, which is one of the important components of health literacy, includes basic nutritional information and understanding, interpreting and having the ability to make healthy decisions on nutrition-related issues. This study aims to dwell upon the relationship between sociodemographic and anthropometric variables [...] Read more.
Nutrition literacy, which is one of the important components of health literacy, includes basic nutritional information and understanding, interpreting and having the ability to make healthy decisions on nutrition-related issues. This study aims to dwell upon the relationship between sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and nutritional knowledge and nutrition literacy. A total of 1600 people aged 19–64 years, 934 women and 666 men, voluntarily participated in the research in the capital city of Turkey. The mean age is 28.2 ± 10.9 years. More than half of the participants (57.4%) have a university graduate/postgraduate education level, and 66.2% are unemployed. This cross-sectional study evaluated demographic information, anthropometric measurements, nutritional information and nutrition literacy. Nearly all the respondents (94.6%) were determined to have sufficient nutrition literacy. Body mass index (BMI) and age were negatively associated with nutrition literacy, whilst nutrition knowledge was positively associated. Respondents with nutrition education at school had the highest nutrition knowledge and nutrition literacy scores, and primary school graduates had the lowest. Participants who received nutrition education scored higher in all the subgroups of the GNKQ. Age, gender, marital status, education status, employment status, BMI and nutrition education were significantly associated with nutrition literacy. The results will be useful in developing food and nutrition policies that will pave the way for making decisions on the most useful themes of health and nutrition campaigns. Full article
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16 pages, 1736 KiB  
Article
Utilizing VIS-NIR Technology to Generate a Quality Index (Qi) Model of Barhi Date Fruits at the Khalal Stage Stored in a Controlled Environment
by Abdullah M. Alhamdan
Foods 2024, 13(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020345 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Saudi Arabia is a prominent producer of dates, producing 1.6 million tons annually. There is a need to evaluate the physical properties and quality of fruits non-destructively and then modeled and predict them throughout the storage period. The aim of the current study [...] Read more.
Saudi Arabia is a prominent producer of dates, producing 1.6 million tons annually. There is a need to evaluate the physical properties and quality of fruits non-destructively and then modeled and predict them throughout the storage period. The aim of the current study was to generate a quality index (Qi) and visible–near-infrared spectra (VIS-NIR) models non-destructively to predict properties of Barhi dates including objective and sensory evaluations. A total of 1000 Barhi fruits were sorted into three stages of maturation, ranging from 80 to 100% yellowish. The physical properties (hardness, color, TSS, pH, and sensory evaluations) of Barhi dates were measured and modeled with Qi based on VIS-NIR of fresh Barhi fruits and during storage in ambient (25 °C), cold (1 °C), and CA (1 °C with 5%:5% O2:CO2, 85% RH) conditions for up to 3 months. The prediction of Qi was non-destructively based on VIS-NIR utilizing PLSR and ANN data analysis. The results showed that the shelf-life of stored Barhi fruits were 20, 40, and 120 days corresponding to 25 °C, cold (1 °C), and CA, respectively. It was found that VIS-NIR spectroscopy was helpful in estimating the Qi of Barhi fruits for PLSR and ANN data analysis, respectively, in calibration with an R2 of 0.793 and 0.912 and RMSEC of 0.110 and 0.308 and cross-validation with an R2 of 0.783 and 0.912 and RMSEC of 0.298 and 0.308. The VIS-NIR spectrum has proven to be an effective method for the evaluation of the Qi of Barhi fruits and their physical properties throughout the supply chain in the handling, processing, transportation, storage and retail sectors. It was found that ANN is more suitable than PLSR analysis. Full article
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19 pages, 6428 KiB  
Article
The Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Therapeutic Effect of Dihydromyricetin on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on Network Pharmacology, Molecular Docking, and Transcriptomics
by Xinnian Wen, Chenghao Lv, Runze Zhou, Yixue Wang, Xixin Zhou and Si Qin
Foods 2024, 13(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020344 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and complex disease, and traditional drugs have many side effects. The active compound dihydromyricetin (DHM), derived from natural plants, has been shown in our previous study to possess the potential for reducing blood glucose levels; [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and complex disease, and traditional drugs have many side effects. The active compound dihydromyricetin (DHM), derived from natural plants, has been shown in our previous study to possess the potential for reducing blood glucose levels; however, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, network pharmacology and transcriptomics were performed to screen the molecular targets and signaling pathways of DHM disturbed associated with T2DM, and the results were partially verified by molecular docking, RT-PCR, and Western blotting at in vivo levels. Firstly, the effect of DHM on blood glucose, lipid profile, and liver oxidative stress in db/db mice was explored and the results showed that DHM could reduce blood glucose and improve oxidative stress in the liver. Secondly, GO analysis based on network pharmacology and transcriptomics results showed that DHM mainly played a significant role in anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and fatty acid metabolism in biological processes, on lipoprotein and respiratory chain on cell components, and on redox-related enzyme activity, iron ion binding, and glutathione transferase on molecular functional processes. KEGG system analysis results showed that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, IL17 signaling pathway, HIF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, and TNF signaling pathway were typical signaling pathways disturbed by DHM in T2DM. Thirdly, molecular docking results showed that VEGFA, SRC, HIF1A, ESR1, KDR, MMP9, PPARG, and MAPK14 are key target genes, five genes of which were verified by RT-PCR in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, Western blotting results revealed that DHM effectively upregulated the expression of AKT protein and downregulated the expression of MEK protein in the liver of db/db mice. Therefore, our study found that DHM played a therapeutic effect partially by activation of the PI3K/AKT/MAPK signaling pathway. This study establishes the foundation for DHM as a novel therapeutic agent for T2DM. Additionally, it presents a fresh approach to utilizing natural plant extracts for chemoprevention and treatment of T2DM. Full article
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17 pages, 2572 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Optimization of Triticale Wort Production Using an Artificial Neural Network and a Genetic Algorithm
by Milana Pribić, Ilija Kamenko, Saša Despotović, Milan Mirosavljević and Jelena Pejin
Foods 2024, 13(2), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020343 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Triticale grain, a wheat–rye hybrid, has been reported to comply very well with the requirements for modern brewing adjuncts. In this study, two triticale varieties, in both unmalted and malted forms, were investigated at various ratios in the grist, applying different mashing regimes [...] Read more.
