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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 197 articles

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13 pages, 5585 KiB  
Article
Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Tetracycline Promote Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes via Plasmid-Mediated Conjugation
by Haibo Zhou, Zhaoxin Lu, Xinmei Liu, Xiaomei Bie, Feng Xue, Sijie Tang, Qiushi Feng, Yiyu Cheng and Jun Yang
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111787 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The ubiquitous presence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) constitutes a major threat to global public safety. Tetracycline (TET) is a common antimicrobial agent that inhibits bacterial growth and is frequently detected in aquatic environments. Although TET may display coselection for [...] Read more.
The ubiquitous presence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) constitutes a major threat to global public safety. Tetracycline (TET) is a common antimicrobial agent that inhibits bacterial growth and is frequently detected in aquatic environments. Although TET may display coselection for resistance, limited knowledge is available on whether and how it might influence plasmid-mediated conjugation. Subinhibitory concentrations (3.9–250 ng/mL) of TET promoted horizontal gene transfer (HGT) via the mobilizable plasmid pVP52-1 from the donor Vibrio parahaemolyticus NJIFDCVp52 to the recipient Escherichia coli EC600 by 1.47- to 3.19-fold. The transcription levels of tetracycline resistance genes [tetA, tetR(A)], conjugation-related genes (traA, traD), outer membrane protein genes (ompA, ompK, ompV), reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes (oxyR, rpoS), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) synthesis gene (luxS), and SOS-related genes (lexA, recA) in the donor and recipient were significantly increased. Furthermore, the overproduced intracellular ROS generation and increased cell membrane permeability under TET exposure stimulated the conjugative transfer of ARGs. Overall, this study provides important insights into the contributions of TET to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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15 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Effects of Genotype and Growing Year on the Nutritional Composition and Pasting Properties of Glabrous Canary Seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) Groat Flours
by Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Sijo Joseph Thandapilly, Pierre J. Hucl and Nancy Ames
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111786 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Canary seed flour is a new food ingredient that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada recently granted Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) status. Stability in nutritional composition and functional properties is an essential characteristic of food ingredients for [...] Read more.
Canary seed flour is a new food ingredient that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada recently granted Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) status. Stability in nutritional composition and functional properties is an essential characteristic of food ingredients for consistency in nutritional quality and performance in processing. This work assessed the effect of genotypic and environmental variation on the nutritional (protein, starch, amylose, oil, dietary fiber, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins) and pasting (as measured in viscosity (peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback), peak time, and pasting temperatures) properties of Canary seed. The samples included four Canary seed varieties grown in randomized complete block design experiments at one location for two growing seasons. In general, the nutritional composition of Canary seed flour was not affected by genotype, growing year, and their interaction except for starch content, which was significantly affected by the growing year (p < 0.0001), and iron content, which was affected by genotypic variation (p < 0.0001). The pasting properties of Canary seed flour were significantly (p < 0.001) affected by both genotypic and growing year variation but not their interaction. Our results suggest that the food industry should measure starch and iron content prior to processing to ensure consistency in nutritional labeling. Also, for those applications where starch pasting properties are essential, the manufacturer should consider measuring the RVA pasting viscosities for every batch of raw material. The results have provided the baseline knowledge of which nutritional or functional properties of Canary seed flour can be improved through breeding and agronomy programs to ensure the reliability of Canary seed as an ingredient. Full article
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18 pages, 6089 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Pipeline and Overexpression of a Novel Efflux Transporter, YoeA, Significantly Increases Plipastatin Production in Bacillus subtilis
by Mengxi Wang, Jie Zheng, Sen Sun, Zichao Wu, Yuting Shao, Jiahui Xiang, Chenyue Yin, Rita Cindy Aye Ayire Sedjoah and Zhihong Xin
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111785 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Plipastatin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, exhibits remarkable antimicrobial activity against a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, the practical application of plipastatin has been significantly hampered by its low yield in wild Bacillus species. Here, the native [...] Read more.
Plipastatin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, exhibits remarkable antimicrobial activity against a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, the practical application of plipastatin has been significantly hampered by its low yield in wild Bacillus species. Here, the native promoters of both the plipastatin operon and the sfp gene in the mono-producing strain M-24 were replaced by the constitutive promoter P43, resulting in plipastatin titers being increased by 27% (607 mg/mL) and 50% (717 mg/mL), respectively. Overexpression of long chain fatty acid coenzyme A ligase (LCFA) increased the yield of plipastatin by 105% (980 mg/mL). A new efflux transporter, YoeA, was identified as a MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family member, overexpression of yoeA enhanced plipastatin production to 1233 mg/mL, an increase of 157%, and knockout of yoeA decreased plipastatin production by 70%; in contrast, overexpression or knockout of yoeA in mono-producing surfactin and iturin engineered strains only slightly affected their production, demonstrating that YoeA acts as the major exporter for plipastatin. Co-overexpression of lcfA and yoeA improved plipastatin production to 1890 mg/mL, which was further elevated to 2060 mg/mL after abrB gene deletion. Lastly, the use of optimized culture medium achieved 2514 mg/mL plipastatin production, which was 5.26-fold higher than that of the initial strain. These results suggest that multiple strain engineering is an effective strategy for increasing lipopeptide production, and identification of the novel transport efflux protein YoeA provides new insights into the regulation and industrial application of plipastatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 3557 KiB  
Article
Rod-Shaped Starch from Galanga: Physicochemical Properties, Fine Structure and In Vitro Digestibility
by Shanshan Li, Rui He, Jiaqi Liu, Ying Chen, Tao Yang and Kun Pan
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111784 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
This work investigated the physicochemical properties, structural characteristics, and digestive properties of two non-conventional starches extracted from Galanga: Alpinia officinarum Hance starch (AOS) and Alpinia galanga Willd starch (AGS). The extraction rates of the two starches were 22.10 wt% and 15.73 wt%, which [...] Read more.
