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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 16 (August-2 2022) – 161 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The inhibitory effect and mechanism of the guava leaf polyphenols (GLP) on the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of frozen chicken meatballs was studied from two perspectives: oxidation (lipid and protein) and Maillard reaction. After adding GLP, the oxidation, Maillard reaction, and AGE formation were inhibited. Correlation analysis indicated that GLP inhibited AGE formation by inhibiting oxidation and Maillard. The possible inhibitory mechanism included scavenging free radicals, capturing dicarbonyl compounds, forming polyphenol–protein compounds, and reducing the formation of glucose. This work demonstrated that plant polyphenols could be used as a natural source additive to inhibit AGE production in food and provide a theoretical basis for improving the safety of food. View this paper
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Review
Toxoplasma gondii in Foods: Prevalence, Control, and Safety
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162542 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, with approximately one third of the population around the world seropositive. The consumption of contaminated food is the main source of infection. These include meat products with T. gondii tissue cysts, and dairy [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, with approximately one third of the population around the world seropositive. The consumption of contaminated food is the main source of infection. These include meat products with T. gondii tissue cysts, and dairy products with tachyzoites. Recently, contamination has been detected in fresh products with oocysts and marine products. Despite the great health problems that are caused by T. gondii, currently there are no standardized methods for its detection in the food industry. In this review, we analyze the current detection methods, the prevalence of T. gondii in different food products, and the control measures. The main detection methods are bioassays, cell culture, molecular and microscopic techniques, and serological methods, but some of these do not have applicability in the food industry. As a result, emerging techniques are being developed that are aimed at the detection of multiple parasites simultaneously that would make their application more efficient in the industry. Since the prevalence of this parasite is high in many products (meat and milk, marine products, and vegetables), it is necessary to standardize detection methods, as well as implement control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Chlorophyllin-Based 405 nm Light Photodynamic Improved Fresh-Cut Pakchoi Quality at Postharvest and Inhibited the Formation of Biofilm
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162541 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorophyllin-based photodynamic inactivation (Chl-PDI) on biofilm formation and fresh-cut pakchoi quality during storage. Firstly, Chl-based PDI reduced the amount of biofilm in an in vivo experiment and inactivated the food spoilage bacteria. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorophyllin-based photodynamic inactivation (Chl-PDI) on biofilm formation and fresh-cut pakchoi quality during storage. Firstly, Chl-based PDI reduced the amount of biofilm in an in vivo experiment and inactivated the food spoilage bacteria. Antibacterial mechanism analysis indicated that the bacterial extracellular polysaccharides and extracellular proteins were vulnerable targets for attacks by the Chl-based PDI. Then, the food spoilage microorganisms (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas palleroniana) were inoculated onto the surface of fresh-cut pakchoi. We used chlorophyllin (1 × 10−5 mol/L) and 405 nm light (22.27 J/cm2 per day) to investigate the effect of Chl-based PDI treatment on fresh-cut pakchoi quality during storage. The results showed that Chl-based PDI increased the visual quality and the content of chlorophyll, VC, total soluble solids, and SOD activity and decreased the occurrence of leaf yellowing and POD activity. These suggest that Chl-based PDI can be used for the preservation of fresh-cut pakchoi and has the potential to inhibit biofilm formation of food spoilage bacteria. It is of great significance for the effective processing and traditional vegetable preservation. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Microwave Radiation on the Green Color Loss of Green Tea Powder
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162540 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Microwave radiation is one of the main heating methods for food processing, especially affecting the color quality of colorful foods. This work presents the effect of microwave radiation on the green color loss of green tea powder (GTP) by the color description (L*, [...] Read more.