Triticale grain, a wheat–rye hybrid, has been reported to comply very well with the requirements for modern brewing adjuncts. In this study, two triticale varieties, in both unmalted and malted forms, were investigated at various ratios in the grist, applying different mashing regimes and concentrations of the commercial enzyme Shearzyme® 500 L with the aim of evaluating their impact on wort production. In order to capture the complex relationships between the input (triticale ratio, enzyme ratio, mashing regime, and triticale variety) and output variables (wort extract content, wort viscosity, and free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in wort), the study aimed to implement the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to model the mashing process. Also, a genetic algorithm (GA) was integrated to minimize a specified multi-objective function, optimizing the mashing process represented by the ANN model. Among the solutions on the Pareto front, one notable set of solutions was found with objective function values of 0.0949, 0.0131, and 1.6812 for the three conflicting objectives, respectively. These values represent a trade-off that optimally balances the different aspects of the optimization problem. The optimized input variables had values of 23%, 9%, 1, and 3 for the respective input variables of triticale ratio, enzyme ratio, mashing regime, and triticale variety. The results derived from the ANN model, applying the GA-optimized input values, were 8.65% w/w for wort extract content, 1.52 mPa·s for wort viscosity, and 148.32 mg/L for FAN content in wort. Comparatively, the results conducted from the real laboratory mashing were 8.63% w/w for wort extract content, 1.51 mPa·s for wort viscosity, and 148.88 mg/L for FAN content in wort applying same input values. The presented data from the optimization process using the GA and the subsequent experimental verification on the real mashing process have demonstrated the practical applicability of the proposed approach which confirms the potential to enhance the quality and efficiency of triticale wort production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Food Industry)
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16 pages, 3209 KiB  
Article
HS-SPME-GC-MS Combined with Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Identification to Analyze the Effect of LPL on Yak Milk’s Flavor under Different Storage Temperatures and Times
by Jinliang Zhang, Liwen Zhong, Pengjie Wang, Juan Song, Chengrui Shi, Yiheng Li, William Oyom, Hao Zhang, Yanli Zhu and Pengcheng Wen
Foods 2024, 13(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020342 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Flavor is a crucial parameter for assessing the sensory quality of yak milk. However, there is limited information regarding the factors influencing its taste. In this study, the effects of endogenous lipoprotein lipase (LPL) on the volatile flavor components of yak milk under [...] Read more.
Flavor is a crucial parameter for assessing the sensory quality of yak milk. However, there is limited information regarding the factors influencing its taste. In this study, the effects of endogenous lipoprotein lipase (LPL) on the volatile flavor components of yak milk under storage conditions of 4 °C, 18 °C and 65 °C were analyzed via headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) combined with orthogonal partial least-squares (OPSL) discrimination, and the reasons for the changes in yak milk flavors were investigated. Combined with the difference in the changes in volatile flavor substance before and after the action of LPL, LPL was found to have a significant effect on the flavor of fresh yak milk. Fresh milk was best kept at 4 °C for 24 h and pasteurized for more than 24 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were employed to characterize the volatile components in yak milk under various treatment conditions. Twelve substances with significant influence on yak milk flavor were identified by measuring their VIP values. Notably, 2-nonanone, heptanal, and ethyl caprylate exhibited OAV values greater than 1, indicating their significant contribution to the flavor of yak milk. Conversely, 4-octanone and 2-heptanone displayed OAV values between 0.1 and 1, showing their important role in modifying the flavor of yak milk. These findings can serve as monitoring indicators for assessing the freshness of yak milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria and Fermentation in Food Enrichment)
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12 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
Savory and Peppermint Essential Oils-Loaded Emulsions and Nanoemulsions Effects on Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Vacuum-Packed Cured Sausage
by Hadi Hashemi, Ehsan Shad, Fatemeh Ghiasi and Mohammad Hadi Eskandari
Foods 2024, 13(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020341 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 997
Abstract
In this work, Enterococcus faecium, the specific spoilage organism responsible for bloating spoilage of sliced vacuum-packed cured emulsion-type sausage, was isolated and identified through molecular and biochemical techniques, and then the antibacterial activities of savory-loaded nanoemulsion (SNE), savory-loaded emulsion (SE), peppermint-loaded nanoemulsion (PNE), [...] Read more.