This work investigated the physicochemical properties, structural characteristics, and digestive properties of two non-conventional starches extracted from Galanga: Alpinia officinarum Hance starch (AOS) and Alpinia galanga Willd starch (AGS). The extraction rates of the two starches were 22.10 wt% and 15.73 wt%, which is lower than widely studied ginger (Zingiber officinale, ZOS). But they contained similar amounts of basic constituents. AOS and AGS showed a smooth, elongated shape, while ZOS was an oval sheet shape. AOS and ZOS were C-type starches, and AGS was an A-type starch. AOS showed the highest crystallinity (35.26 ± 1.02%) among the three starches, possessed a higher content of amylose (24.14 ± 0.73%) and a longer amylose average chain length (1419.38 ± 31.28) than AGS. AGS starch exhibits the highest viscosity at all stages, while AOS starch shows the lowest pasting temperature, and ZOS starch, due to its high amylose content, displays lower peak and trough viscosities. Significant differences were also found in the physicochemical properties of the three starches, including the swelling power, solubility, thermal properties, and rheological properties of the three starches. The total content of resistant starch (RS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) in AOS (81.05%), AGS (81.46%), and ZOS (82.58%) are considered desirable. These findings proved to be valuable references for further research and utilization of ginger family starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Chemistry and Function)
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19 pages, 11229 KiB  
Article
Several Feature Extraction Methods Combined with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Identifying the Geographical Origins of Milk
by Xiaohong Wu, Yixuan Wang, Chengyu He, Bin Wu, Tingfei Zhang and Jun Sun
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111783 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Milk is a kind of dairy product with high nutritive value. Tracing the origin of milk can uphold the interests of consumers as well as the stability of the dairy market. In this study, a fuzzy direct linear discriminant analysis (FDLDA) is proposed [...] Read more.
Milk is a kind of dairy product with high nutritive value. Tracing the origin of milk can uphold the interests of consumers as well as the stability of the dairy market. In this study, a fuzzy direct linear discriminant analysis (FDLDA) is proposed to extract the near-infrared spectral information of milk by combining fuzzy set theory with direct linear discriminant analysis (DLDA). First, spectral data of the milk samples were collected by a portable NIR spectrometer. Then, the data were preprocessed by Savitzky–Golay (SG) and standard normal variables (SNV) to reduce noise, and the dimensionality of the spectral data was decreased by principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), DLDA, and FDLDA were employed to transform the spectral data into feature space. Finally, the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier, extreme learning machine (ELM) and naïve Bayes classifier were used for classification. The results of the study showed that the classification accuracy of FDLDA was higher than DLDA when the KNN classifier was used. The highest recognition accuracy of FDLDA, DLDA, and LDA could reach 97.33%, 94.67%, and 94.67%. The classification accuracy of FDLDA was also higher than DLDA when using ELM and naïve Bayes classifiers, but the highest recognition accuracy was 88.24% and 92.00%, respectively. Therefore, the KNN classifier outperformed the ELM and naïve Bayes classifiers. This study demonstrated that combining FDLDA, DLDA, and LDA with NIR spectroscopy as an effective method for determining the origin of milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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19 pages, 4366 KiB  
Article
Selective Elucidation of Living Microbial Communities in Fermented Grains of Chinese Baijiu: Development of a Technique Integrating Propidium Monoazide Probe Pretreatment and Amplicon Sequencing
by Tao Bo, Jiaojiao Zhang, Enxiang Zong, Na Lv, Baoqing Bai, Yukun Yang, Jinhua Zhang and Sanhong Fan
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111782 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 265
Abstract
The fermentation process of Chinese Baijiu’s fermented grains involves the intricate succession and metabolism of microbial communities, collectively shaping the Baijiu’s quality. Understanding the composition and succession of these living microbial communities within fermented grains is crucial for comprehending fermentation and flavor formation [...] Read more.
The fermentation process of Chinese Baijiu’s fermented grains involves the intricate succession and metabolism of microbial communities, collectively shaping the Baijiu’s quality. Understanding the composition and succession of these living microbial communities within fermented grains is crucial for comprehending fermentation and flavor formation mechanisms. However, conducting high-throughput analysis of living microbial communities within the complex microbial system of fermented grains poses significant challenges. Thus, this study addressed this challenge by devising a high-throughput analysis framework using light-flavor Baijiu as a model. This framework combined propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment technology with amplicon sequencing techniques. Optimal PMA treatment parameters, including a concentration of 50 μM and incubation in darkness for 5 min followed by an exposure incubation period of 5 min, were identified. Utilizing this protocol, viable microorganism biomass ranging from 8.71 × 106 to 1.47 × 108 copies/μL was successfully detected in fermented grain samples. Subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis revealed distinct microbial community structures between untreated and PMA-treated groups, with notable differences in relative abundance compositions, particularly in dominant species such as Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Pediococcus, Saccharomycopsis, Issatchenkia and Pichia, as identified by LEfSe analysis. The results of this study confirmed the efficacy of PMA-amplicon sequencing technology for analyzing living microbial communities in fermented grains and furnished a methodological framework for investigating living microbial communities in diverse traditional fermented foods. This technical framework holds considerable significance for advancing our understanding of the fermentation mechanisms intrinsic to traditional fermented foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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16 pages, 2616 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Barley Sprout Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria in RAW264.7 Macrophages and Caco-2 Cells
by Sang-Hyun Kim, Youn Young Shim, Young Jun Kim, Martin J. T. Reaney and Mi Ja Chung
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111781 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The anti-inflammatory effects of supernatants produced from sprouted barley inoculated with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KCTC3104 (Lp), Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCTC3530 (Lm), Latilactobacillus curvatus KCTC3767 (Lc), or a mixture of these lactic acid bacteria were investigated using RAW264.7 macrophages. BLp and BLc, the lyophilized supernatants of [...] Read more.
The anti-inflammatory effects of supernatants produced from sprouted barley inoculated with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KCTC3104 (Lp), Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCTC3530 (Lm), Latilactobacillus curvatus KCTC3767 (Lc), or a mixture of these lactic acid bacteria were investigated using RAW264.7 macrophages. BLp and BLc, the lyophilized supernatants of fermented sprouted barley inoculated with Lp and Lc, respectively, effectively reduced the nitric oxide (NO) levels hypersecreted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 and LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells. BLp and BLc effectively reduced the NO levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, and these effects tended to be concentration-dependent. BLc and BLp also exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity and immunostimulatory effects. BLp and BLc significantly suppressed the levels of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells, indicating their anti-inflammatory effects. These effects were greater than those of unfermented barley sprout (Bs). The functional components of Bs, BLp, and BLc were analyzed by HPLC, and it was found that lutonarin and saponarin were significantly increased in the fermented sprouted barley sample inoculated with Lp and Lc (BLp and BLc). Full article
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16 pages, 1729 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Chlorpyrifos Pesticide Residue in Locally Grown Cauliflower, Cabbage, and Eggplant Using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Technique: A Bangladesh Perspective
by Mysha Momtaz and Mohidus Samad Khan
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111780 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control various types of pests, which are hazardous for crops and animals. Pesticides may remain on or in foods after these are applied to crops. Pesticide residue in food has been a major global concern [...] Read more.
Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control various types of pests, which are hazardous for crops and animals. Pesticides may remain on or in foods after these are applied to crops. Pesticide residue in food has been a major global concern since there are direct and indirect health hazards associated with the regular consumption of foods with pesticide residues. Chlorpyrifos is one of the most used pesticides that has received much attention worldwide due to its detrimental health impact. The presence of chlorpyrifos residue in food crops can have both long-term and short-term effects on consumer health. Bangladesh is an agricultural country that uses a high volume of pesticides every year including chlorpyrifos. This experimental study aimed to analyze chlorpyrifos pesticide residue in locally grown cauliflower, cabbage, and eggplant samples by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique followed by a suitable extraction process. Commercially available cauliflower, cabbage, and eggplant samples along with samples cultivated with the recommended pesticide dose were collected for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Samples cultivated without chlorpyrifos were collected as control samples for the validation study. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, recovery, reproducibility, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The method has a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.011 mg/kg and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.034 mg/kg. The experimental results were compared to the maximum residue level (MRL) to assess the human health impact. Chlorpyrifos residue was found in 44% of cauliflower samples with 91% of samples higher than MRL. The residue was found in 68% of cabbage samples with 53% of samples higher than MRL. For eggplant, the residue was found in 80% of the samples with 65% of samples higher than MRL. The risk assessment based on the residue level found in this study shows a potential health hazard of having a high concentration of chlorpyrifos residue in locally grown vegetables. Full article
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17 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) Fish from the Southern Baltic as a Source of Arsenic and Selenium—Food Safety Aspects
by Arkadiusz Nędzarek and Przemysław Czerniejewski
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111779 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Minimizing human exposure to arsenic (As) and ensuring an adequate dietary intake of selenium (Se) are significant issues in research on food sources. This study measured the content of As and Se in the muscles, gills, liver, and gonads of the fish round [...] Read more.
Minimizing human exposure to arsenic (As) and ensuring an adequate dietary intake of selenium (Se) are significant issues in research on food sources. This study measured the content of As and Se in the muscles, gills, liver, and gonads of the fish round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) to assess the benefits and risks associated with their consumption. This was achieved by using dietary reference intake (DRI), estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR). The elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As and Se (in μg kg−1 wet weight) were 25.1 and 161.4 in muscle, 58.8 and 367.4 in liver, 47.4 and 635.3 in gonads, and 16.4 and 228.5 in gills, respectively. Arsenic in the muscle portion of fish accounted for up to 0.5% of the DRI, while Se constituted approximately 30% of the DRI. The EDI values were below the reference oral dose (RfD). The THQ were much below the permissible levels (THQ < 1), and the CR were at least within the permissible limit (CR < 10−4). With regard to the As content, round goby muscles can be deemed safe for consumers. They may also be a valuable source of Se in the human diet. However, round goby consumption should be monitored for the proper and safe intake of these elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Seafood Quality, Technical and Nutritional Assessment)
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24 pages, 1904 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends in the Pre-Drying, Drying, and Post-Drying Processes for Cassava Tuber: A Review
by Ellyas Alga Nainggolan, Jan Banout and Klara Urbanova
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111778 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Cassava tuber is an essential staple crop in tropical regions with versatile applications in the food, feed, and industrial sectors. However, its high moisture content and perishable nature necessitate efficient preservation methods to extend its shelf life and enhance its value. Pre-drying, drying, [...] Read more.
Cassava tuber is an essential staple crop in tropical regions with versatile applications in the food, feed, and industrial sectors. However, its high moisture content and perishable nature necessitate efficient preservation methods to extend its shelf life and enhance its value. Pre-drying, drying, and post-drying processes play pivotal roles in maintaining the quality and usability of cassava products. This review comprehensively examines the current status and future directions in the pre-drying, drying, and post-drying processes of cassava tuber. Various pre-drying or pretreatment methods and drying techniques are evaluated for their impacts on drying kinetics and product quality. Additionally, challenges and limitations in achieving high-quality processing of cassava flour are identified. Future directions in cassava drying methods emphasize the integration of combined pre-drying and drying techniques to optimize resource utilization and processing efficiency. Furthermore, the adoption of advanced online measurement and control technologies in drying equipment is highlighted for real-time monitoring and optimization of drying parameters. The importance of optimizing existing processes to establish a comprehensive cassava industrial chain and foster the development of the cassava deep-processing industry is emphasized. This review provides valuable insights into the current trends and future prospects in cassava drying technologies, aiming to facilitate sustainable and efficient utilization of cassava resources for various applications. Full article
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14 pages, 4414 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Novel Chitinase from Bacillus paralicheniformis: Gene Mining, Sequence Analysis, and Enzymatic Characterization
by Xianwen Ma, Dian Zou, Anying Ji, Cong Jiang, Ziyue Zhao, Xiaoqi Ding, Zongchen Han, Pengfei Bao, Kang Chen, Aimin Ma and Xuetuan Wei
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111777 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
In this study, a novel strain for degrading chitin was identified as Bacillus paralicheniformis HL37, and the key chitinase CH1 was firstly mined through recombinant expression in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HZ12. Subsequently, the sequence composition and catalytic mechanism of CH1 protein were analyzed. The [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel strain for degrading chitin was identified as Bacillus paralicheniformis HL37, and the key chitinase CH1 was firstly mined through recombinant expression in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HZ12. Subsequently, the sequence composition and catalytic mechanism of CH1 protein were analyzed. The molecular docking indicated that the triplet of Asp526, Asp528, and Glu530 was a catalytic active center. The enzymatic properties analysis revealed that the optimal reaction temperature and pH was 65 °C and 6.0, respectively. Especially, the chitinase activity showed no significant change below 55 °C and it could maintain over 60% activity after exposure to 85 °C for 30 min. Moreover, the optimal host strain and signal peptide were obtained to enhance the expression of chitinase CH1 significantly. As far as we know, it was the first time finding the highly efficient chitin-degrading enzymes in B. paralicheniformis, and detailed explanations were provided on the catalytic mechanism and enzymatic properties on CH1. Full article
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16 pages, 3060 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Aroma of Fresh Tea Leaves from Camellia sinensis cv. Jin Xuan in Summer and Autumn
by Ansheng Li, Zihao Qiu, Jinmei Liao, Jiahao Chen, Wei Huang, Jiyuan Yao, Xinyuan Lin, Yuwang Huang, Binmei Sun, Shaoqun Liu and Peng Zheng
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111776 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Nitrogen fertilization level and harvesting season significantly impact tea aroma quality. In this study, we analyzed the volatile organic compounds of fresh Jin Xuan (JX) tea leaves under different nitrogen application levels (N0, N150, N300, N450) during summer and autumn. A total of [...] Read more.