In this work, Enterococcus faecium, the specific spoilage organism responsible for bloating spoilage of sliced vacuum-packed cured emulsion-type sausage, was isolated and identified through molecular and biochemical techniques, and then the antibacterial activities of savory-loaded nanoemulsion (SNE), savory-loaded emulsion (SE), peppermint-loaded nanoemulsion (PNE), and peppermint-loaded emulsion (PE) were investigated against spoilage microorganisms. Nanoemulsions with average particle sizes in the range of 109.27 to 118.55 nm were developed by sonication and remained more stable than emulsion samples for 2 weeks. Regardless of emulsion type, the highest antimicrobial activity was detected for savory-loaded samples. Moreover, the significant enhancements in the antimicrobial activity of SNE compared to SE were confirmed by increasing the inhibition zone diameter (17.6%) and decreasing MIC (50%) and MBC (50%) due to the higher specific surface area of smaller droplets. The TEM and SEM micrographs confirmed the inhibitory effects of SNE due to the significant changes in the cell wall integrity of Enterococcus faecium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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22 pages, 5950 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Loquat Jam Quality at Different Cooking Times Based on Physicochemical Parameters, GC-IMS and Intelligent Senses
by Mingfeng Qiao, Huan Xiong, Xuemei Cai, Yuqin Jiang, Xinxin Zhao and Baohe Miao
Foods 2024, 13(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020340 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
The study compared and analyzed the quality of loquat jam with different cooking times through physicochemical parameters, headspace-gas chromatography-ion migration spectroscopy (HS-GC-IMS) and intelligent senses. The results showed that with the prolongation of the cooking time, the color of loquat jam slowly deepened, [...] Read more.
The study compared and analyzed the quality of loquat jam with different cooking times through physicochemical parameters, headspace-gas chromatography-ion migration spectroscopy (HS-GC-IMS) and intelligent senses. The results showed that with the prolongation of the cooking time, the color of loquat jam slowly deepened, the energy significantly increased, the adhesiveness, gumminess, hardness and chewiness enhanced, the free amino acid content increased from 22.40 to 65.18 mg/g. The organic acid content increased from 1.64 to 9.82 mg/g. Forty-seven volatile flavor compounds were identified in five types of loquat jam using HS-GC-IMS, among which the relative content of aldehydes was sharply higher than that of other chemical substances, playing an important role in the flavor formation of loquat jam. LJ0, LJ1 and LJ2 had higher aldehyde content, followed by LJ3 and LJ4 had the lowest aldehyde content. The orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) screened 15 marker compounds that could distinguish five types of loquat jam. The E-nose results showed a significant difference in olfactory sense between loquat jam cooked for 100 and 120 min. The E-tongue results corroborated the results of free amino acids (FAAs) and organic acids, indicating that the gustatory sense of loquat jam changed significantly when the cooking time reached 120 min. The results provided a basis for further research on the relationship between the cooking process and quality characteristics of loquat jam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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17 pages, 2958 KiB  
Article
Determination of Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Meat Alternatives (PBMAs) and Ingredients after Microwave Cooking
by Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Gaetano Cammilleri, Andrea Pulvirenti, Erika Mannino, Licia Pantano, Vittorio Calabrese, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Elisa Maria Domenica Messina, Calogero Alfano, Andrea Macaluso and Vincenzo Ferrantelli
Foods 2024, 13(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020339 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the role of microwave cooking in reducing mycotoxin contamination in plant-based food matrices, with a focus on veggie burgers (purchased and home-made) and their ingredients (soybean, potatoes, zucchini, carrots). Two different conditions were studied (Max–Min) that were 800 [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the role of microwave cooking in reducing mycotoxin contamination in plant-based food matrices, with a focus on veggie burgers (purchased and home-made) and their ingredients (soybean, potatoes, zucchini, carrots). Two different conditions were studied (Max–Min) that were 800 W for 60 s and 800 W for 90 s, respectively. The degradation patterns of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3), trichothecenes (T2, HT2, ZEA), and ochratoxin A (OTA) were studied. The extraction procedures were conducted with the QuEChERS extraction, and the analyses were conducted with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that degradation under microwave cooking varies considerably across different food matrices and cooking conditions. This study provides valuable insights into the degradation of mycotoxins during microwave cooking and underscores the need for more research in this area to ensure food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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26 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
How Do Brazilian Consumers Understand Food Groups in the Food-based Dietary Guidelines?
by Jordanna Santos Monteiro, Eduardo Yoshio Nakano, Renata Puppin Zandonadi, Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho and Wilma Maria Coelho Araújo
Foods 2024, 13(2), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020338 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 987
Abstract
In the Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs), food classification is based on food groups and nutrient sources. Much research has already investigated multiple aspects of consumer understanding of the information described in these documents. However, no study has evaluated consumer understanding of all food [...] Read more.