Nitrogen fertilization level and harvesting season significantly impact tea aroma quality. In this study, we analyzed the volatile organic compounds of fresh Jin Xuan (JX) tea leaves under different nitrogen application levels (N0, N150, N300, N450) during summer and autumn. A total of 49 volatile components were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Notably, (E)-2-hexenal, linalool, and geraniol were the main contributors to the aroma of fresh JX leaves. The no-nitrogen treatment (N0) presented the greatest quantity and variety of volatiles in both seasons. A greater difference in volatile compounds was observed between nitrogen treatments in summer vs. autumn. The N0 treatment had a greater total volatile concentration in summer, while the opposite was observed in the nitrogen application treatments (N150, N300, N450). Summer treatments appeared best suited to black tea production. The concentration of herbaceous aroma-type volatiles was higher in summer, while the concentration of floral volatiles was higher in autumn. Volatile concentrations were highest in the N0 and N450 treatments in autumn and appeared suitable for making black tea and oolong tea. Overall, this research provides valuable insights into how variations in N application rates across different harvesting seasons impact the aroma characteristics of tea leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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14 pages, 3763 KiB  
Article
A 3D-Printed Integrated Handheld Biosensor for the Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
by Yuancong Xu, Qian Zhang, Yunyi Li, Xiaoxu Pang and Nan Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111775 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is one of the important seafood-borne pathogens that cause a serious gastrointestinal disorder in humans. Recently, biosensors have attracted serious attention for precisely detecting and tracking risk factors in foods. However, a major consideration when fabricating biosensors [...] Read more.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is one of the important seafood-borne pathogens that cause a serious gastrointestinal disorder in humans. Recently, biosensors have attracted serious attention for precisely detecting and tracking risk factors in foods. However, a major consideration when fabricating biosensors is to match the low cost of portable devices to broaden its application. In this study, a 3D-printed integrated handheld biosensor (IHB) that combines RPA-CRISPR/Cas12a, a lateral flow strip (LFS), and a handheld device was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of V. parahaemolyticus. Using the preamplification of RPA on tlh gene of V. parahaemolyticus, a specific duplex DNA product was obtained to activate the trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR/Cas12a, which was then utilized to cleave the ssDNA probe. The ssDNA probe was then detected by the LFS, which was negatively correlated with the content of amplified RPA products of the tlh gene. The IHB showed high selectivity and excellent sensitivity for V. parahaemolyticus detection, and the limit of detection was 4.9 CFU/mL. The IHB also demonstrated great promise for the screening of V. parahaemolyticus in samples and had the potential to be applied to the rapid screening of other pathogen risks for seafood and marine environmental safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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14 pages, 1255 KiB  
Review
Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin in Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Giuseppe Genchi, Graziantonio Lauria, Alessia Catalano, Alessia Carocci and Maria Stefania Sinicropi
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111774 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is now considered a candidate drug for the treatment of neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Huntington’s Disease (HD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and prion [...] Read more.
Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is now considered a candidate drug for the treatment of neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Huntington’s Disease (HD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and prion disease, due to its potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant potential, anticancerous, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antiproliferative, and antibacterial activities. Traditionally, curcumin has been used for medicinal and dietary purposes in Asia, India, and China. However, low water solubility, poor stability in the blood, high rate of metabolism, limited bioavailability, and little capability to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) have limited the clinical application of curcumin, despite the important pharmacological activities of this drug. A variety of nanocarriers, including liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, cubosome nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles have been developed with great success to effectively deliver the active drug to brain cells. Functionalization on the surface of nanoparticles with brain-specific ligands makes them target-specific, which should significantly improve bioavailability and reduce harmful effects. The aim of this review is to summarize the studies on curcumin and/or nanoparticles containing curcumin in the most common neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting the high neuroprotective potential of this nutraceutical. Full article
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13 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Insights from the Genomic Exploration of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Strains Isolated from Fermented Palm Sap
by Phoomjai Sornsenee, Komwit Surachat, Dae-Kyung Kang, Remylin Mendoza and Chonticha Romyasamit
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111773 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 415
Abstract
This study focused on L. paracasei strains isolated from fermented palm sap in southern Thailand that exhibit potential probiotic characteristics, including antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to gastrointestinal stresses, and antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. However, a thorough investigation of the whole genome sequences of [...] Read more.
This study focused on L. paracasei strains isolated from fermented palm sap in southern Thailand that exhibit potential probiotic characteristics, including antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to gastrointestinal stresses, and antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. However, a thorough investigation of the whole genome sequences of L. paracasei isolates is required to ensure their safety and probiotic properties for human applications. This study aimed to sequence the genome of L. paracasei isolated from fermented palm sap, to assess its safety profile, and to conduct a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis with other Lacticaseibacillus species. The genome sizes of the seven L. paracasei strains ranged from 3,070,747 bp to 3,131,129 bp, with a GC content between 46.11% and 46.17% supporting their classification as nomadic lactobacilli. In addition, the minimal presence of cloud genes and a significant number of core genes suggest a high degree of relatedness among the strains. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analysis of core genes revealed that the strains possessed distinct genes and were grouped into two distinct clades. Genomic analysis revealed key genes associated with probiotic functions, such as those involved in gastrointestinal, oxidative stress resistance, vitamin synthesis, and biofilm disruption. This study is consistent with previous studies that used whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics to assess the safety and potential benefits of probiotics in various food fermentation processes. Our findings provide valuable insights into the potential use of seven L. paracasei strains isolated from fermented palm sap as probiotic and postbiotic candidates in functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Full article
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24 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Food Security of Older Rural Indigenous People in Latin America and the Caribbean
by Angélica Hernández-Moreno, Olga Vásquez-Palma, Fernanda Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Otilia Cordero-Ahiman, Natalia Celedón-Celis and Jorge Hochstetter-Diez
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111772 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Food insecurity is a critical issue in the Americas, with severe impacts in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica, and South America, particularly affecting older adults in Indigenous and rural contexts where it intersects with poverty, gender, and ethnicity. This study aims to provide an in-depth [...] Read more.