In the Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs), food classification is based on food groups and nutrient sources. Much research has already investigated multiple aspects of consumer understanding of the information described in these documents. However, no study has evaluated consumer understanding of all food items contained in the groups described in the FBDGs. This study aimed to assess Brazilian consumers’ understanding of food classification according to food groups in the concepts of the FBDGs. Therefore, an instrument, Consumer Understanding of Food Groups (UFG), was constructed and validated to assess consumer understanding of food groups. The instrument comprised 44 items approved by experts (agreement > 80%). A total of 894 Brazilians from all regions participated in this study. The results suggest that 48.9% of the participants believe it is easier to classify food according to food groups. The classification of food groups is based on the origin of the food (animal and vegetable). Although consumers easily recognize foods according to their origin, we still identify asymmetries regarding including food items from the animal kingdom and species from the plant kingdom. This exploratory study highlights important information that can contribute to improving the FBDGs. It is essential to consider consumers’ understanding and guide them regarding choices from a technical point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights into Food Perception and Consumer Behavior)
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17 pages, 7121 KiB  
Article
Biological Properties of Recently Described Wild Bramble Rubus oklejewiczii against the Species from Similar Niches
by Dorota Grabek-Lejko, Mateusz Wolanin, Aleksandra Szpytma, Danuta Pajda, Michał Miłek and Czesław Puchalski
Foods 2024, 13(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020337 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the biological properties, such as antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant, of recently described pentaploid species Rubus oklejewiczii with tetraploid taxa growing in similar habitats including R. plicatus, R. gracilis, and R. wimmerianus. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the biological properties, such as antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant, of recently described pentaploid species Rubus oklejewiczii with tetraploid taxa growing in similar habitats including R. plicatus, R. gracilis, and R. wimmerianus. The antiviral potential was analyzed against bacteriophages with different genetic material: phi6 (a surrogate for the SARS-CoV-2 virus), T7, phiX174, and MS2. Antibacterial properties of fruit and leaf extracts were determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica. The total phenolic content, as well as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, pH, and antioxidant properties (FRAP and DPPH) were determined. R. oklejewiczii leaf extract was characterized by the weakest antibacterial and antiviral properties, which was closely correlated with the lowest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The strongest biological properties were observed for R. wimmerianus leaves. Fruit extracts were characterized by lower phenolic content and antioxidant activities than leaves, with the lowest values observed for R. oklejewiczii extract. The antibacterial properties of fruit extracts were strongest for R. gracilis. The strongest antiviral potential was observed for R. oklejewiczii and R. wimmerianus fruit extracts against the bacteriophage phi6, which correlated with the lowest pH and the highest ascorbic acid content. The positive effect of the higher ploidy of R. oklejewiczii for most of the analyzed biological properties was not observed except for the antiviral potential of fruit extract. Due to its large and tasty fruits, this species seems to be very promising for cultivation and attractive for consumers, even though most of its biological properties were not any better compared to other examined tetraploid species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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16 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Reveals Regulation of Quorum Sensing of Hafnia alvei H4 on the Coculture System of Hafnia alvei H4 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC13525
by Yanan Wang, Xue Li, Gongliang Zhang, Jingran Bi and Hongman Hou
Foods 2024, 13(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020336 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
In the food industry, foodborne spoilage bacteria often live in mixed species and attach to each other, leading to changes in spoilage characteristics. Quorum sensing (QS) has been reported to be a regulating mechanism for food spoiling by certain kinds of bacteria. Here, [...] Read more.
In the food industry, foodborne spoilage bacteria often live in mixed species and attach to each other, leading to changes in spoilage characteristics. Quorum sensing (QS) has been reported to be a regulating mechanism for food spoiling by certain kinds of bacteria. Here, the contents of biofilm, extracellular polysaccharides, and biogenic amines in the coculture system of Hafnia alvei H4 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC13525 were significantly reduced when the QS element of H. alvei H4 was deleted, confirming that QS of H. alvei H4 is involved in the dual-species interactions. Then, transcriptomics was used to explore the regulatory mechanism at the mRNA molecular level. The deletion of the QS element decreased the transcript levels of genes related to chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, and the two-component system pathway of H. alvei H4 in the coculture system. Furthermore, a total of 732 DEGs of P. fluorescens ATCC13525 were regulated in the dual species, which were primarily concerned with biofilm formation, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, the absence of the QS element of H. alvei H4 weakened the mutual cooperation of the two bacteria in the coculture system, making it a good target for managing infection with H. alvei and P. fluorescens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Aquatic Food Products Processing)
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18 pages, 4547 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Phosphorylated Auricularia cornea var. Li. Polysaccharide Liposome Gel and Analysis of Its In Vitro Antioxidant Activity
by Wenguang Fan, Xintong Jiang, Qinyang Li, Jiansheng Wang, Minghui Lv and Junmei Liu
Foods 2024, 13(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020335 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
In this study, Auricularia cornea var. Li. polysaccharides (ACP) were used as the research object to prepare liposome gel and determine its antioxidant activity in vitro. Phosphorylated Auricularia cornea var. Li. polysaccharides (P-ACP) were prepared via the phosphorylation of ACP by the phosphate [...] Read more.
In this study, Auricularia cornea var. Li. polysaccharides (ACP) were used as the research object to prepare liposome gel and determine its antioxidant activity in vitro. Phosphorylated Auricularia cornea var. Li. polysaccharides (P-ACP) were prepared via the phosphorylation of ACP by the phosphate method. Additionally, phosphorylated Auricularia cornea var. Li. polysaccharide liposomes (P-ACPL) were prepared using a reverse evaporation method. Finally, phosphorylated Auricularia cornea var. Li. polysaccharide liposome gel (P-ACPLG) was prepared by dispersing the P-ACPL in the gel matrix. The results show that the phosphorylation of the P-ACP was 15.51%, the containment rate of the P-ACPL was 84.50%, the average particle size was (192.2 ± 3.3) nm, and the particle size distribution map had a homogeneous peak, resulting in the particle dispersion being uniform and the polydispersion index (PDI) being 0.134 ± 0.021. The average Zeta potential was (−33.4 ± 0.57) mV. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the P-ACPL was slightly higher than that of the ACP and P-ACP. After the P-ACPL was emulsified into P-ACPLG, the DPPH, hydroxyl radical clearance, and reducing the ability of P-ACPL remained unchanged. In general, the P-ACPLG prepared in this study has good antioxidant activity in vitro and can retain the antioxidant activity of P-ACPL in vitro well. Full article
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15 pages, 3123 KiB  
Article
Tracing of Di-Ethylhexyl Phthalate in the Tequila Production Process
by Jose Tomas Ornelas-Salas, Juan Carlos Tapia-Picazo and Antonio De Leon-Rodriguez
Foods 2024, 13(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020334 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the origin, presence, and fate of the endocrine disruptor di-ethylhexil phthalate (DEHP) during tequila production. For this, three tequila factories (small, medium, and large) were monitored. DEHP concentrations in water, agave, additives, lubricating greases, neoprene [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the origin, presence, and fate of the endocrine disruptor di-ethylhexil phthalate (DEHP) during tequila production. For this, three tequila factories (small, medium, and large) were monitored. DEHP concentrations in water, agave, additives, lubricating greases, neoprene seals, and materials of each stage process were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. DEHP mass balances were performed to identify the processes with significant changes in the inputs/outputs. DEHP was detected in agave at up to 0.08 ± 0.03 mg kg−1, water 0.02 ± 0.01 mg kg−1, lubricant greases 131.05 ± 2.80 mg kg−1, and neoprene seals 369.11 ± 22.52 mg kg−1. Whereas, tequila produced in the large, medium, and small factories contained 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.24 ± 0.04, and 1.43 ± 0.48 mg kg−1 DEHP, respectively. Furthermore, in waste materials (vinasses and bagasse) released, 534.26 ± 349.02, 947.18 ± 65.84, and 5222.60 ± 2836.94 mg of DEHP was detected for every 1000 L of tequila produced. The most significant increase in DEHP occurred during the sugar extraction and distillation stages. Results demonstrate that main raw materials, such as agave and water, contain DEHP, but lubricant greases and neoprene seals are the major sources of DEHP contamination. Identification of the contamination sources can help the tequila industry to take actions to reduce it, protect consumer health and the environment, and prevent circular contamination. Full article
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12 pages, 2191 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction, Structural Characteristics, and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Alpinia officinarum Hance
by Xuejing Jia, Guanghuo Liu, Yun Huang, Zipeng Li, Xiaofei Liu, Zhuo Wang, Rui Li, Bingbing Song and Saiyi Zhong
Foods 2024, 13(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020333 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Alpinia officinarum Hance, a well known agricultural product in the Lei Zhou peninsula, is generally rich in polysaccharides. In order to enhance the use of A. officinarum Hance polysaccharides (AOP) in functional food, AOP was extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method, and the [...] Read more.
Alpinia officinarum Hance, a well known agricultural product in the Lei Zhou peninsula, is generally rich in polysaccharides. In order to enhance the use of A. officinarum Hance polysaccharides (AOP) in functional food, AOP was extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method, and the ultrasonic extraction parameters of AOP was optimized. Furthermore, this study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of AOPs. In addition, the structural properties were preliminarily determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high performance size exclusion chromatography, and a Zetasizer. Ultimately, this study explored the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activities of AOP. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters were as follows: ultrasonic time, 6 min; ratio of water to material, 12 mL/g; and ultrasonic power, 380 W. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of AOPs was 5.72%, indicating that ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology is suitable for extracting AOPs due to the reduced time and water usage. Additionally, AOPs were purified using graded alcohol precipitation, resulting in three fractions (AOP30, AOP50, and AOP70). AOP30 had the lowest molecular weight of 11.07 kDa and mainly consisted of glucose (89.88%). The half inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of AOP30 and AOP70 was lower than that of AOP50 in the ability to scavenge the ABTS radical, while a reverse trend was observed in reducing ferric ions. Notably, the antioxidant activities of AOPs were highly correlated with their polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and Zeta potential. AOP30, a negatively charged acidic polysaccharide fraction, exhibited electron donating capacities. Additionally, it displayed strong antioxidant abilities through scavenging 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radicals and reducing ferric ions. In conclusion, the present study suggests that AOP30 could be developed as an antioxidant ingredient for the food industry. Full article
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15 pages, 4404 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Mass Transfer and Shrinkage Characteristics of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) Leaves during Osmotic Dehydration
by Timilehin Martins Oyinloye and Won Byong Yoon
Foods 2024, 13(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020332 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 846
Abstract
The mass transfer and shrinkage characteristics of Chinese cabbage (CC) during osmotic dehydration (OD) were investigated. The leaves were grouped into four sections and analyzed based on their morphological characteristics (i.e., maturity, width, and thickness). The sections were immersed in 2.0 mol/m3 [...] Read more.