Food insecurity is a critical issue in the Americas, with severe impacts in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica, and South America, particularly affecting older adults in Indigenous and rural contexts where it intersects with poverty, gender, and ethnicity. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the current research about food insecurity among older Indigenous adults in Latin America and the Caribbean. A comprehensive literature review was conducted, utilizing specific search queries and the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) strategy across multiple databases to identify the pertinent studies. The findings indicate an increase in academic output on this topic since 2018, with significant emphasis on the interplay between climate change and food insecurity. The review highlights the importance of developing targeted food programs, reforming policies, and fostering collaboration between academia and local communities to implement practical interventions. Despite the growing body of literature, a notable research gap persists in rural areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. This study underscores the necessity of balancing the geographic distribution of research and emphasizes the preservation of cultural practices and the adaptation of public policies to support traditional food practices. It advocates for culturally sensitive interventions and interdisciplinary collaboration to formulate comprehensive strategies. The originality and value of this study lie in its focused analysis of older Indigenous adults, contributing crucial insights to the international literature on food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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15 pages, 299 KiB  
Review
Protein Nutrition: Understanding Structure, Digestibility, and Bioavailability for Optimal Health
by Nneka Ajomiwe, Mike Boland, Suphat Phongthai, Manisha Bagiyal, Jaspreet Singh and Lovedeep Kaur
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111771 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
This review discusses different protein sources and their role in human nutrition, focusing on their structure, digestibility, and bioavailability. Plant-based proteins, such as those found in legumes, nuts, and seeds, may contain anti-nutritional factors that impact their bioavailability apart from structural and compositional [...] Read more.
This review discusses different protein sources and their role in human nutrition, focusing on their structure, digestibility, and bioavailability. Plant-based proteins, such as those found in legumes, nuts, and seeds, may contain anti-nutritional factors that impact their bioavailability apart from structural and compositional differences from animal proteins. Animal proteins are generally highly digestible and nutritionally superior to plant proteins, with higher amino acid bioavailability. Alternative protein sources are also processed in different ways, which can alter their structure and nutritional value, which is also discussed. Full article
13 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Effect of Blueberry Pomace Addition on Quality Attributes of Buttermilk-Based Fermented Drinks during Cold Storage
by Biljana Trajkovska, Gjore Nakov, Sari Thachappully Prabhat and Prarabdh C. Badgujar
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111770 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
The fruit and beverage industry faces challenges related to waste management and environmental pollution due to rapid industrial expansion. Fruit industry waste, such as blueberry pomace, holds the promise of enhancing gut health and providing valuable antioxidants. Concurrently, buttermilk, a prominent dairy product, [...] Read more.
The fruit and beverage industry faces challenges related to waste management and environmental pollution due to rapid industrial expansion. Fruit industry waste, such as blueberry pomace, holds the promise of enhancing gut health and providing valuable antioxidants. Concurrently, buttermilk, a prominent dairy product, offers nutritional and technological benefits but remains underutilized. This study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of blueberry pomace (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) into buttermilk at varying levels and assess its impact on the physicochemical, antioxidant, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of the buttermilk. Buttermilk samples were supplemented with different concentrations of blueberry pomace and subjected to analysis over a two-week storage period (4 ± 1 °C). The addition of blueberry pomace led to alterations in the pH, dry matter, water holding capacity, color parameters, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, or molds. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences among samples, with the highest scores observed for the buttermilk supplemented with 2% and 4% blueberry pomace. Incorporating blueberry pomace improved the overall acceptability and sensory properties. This research highlights the potential of fruit industry by-products to enhance the functionality and health benefits of dairy products, which is a promising way to effectively utilize waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products: Processing Technology and Sensory Properties)
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15 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
Rapid Measurement of Antioxidant Properties of Dendrobium officinale Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics
by Xiaoqing Cao, Jing Huang, Jinjing Chen, Ying Niu, Sisi Wei, Haibin Tong, Mingjiang Wu and Yue Yang
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111769 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Dendrobium officinale (D. officinale), often used as a dual-use plant with herbal medicine and food applications, has attracted considerable attention for health-benefiting components and wide economic value. The antioxidant ability of D. officinale is of great significance to ensure its health [...] Read more.