The mass transfer and shrinkage characteristics of Chinese cabbage (CC) during osmotic dehydration (OD) were investigated. The leaves were grouped into four sections and analyzed based on their morphological characteristics (i.e., maturity, width, and thickness). The sections were immersed in 2.0 mol/m3 NaCl for 120 h at 25 ± 2 °C. The diffusion coefficient (D) of the leaf blade was not significantly different with respect to the sections that were formed, but it was significantly different in the midrib in the increasing order of P1, P4, P3, and P2, with values of 1.12, 1.61, 1.84, and 2.06 (× 10−6), respectively, after a 1 h soaking period due to the different characteristics in morphology and structure, such as porosity (0.31, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.38 for positions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively) and fiber contents. Numerical simulation (NS) for CC was conducted with and without the consideration of shrinkage during OD. The shrinkage effect on the NaCl uptake analyzed using NS indicated no significant difference between 0 to 48 h for both models. However, changes in the NaCl concentration were observed from 48 h onwards, with a lesser concentration in the model with shrinkage for all sections. The difference in NaCl concentration for the models with and without shrinkage was within the standard error range (±0.2 mol/m3) observed during experimental analysis. This implies that the shrinkage effect can be overlooked during the modeling of CC to reduce computational power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modelling of Food Processing)
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21 pages, 1293 KiB  
Review
Agri-Food Waste Recycling for Healthy Remedies: Biomedical Potential of Nutraceuticals from Unripe Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
by Vincenzo Piccolo, Arianna Pastore, Maria Maisto, Niloufar Keivani, Gian Carlo Tenore, Mariano Stornaiuolo and Vincenzo Summa
Foods 2024, 13(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020331 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Unripe tomatoes represent an agri-food waste resulting from industrial by-processing products of tomatoes, yielding products with a high content of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical properties. The food-matrix biological properties are attributed to the high steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) content. Among them, α-tomatine is [...] Read more.
Unripe tomatoes represent an agri-food waste resulting from industrial by-processing products of tomatoes, yielding products with a high content of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical properties. The food-matrix biological properties are attributed to the high steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) content. Among them, α-tomatine is the main SGA reported in unripe green tomatoes. This review provides an overview of the main chemical and pharmacological features of α-tomatine and green tomato extracts. The extraction processes and methods employed in SGA identification and the quantification are discussed. Special attention was given to the methods used in α-tomatine qualitative and quantitative analyses, including the extraction procedures and the clean-up methods applied in the analysis of Solanum lycopersicum L. extracts. Finally, the health-beneficial properties and the pharmacokinetics and toxicological aspects of SGAs and α-tomatine-containing extracts are considered in depth. In particular, the relevant results of the main in vivo and in vitro studies reporting the therapeutic properties and the mechanisms of action were described in detail. Full article
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20 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Fermentation Characteristics, Antinutritional Factor Level and Flavor Compounds of Soybean Whey Yogurt
by Xinyu Zhang, Jie Long, Jun Liu, Yufei Hua, Caimeng Zhang and Xingfei Li
Foods 2024, 13(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020330 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Soybean whey contains high levels of off-flavors and anti-nutritional factors and is generally considered unsuitable for direct application in the food industry. In this work, to reduce beany off-flavors and anti-nutritional factors, and to improve its fermentation characteristics, soybean whey was treated with [...] Read more.
Soybean whey contains high levels of off-flavors and anti-nutritional factors and is generally considered unsuitable for direct application in the food industry. In this work, to reduce beany off-flavors and anti-nutritional factors, and to improve its fermentation characteristics, soybean whey was treated with electrodialysis desalination, vacuum concentration and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation. The results showed that electrodialysis desalination increased the fermentation rate and the number of viable lactic acid bacteria of soybean whey yogurt. More than 90% of the antinutritional factor level (urease and trypsin inhibitory activity) was removed due to high-temperature denaturation inactivation and LAB degradation. Concentrated desalted soybean whey yogurt (CDSWY) possessed larger values for firmness and consistency, and a denser network microstructure compared with undesalted yogurt. Over 90% of off-flavors including hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one were removed after electrodialysis desalination and concentration treatment. Meanwhile, the newly generated β-damascenone through carotenoid degradation and 2,3-butanedione improved the pleasant flavor and sensory quality of CDSWY, while the salty taste of CSWY lowered its sensory quality. This study provided a theoretical basis for better utilization of soybean whey to develop a plant-based yogurt like dairy yogurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bioactive Proteins and Peptides from Plant Foods)
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12 pages, 2295 KiB  
Article
Bioactivity of Microencapsulated Cell-Free Supernatant of Streptococcus thermophilus in Combination with Thyme Extract on Food-Related Bacteria
by Esmeray Kuley, Nagihan Kazgan, Yetkin Sakarya, Esra Balıkcı, Yesim Ozogul, Hatice Yazgan and Gülsün Özyurt
Foods 2024, 13(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020329 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The bioactive properties of the combination of microencapsulated cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Streptococcus thermophilus and thyme extract on food-related bacteria (Photobacterium damselae, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212, and Salmonella Paratyphi A NCTC13) were investigated. The microencapsulated [...] Read more.
The bioactive properties of the combination of microencapsulated cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Streptococcus thermophilus and thyme extract on food-related bacteria (Photobacterium damselae, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212, and Salmonella Paratyphi A NCTC13) were investigated. The microencapsulated CFS of S. thermophilus, in combination with ethanolic thyme extract, had a particle size in the range of 1.11 to 11.39 µm. The microencapsulated CFS of S. thermophilus had a wrinkled, spherical form. In the supernatant, especially at 2% (v/w), the thyme extract additive caused a decrease in the wrinkled form and a completely spherical structure. A total of 11 compounds were determined in the cell-free supernatant of S. thermophilus, and acetic acid (39.64%) and methyl-d3 1-dideuterio-2-propenyl ether (10.87%) were the main components. Thyme extract contained seven components, the main component being carvacrol at 67.96% and 1,2,3-propanetriol at 25.77%. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the inhibition zones of the extracts on bacteria. The inhibitory effect of thyme extract on bacteria varied between 25.00 (P. damselae) and 41.67 mm (V. vulnificus). Less antibacterial activity was shown by the microencapsulated CFS from S. thermophilus compared to their pure form. (p < 0.05). As a result, it was found that microencapsulated forms of CFS from S. thermophilus, especially those prepared in combination with 2% (v/w) thyme extract, generally showed higher bioactive effects on bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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16 pages, 1504 KiB  
Article
Application of Ultrasound Treatments in the Processing and Production of High-Quality and Safe-to-Drink Kiwi Juice
by Sharayu Bhutkar, Teresa R. S. Brandão, Cristina L. M. Silva and Fátima A. Miller
Foods 2024, 13(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020328 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
This study explores the potential of thermosonication as an alternative to traditional heat treatments, such as pasteurization, in the processing of fruit juices. Conventional methods often lead to undesirable quality changes in fruit juices, whereas thermosonication offers promising results regarding microbial inactivation and [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential of thermosonication as an alternative to traditional heat treatments, such as pasteurization, in the processing of fruit juices. Conventional methods often lead to undesirable quality changes in fruit juices, whereas thermosonication offers promising results regarding microbial inactivation and quality preservation. This work focused on the inactivation kinetics of Listeria innocua 2030c, a surrogate for pathogenic L. monocytogenes, in kiwifruit juice using thermosonication at 45 °C, 50 °C, and 55 °C. These treatments were compared with equivalent heat treatments. Quality attributes of the juice were also evaluated to assess process efficiency. Survival data of L. innocua were fitted with the Weibull model, estimating first decimal reduction times (δ) and shape parameters (n). The results reveal temperature and process dependencies on δ, while n remains mostly temperature and treatment independent. Thermosonication outperforms heat treatment, achieving higher L. innocua reductions while retaining quality attributes like pH, soluble solid content, and total phenolics and chlorophylls. Thermosonication at 55 °C stands out, providing a 6.2-log-cycle reduction in just 3 min with superior quality retention. These findings highlight the synergistic effect of temperature and ultrasound, making mild heat processes feasible while enhancing product quality. Thermosonication, particularly at 55 °C, emerges as an effective alternative to traditional thermal treatments for fruit juices, offering improved microbial safety without compromising product quality. Full article
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17 pages, 6111 KiB  
Article
Dual Modification of Cassava Starch Using Physical Treatments for Production of Pickering Stabilizers
by Giselle Vallim Correa Ramos, Marya Eduarda Azelico Rabelo, Samantha Cristina de Pinho, Germán Ayala Valencia, Paulo José do Amaral Sobral and Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes
Foods 2024, 13(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020327 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Cassava starch nanoparticles (SNP) were produced using the nanoprecipitation method after modification of starch granules using ultrasound (US) or heat–moisture treatment (HMT). To produce SNP, cassava starches were gelatinized (95 °C/30 min) and precipitated after cooling, using absolute ethanol. SNPs were isolated using [...] Read more.