Dendrobium officinale (D. officinale), often used as a dual-use plant with herbal medicine and food applications, has attracted considerable attention for health-benefiting components and wide economic value. The antioxidant ability of D. officinale is of great significance to ensure its health care value and safeguard consumers’ interests. However, the common analytical methods for evaluating the antioxidant ability of D. officinale are time-consuming, laborious, and costly. In this study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics were employed to establish a rapid and accurate method for the determination of 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in D. officinale. The quantitative models were developed based on the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Two wavelength selection methods, namely the genetic algorithm (GA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) method, were used for model optimization. The CARS-PLS models exhibited superior predictive performance compared to other PLS models. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECVs) for ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH were 0.44%, 2.64 μmol/L, and 2.06%, respectively. The results demonstrated the potential application of NIR spectroscopy combined with the CARS-PLS model for the rapid prediction of antioxidant activity in D. officinale. This method can serve as an alternative to conventional analytical methods for efficiently quantifying the antioxidant properties in D. officinale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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20 pages, 629 KiB  
Review
Alternative Substrates for the Development of Fermented Beverages Analogous to Kombucha: An Integrative Review
by Vinicius Costa Barros, Vanessa Albres Botelho and Renan Campos Chisté
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111768 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented beverage that originated in China and is spread worldwide today. The infusion of Camellia sinensis leaves is mandatory as the substrate to produce kombucha but alternative plant infusions are expected to increase the opportunities to develop new fermented food [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented beverage that originated in China and is spread worldwide today. The infusion of Camellia sinensis leaves is mandatory as the substrate to produce kombucha but alternative plant infusions are expected to increase the opportunities to develop new fermented food products analogous to kombucha, with high technological potential and functional properties. This review gathers information regarding promising alternative substrates to produce kombucha-analogous beverages, focusing on plants available in the Amazonia biome. The data from the literature showed a wide range of alternative substrates in increasing expansion, with 37 new substrates being highlighted, of which ~29% are available in the Amazon region. Regarding the technological production of kombucha-analogous beverages, the following were the most frequent conditions: sucrose was the most used carbon/energy source; the infusions were mostly prepared at 90–100 °C, which allowed increased contents of phenolic compounds in the product; and 14 day-fermentation at 25–28 °C was typical. Furthermore, herbs with promising bioactive compound compositions and high antioxidant and antimicrobial properties are usually preferred. This review also brings up gaps in the literature, such as the lack of consistent information about chemical composition, sensory aspects, biological properties, and market strategies for fermented beverages analogous to kombucha produced with alternative substrates. Therefore, investigations aiming to overcome these gaps may stimulate the upscale of these beverages in reaching wide access to contribute to the modern consumers’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Properties of Foods and Beverages)
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23 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
Quality- and Health-Promoting Compounds of Whole Wheat Bread with the Addition of Stale Bread, Cornmeal, and Apple Pomace
by Dorota Gumul, Joanna Oracz, Dorota Litwinek, Dorota Żyżelewicz, Tomasz Zięba, Renata Sabat, Anna Wywrocka-Gurgul and Rafał Ziobro
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111767 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extruded preparations on the bioactive and nutritional properties, vitamin B content, volatile compound profile, and quality of whole wheat bread. Extruded preparations based on stale bread (secondary raw materials) and apple pomace [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extruded preparations on the bioactive and nutritional properties, vitamin B content, volatile compound profile, and quality of whole wheat bread. Extruded preparations based on stale bread (secondary raw materials) and apple pomace (byproducts) were used as bread additives. It was found that the preparations did not enrich the bread in protein but in health-promoting compounds, especially gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, quercetin, and B vitamins. Extruded preparations had a positive effect on the quality of the bread produced, such as yield and cohesiveness, and gave it a pleasant aroma. It was shown that among all the examined bread samples with added extruded preparations of stale bread, the cornmeal and apple pomace bread samples with 15% extruded preparation (containing 55% cornmeal, 30% stale bread, and 15% apple pomace) had sufficient nutritional value, the highest amounts of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and quercetin; medium amounts of ellagic acid; high antioxidant activity determined in vitro using four methods (by DPPH, ABTS, power (FRAP), and Fe(II) chelating assays); adequate quality; and significant amounts of vitamins, especially B1, B2, and B3. This type of extruded preparation should utilize apple pomace, which is a byproduct, and stale bread, which is a secondary waste. Such a combination is an excellent low-cost, easy, and prospective solution for the baking industry that could be applied to obtain bread with elevated nutritional value and enhanced health potential, as proven in this publication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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23 pages, 3184 KiB  
Article
Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence, and Plasmid Dynamics in Multidrug-Resistant E. coli Isolates from Imported Shrimp
by Kidon Sung, Mohamed Nawaz, Miseon Park, Jungwhan Chon, Saeed A. Khan, Khulud Alotaibi, Javier Revollo, Jaime A. Miranda and Ashraf A. Khan
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111766 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
We analyzed antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates obtained from imported shrimp using whole-genome sequences (WGSs). Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined phenotypically. WGSs identified key characteristics, including their multilocus sequence type (MLST), serotype, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, [...] Read more.
We analyzed antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates obtained from imported shrimp using whole-genome sequences (WGSs). Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined phenotypically. WGSs identified key characteristics, including their multilocus sequence type (MLST), serotype, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, and mobile elements. Most of the isolates exhibited resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Multilocus sequence type (MLST), serotype, average nucleotide identity (ANI), and pangenome analysis showed high genomic similarity among isolates, except for EC15 and ECV01. The EC119 plasmid contained a variety of efflux pump genes, including those encoding the acid resistance transcriptional activators (gadE, gadW, and gadX), resistance-nodulation-division-type efflux pumps (mdtE and mdtF), and a metabolite, H1 symporter (MHS) family major facilitator superfamily transporter (MNZ41_23075). Virulence genes displayed diversity, particularly EC15, whose plasmids carried genes for adherence (faeA and faeC-I), invasion (ipaH and virB), and capsule (caf1A and caf1M). This comprehensive analysis illuminates antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and plasmid dynamics in E. coli from imported shrimp and has profound implications for public health, emphasizing the need for continued surveillance and research into the evolution of these important bacterial pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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15 pages, 2239 KiB  
Article
Detection of Salt Content in Canned Tuna by Impedance Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study for Distinguishing Salt Levels
by Inés Zabala, Santos Merino, Unai Eletxigerra, Jorge Ramiro, Miren Burguera and Estibaliz Aranzabe
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111765 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The electrical impedance of dilute aqueous solutions containing extracts from five brands of canned tuna is analyzed using impedance spectroscopy in order to analyze their salt content and detect the potential presence of other salts beyond the well-stated NaCl. A complex electrical impedance [...] Read more.
The electrical impedance of dilute aqueous solutions containing extracts from five brands of canned tuna is analyzed using impedance spectroscopy in order to analyze their salt content and detect the potential presence of other salts beyond the well-stated NaCl. A complex electrical impedance is modeled with an equivalent electrical circuit, demonstrating good agreement with experimental data. This circuit accounts for the contribution of ions in the bulk solution, as well as those contributing to electrode polarization. The parameters describing the equivalent circuits, obtained through fitting data to the electrical impedance, are discussed in terms of the various ion contributions to both the electrical double layer at the electrode interface and the electrical conductivity of each solution. The ionic contribution to the electrical impedance is compared with that of a pure NaCl solution at the same concentration range. This comparison, when extended to real samples, allows for the development of a model to estimate the electrical conductivity of canned tuna samples, thereby determining the salt concentration in tuna. The model enables differentiation among the various samples of tuna studied. Subsequently, the potential presence of other ions besides Na+ and Cl and their contribution to the electrical properties of each canned tuna extract is considered, especially for samples with a higher ratio of the sum of K+ and phosphates to Na+ concentration. This analysis shows the potential of impedance spectroscopy for on-site and rapid analysis of salt content and/or detection of additives in canned tuna fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Analysis Technology for Quality Control and Food Safety)
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26 pages, 28561 KiB  
Article
Pulsed Electric Field Pretreatments Affect the Metabolite Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Freeze− and Air−Dried New Zealand Apricots
by Ye Liu, Indrawati Oey, Sze Ying Leong, Rothman Kam, Kevin Kantono and Nazimah Hamid
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111764 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment has been shown to improve the quality of dried fruits in terms of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds. In this study, apricots were pretreated with PEF at different field strengths (0.7 kV/cm; 1.2 kV/cm and 1.8 kv/cm) at [...] Read more.
Pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment has been shown to improve the quality of dried fruits in terms of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds. In this study, apricots were pretreated with PEF at different field strengths (0.7 kV/cm; 1.2 kV/cm and 1.8 kv/cm) at a frequency of 50 Hz, and electric pulses coming in every 20 µs for 30 s, prior to freeze−drying and air−drying treatments. PEF treatments were carried out at different field strengths. The impact of different pretreatments on the quality of dried apricot was determined in terms of physical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and metabolite profile. PEF pretreatments significantly (p < 0.05) increased firmness of all the air−dried samples the most by 4–7−fold and most freeze−dried apricot samples (44.2% to 98.64%) compared to the control group. However, PEF treatment at 1.2 kV/cm did not have any effect on hardness of the freeze−dried sample. The moisture content and water activity of freeze−dried samples were found to be significantly lower than those of air−dried samples. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that air drying caused the loss of fruit structure due to significant moisture loss, while freeze drying preserved the honeycomb structure of the apricot flesh, with increased pore sizes observed at higher PEF intensities. PEF pretreatment also significantly increased the antioxidant activity and total phenol content of both air−dried and freeze−dried apricots. PEF treatment also significantly (p < 0.05) increased amino acid and fatty acid content of air−dried samples but significantly (p < 0.05) decreased sugar content. Almost all amino acids (except tyrosine, alanine, and threonine) significantly increased with increasing PEF intensity. The results of this study suggest that PEF pretreatment can influence the quality of air−dried and freeze−dried apricots in terms antioxidant activity and metabolites such as amino acids, fatty acids, sugar, organic acids, and phenolic compounds. The most effective treatment for preserving the quality of dried apricots is freeze drying combined with high−intensity (1.8 kv/cm) PEF treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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22 pages, 4063 KiB  
Review
Improvement of Theaflavins on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus
by Shiyu Xu, Ying Chen and Yushun Gong
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111763 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 280
Abstract
In diabetes mellitus, disordered glucose and lipid metabolisms precipitate diverse complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, contributing to a rising global mortality rate. Theaflavins (TFs) can improve disorders of glycolipid metabolism in diabetic patients and reduce various types of damage, including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, [...] Read more.
In diabetes mellitus, disordered glucose and lipid metabolisms precipitate diverse complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, contributing to a rising global mortality rate. Theaflavins (TFs) can improve disorders of glycolipid metabolism in diabetic patients and reduce various types of damage, including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and other associated secondary adverse effects. TFs exert effects to lower blood glucose and lipids levels, partly by regulating digestive enzyme activities, activation of OATP-MCT pathway and increasing secretion of incretins such as GIP. By the Ca2+-CaMKK ꞵ-AMPK and PI3K-AKT pathway, TFs promote glucose utilization and inhibit endogenous glucose production. Along with the regulation of energy metabolism by AMPK-SIRT1 pathway, TFs enhance fatty acids oxidation and reduce de novo lipogenesis. As such, the administration of TFs holds significant promise for both the prevention and amelioration of diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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5 pages, 757 KiB  
Opinion
Could ‘Isochoric Freezing’ Revolutionise Food Preservation?
by Kostadin Fikiin, Stepan Akterian, Alain Le Bail, James K. Carson and Trygve M. Eikevik
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111762 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The present article responds to the food engineering community’s growing interest in an emerging and lauded approach to food preservation, popularised by its developers as ‘isochoric freezing’. A strong campaign in the scientific literature and mass media has recently promoted this [...] Read more.
The present article responds to the food engineering community’s growing interest in an emerging and lauded approach to food preservation, popularised by its developers as ‘isochoric freezing’. A strong campaign in the scientific literature and mass media has recently promoted this technique as a universal replacement for traditional food freezing and the frozen supply chain by highlighting a number of alleged advantages of ‘isochoric freezing’. Some of these claims therefore require a more neutral and critical assessment against the background of the today’s state of the art in food freezing technologies. Hence, this article spotlights several concerns regarding the plausibility, energy expenditure, resource efficiency, process rate, throughput and safety of ‘isochoric freezing’, as well as the correct use of food refrigeration terminology. The aspects considered are intended to make food scientists, technologists and engineers more aware of the real capabilities and the application perspectives of this still immature mode of refrigerated food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Food Processing)
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13 pages, 4453 KiB  
Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis Based on LC-QTOF-MS to Investigate the Phenolic Composition of Red and White Wines Elaborated from Sonicated Grapes
by Alejandro Martínez-Moreno, Paula Pérez-Porras, Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín, Encarna Gómez-Plaza and Fernando Vallejo
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111761 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Ultrasounds are considered an emerging technology in the wine industry. Concretely, in 2019, the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) officially approved their use for the treatment of crushed grapes to increase the level of phenolic compound extraction. The main objective of [...] Read more.