Cassava starch nanoparticles (SNP) were produced using the nanoprecipitation method after modification of starch granules using ultrasound (US) or heat–moisture treatment (HMT). To produce SNP, cassava starches were gelatinized (95 °C/30 min) and precipitated after cooling, using absolute ethanol. SNPs were isolated using centrifugation and lyophilized. The nanoparticles produced from native starch and starches modified using US or HMT, named NSNP, USNP and HSNP, respectively, were characterized in terms of their main physical or functional properties. The SNP showed cluster plate formats, which were smooth for particles produced from native starch (NSNP) and rough for particles from starch modified with US (USNP) or HMT (HSNP), with smaller size ranges presented by HSNP (~63–674 nm) than by USNP (~123–1300 nm) or NSNP (~25–1450 nm). SNP had low surface charge values and a V-type crystalline structure. FTIR and thermal analyses confirmed the reduction of crystallinity. The SNP produced after physical pretreatments (US, HMT) showed an improvement in lipophilicity, with their oil absorption capacity in decreasing order being HSNP > USNP > NSNP, which was confirmed by the significant increase in contact angles from ~68.4° (NSNP) to ~76° (USNP; HSNP). A concentration of SNP higher than 4% may be required to produce stability with 20% oil content. The emulsions produced with HSNP showed stability during the storage (7 days at 20 °C), whereas the emulsions prepared with NSNP exhibited phase separation after preparation. The results suggested that dual physical modifications could be used for the production of starch nanoparticles as stabilizers for Pickering emulsions with stable characteristics. Full article
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15 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
A New Functional Wheat Flour Flatbread (Bazlama) Enriched with High-β-Glucan Hull-Less Barley Flour
by Hamit Koksel, Zeynep Hazal Tekin-Cakmak, Sena Oruc, Gozde Kilic, Kubra Ozkan, Buket Cetiner, Osman Sagdic, Francesco Sestili and Abderrazek Jilal
Foods 2024, 13(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020326 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Although the Med-Diet is a healthy diet model, it is affected by current dietary habits. Therefore, new foods with improved nutritional value should be developed to respond to the needs of people following the Med-Diet. This study was focused on developing high-β-glucan flat [...] Read more.
Although the Med-Diet is a healthy diet model, it is affected by current dietary habits. Therefore, new foods with improved nutritional value should be developed to respond to the needs of people following the Med-Diet. This study was focused on developing high-β-glucan flat bread (bazlama) with a relatively lower GI. A bread wheat (cv. Tosunbey) flour was enriched with the flour of a high-β-glucan-content hull-less barley (cv. Chifaa) flour (15, 30, 45 and 60%) to develop a functional bazlama. The nutritional and technological properties of bazlama samples enriched with barley flour were compared with the ones produced from bread wheat. All of the barley flour-enriched bazlama samples had higher yellowness values (b*) than the control (both crumb and crust), which is generally preferred by the consumers. Texture results indicated that bazlama samples became harder with the increase in barley flour supplementation level. The results showed that 3 g of β-glucan can be provided from the barley flour-enriched bazlama samples (at 45 and 60% levels), and this is the limit to carry health claims. The bazlama samples enriched with barley flour were richer in Mg, K, Mn, Fe, and Zn minerals than the control (100% Tosunbey flour). While the glycemic index (GI) of commercial bread wheat and Tosunbey bazlama samples were high (88.60% and 79.20%, respectively), GI values of the bazlama samples enriched with 60% (64.73) and 45% barley flour (68.65) were medium. The lower GI values of barley flour-enriched bazlama samples are probably due to the higher β-glucan contents of the bazlama samples. Additionally, as the barley flour supplementation level of the bazlama samples increased, the phenolics and antioxidant capacities of free and bound extracts increased compared to bread wheat bazlama. The results indicated that hull-less barley (cv. Chifaa) with high β-glucan content may be utilized at relatively higher levels (45 and 60%) to produce bazlama with improved nutritional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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18 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Non-Targeted Metabolomics Reveals the Effects of Different Rolling Methods on Black Tea Quality
by Shuya Yang, Sujan Pathak, Haiyan Tang, De Zhang, Yuqiong Chen, Bernard Ntezimana, Dejiang Ni and Zhi Yu
Foods 2024, 13(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020325 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
A non-targeted metabolomics approach and sensory evaluation, coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, systematically uncover the impact of the rolling time on the quality parameters of black tea. GC-MS analysis reveals that a moderate extension of rolling time favorably contributes to the accumulation of [...] Read more.
A non-targeted metabolomics approach and sensory evaluation, coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, systematically uncover the impact of the rolling time on the quality parameters of black tea. GC-MS analysis reveals that a moderate extension of rolling time favorably contributes to the accumulation of characteristic aroma components in black tea. The volatile components reach their highest concentration in black tea samples processed during an 80-min rolling period. UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis demonstrates a substantial decrease in the contents of catechins and flavonoids with an increase in rolling time. Simultaneously, the production of theaflavins, coupled with the degradation of green bitterness volatiles (GBVs), significantly contributes to the formation of endogenous aroma components in black tea. These findings underscore the close relationship between rolling time control and black tea quality, emphasizing that a moderate extension of the rolling time fosters the development of improved black tea flavor quality. The comprehensive quality evaluation indicates that the optimal duration is 80 min. However, the initial 0 to 20 min of rolling is a crucial phase for the genesis and transformation of black tea quality. This study offers valuable insights into the influence of rolling time on black tea quality, potentially enhancing future studies of rolling technology. It provides theoretical guidelines for optimizing the processing of Gongfu black tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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