Ultrasounds are considered an emerging technology in the wine industry. Concretely, in 2019, the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) officially approved their use for the treatment of crushed grapes to increase the level of phenolic compound extraction. The main objective of this study was to validate an untargeted metabolomics approach as an analytical tool for identifying novel markers associated with sonication. To do so, the influence of a sonication treatment on the metabolic profile was studied in four typically commercial varietal wines, i.e., two red wines from ‘Syrah’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapes and two white wines from ‘Macabeo’ and ‘Airén’ grapes. A robust classification and prediction model was created employing supervised techniques such as partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The findings indicated that the grapes subjected to high-power ultrasound conditions experienced cell wall disruption due to the cavitation phenomenon, resulting in significant changes in various phenolic compounds (including hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids) present in these wines compared to wines from non-sonicated grapes. Additionally, new metabolites were tentatively identified through untargeted metabolomics techniques. This study represents the successful application of the untargeted metabolomics approach employing a UHPLC-QTOF system to discern how grape sonication affects bioactive secondary metabolites in wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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18 pages, 1447 KiB  
Article
Driving Factors Influencing the Decision to Purchase Plant-Based Beverages: A Sample from Türkiye
by Murat Baş, Meryem Kahriman, Gamze Ayakdas, Ladan Hajhamidiasl and Selen Koksal Koseoglu
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111760 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 594
Abstract
In recent years, the trend toward plant-based beverages has continued to grow rapidly. This study aimed to assess the effects of sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge about plant-based beverages, subjective norms, perceived price, environmental protection, animal welfare, availability, and trust on attitudes and buying [...] Read more.
In recent years, the trend toward plant-based beverages has continued to grow rapidly. This study aimed to assess the effects of sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge about plant-based beverages, subjective norms, perceived price, environmental protection, animal welfare, availability, and trust on attitudes and buying behavior toward these products. This study was conducted online using a two-part questionnaire prepared by considering the literature. This study included 935 participants, and our findings confirmed that the variable of environmental protection affects the attitude toward these products (β= 0.095; p = 0.007). Furthermore, gender, income level, lactose intolerance, and bloating due to cow’s or sheep’s milk influenced actual buying behavior (p < 0.05; p < 0.001). These findings indicate that people’s increased environmental protection awareness will positively influence attitudes towards plant-based beverages and that individuals who do not experience lactose intolerance and bloating due to cow’s or goat’s milk will have lower actual buying behavior. It was also determined that individuals with lower incomes bought more plant-based beverages. In conclusion, plant-based beverage marketers need to take into account individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and environmental protection awareness when planning their marketing strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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18 pages, 2257 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Identification of Lichen Photobionts Collected from Different Environments in North of Portugal and Evaluation of Bioactivities of Their Extracts
by Luís Loureiro, João Morais, Raquel Silva, Joana T. Martins, Pedro Geada, Vítor Vasconcelos and António A. Vicente
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111759 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Lichens are organisms constituted by a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photoautotrophic partner (photobiont). Lichens produce several bioactive compounds; however, the biotechnological exploitation of this organism is hampered by its slow growth. To start studying the possibility of exploiting lichens [...] Read more.
Lichens are organisms constituted by a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photoautotrophic partner (photobiont). Lichens produce several bioactive compounds; however, the biotechnological exploitation of this organism is hampered by its slow growth. To start studying the possibility of exploiting lichens as alternative sources of bioactive compounds, eighteen lichens were collected in the north of Portugal in order to isolate and study the bioactivity of their photobionts. It was possible to isolate and cultivate only eight photobionts. Three of them, LFR1, LFA2 and LCF3, belong to the Coelastrella genus, the other two (LFA1 and LCF1) belong to the Chlorella genus and for the remaining three photobionts, LFS1, LCA1 and LCR1, it was impossible to isolate their microalgae. These only grow in consortium with bacteria and/or cyanobacteria. All extracts showed antioxidant activity, mainly at a concentration of 10 mg.mL−1. LFS1, a consortium extract, showed the highest antioxidant power, as well as the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (5.16 ± 0.53 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE).g−1). The extracts under study did not show significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Listeria or Salmonella. The Coelastrella sp. and LFA1 extracts showed the highest hyaluronidase inhibition. The LFR1 extract at a concentration of 5 mg.mL−1 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (79.77 ± 7.66%). The extracts of Coelastrella sp. and LFA1 also showed greater antidiabetic activity, demonstrating the high inhibitory power of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. LFR1 at a concentration of 5 mg.mL−1, due to its selective cytotoxicity inhibiting the growth of cancer cells (Caco-2 cells), is a promising anticancer agent. Full article
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14 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Construction of a Colorimetric and Near-Infrared Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor and Portable Sensing System for On-Site Quantitative Measurement of Sulfite in Food
by Xiaodong Chen, Chenglu Zhao, Qiwei Zhao, Yunfei Yang, Sanxiu Yang, Rumeng Zhang, Yuqing Wang, Kun Wang, Jing Qian and Lingliang Long
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111758 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Sulfites play imperative roles in food crops and food products, serving as sulfur nutrients for food crops and as food additives in various foods. It is necessary to develop an effective method for the on-site quantification of sulfites in food samples. Here, 7-(diethylamino) [...] Read more.
Sulfites play imperative roles in food crops and food products, serving as sulfur nutrients for food crops and as food additives in various foods. It is necessary to develop an effective method for the on-site quantification of sulfites in food samples. Here, 7-(diethylamino) quinoline is used as a fluorescent group and electron donor, alongside the pyridinium salt group as an electron acceptor and the C=C bond as the sulfite-specific recognition group. We present a novel fluorescent sensor based on a mechanism that modulates the efficiency of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), CY, for on-site quantitative measurement of sulfite in food. The fluorescent sensor itself exhibited fluorescence in the near-infrared light (NIR) region, effectively minimizing the interference of background fluorescence in food samples. Upon exposure to sulfite, the sensor CY displayed a ratiometric fluorescence response (I447/I692) with a high sensitivity (LOD = 0.061 μM), enabling accurate quantitative measurements in complex food environments. Moreover, sensor CY also displayed a colorimetric response to sulfite, making sensor CY measure sulfite in both fluorescence and colorimetric dual-signal modes. Sensor CY has been utilized for quantitatively measuring sulfite in red wine and sugar with recoveries between 99.65% and 101.90%, and the RSD was below 4.0%. The sulfite concentrations in live cells and zebrafish were also monitored via fluorescence imaging. Moreover, the sulfite assimilated by lettuce leaves was monitored, and the results demonstrated that excessive sulfite in leaf tissue could lead to leaf tissue damage. In addition, the sulfate-transformed sulfite in lettuce stem tissue was tracked, providing valuable insights for evaluating sulfur nutrients in food crops. More importantly, to accomplish the on-site quantitative measurement of sulfite in food samples, a portable sensing system was prepared. Sensor CY and the portable sensing system were successfully used for the on-site quantitative measurement of sulfite in food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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