Microwave radiation is one of the main heating methods for food processing, especially affecting the color quality of colorful foods. This work presents the effect of microwave radiation on the green color loss of green tea powder (GTP) by the color description (L*, a*, b*, and Ha of green tea powder, L*:whiteness/darkness, a*: redness/greenness, and b*: yellowness/blueness; Ha derived from Hunter a and b could visually describe the color space) of the Hunter color system. First, the L*, a*, and b* were determined from the GTP samples treated with various microwave powers with the change of time to investigate the kinetic of color loss. Then, the L*, a*, and b*and temperature of GTP samples with serious thickness treated with constant microwave power (700 W) for a different time were determined to study the effect of sample thickness on the color loss. Finally, the chemicals that contributed to color change in the GTP samples treated with mild, moderate, and severe radiation were analyzed. The results showed that L*, |a*| (|a*|was the absolute value of a*), b*, and Ha decreased with the power increase in microwave radiation, and their changes conformed to the first-order kinetics. The activation energies (Ea) of different thickness GTP for change of L*, a*, b*, and Ha values could be predicted with the fitting models, and Ea for 20 mm-thick GTP were approximately 1/5, 1/8, 1/8, and 1/13 of those for 4 mm-thick GTP. The color loss was mainly caused by the Mg2+ loss of chlorophylls and the formation of derivates under mild radiation, the degradation of chlorophylls and the formation of theaflavin from catechins under moderate radiation, and the degradation of chlorophylls and their derivates accompanied by Maillard reaction between reducing sugar and amino acids under severe radiation. The results indicate that sample thickness and radiation time are two key parameters to keeping the color of GTP in food processing and microwave pasteurization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Factors and Flavonoids Content on Chinese Prickly Ash Peel Color Based on HPLC-MS and Structural Equation Model
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162539 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Climate affects Chinese prickly ash peel color directly through temperature and illumination and indirectly influences it through its effect on flavonoid compounds. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation strategy based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) technology and a structural equation model [...] Read more.
Climate affects Chinese prickly ash peel color directly through temperature and illumination and indirectly influences it through its effect on flavonoid compounds. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation strategy based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) technology and a structural equation model was applied to evaluate the effects of climate factors and flavonoids on Chinese prickly ash peel color. There were obvious geographical variations of peel color and flavonoid compounds with an obvious east–west distribution trend which were divided into high-altitude type and low-altitude type. Through path analysis, the wind speed, temperature and annual sunshine duration were found to be the key environmental factors affecting the flavonoids content and peel color, and their direct effects were higher than their indirect effect. Based on HPLC-MS technology and a structural equation model, correlation models of climatic factors and flavonoids with peel color were established, and the factors that had greater weight on pericarp color were obtained. Our results provide experimental evidence that climate factors affect the peel color by affecting flavonoid biosynthesis and accumulation, reveal the geographical variation of peel color and flavonoid component contents in Chinese prickly ash peel, establish a quantization color method for rapid evaluation of peel quality, expand on the influence of climatic factors on flavonoids content and peel coloration and promote agricultural practice in areas with similar climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in Food Analysis and Quality Control)
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Review
Effects of Extrusion on Starch Molecular Degradation, Order–Disorder Structural Transition and Digestibility—A Review
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2538; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162538 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Extrusion is a thermomechanical technology that has been widely used in the production of various starch-based foods and can transform raw materials into edible products with unique nutritional characteristics. Starch digestibility is a crucial nutritional factor that can largely determine the human postprandial [...] Read more.
Extrusion is a thermomechanical technology that has been widely used in the production of various starch-based foods and can transform raw materials into edible products with unique nutritional characteristics. Starch digestibility is a crucial nutritional factor that can largely determine the human postprandial glycemic response, and frequent consumption of foods with rapid starch digestibility is related to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. The extrusion process involves starch degradation and order–disorder structural transition, which could result in large variance in starch digestibility in these foods depending on the raw material properties and processing conditions. It provides opportunities to modify starch digestibility by selecting a desirable combination of raw food materials and extrusion settings. This review firstly introduces the application of extrusion techniques in starch-based food production, while, more importantly, it discusses the effects of extrusion on the alteration of starch structures and consequentially starch digestibility in various foods. This review contains important information to generate a new generation of foods with slow starch digestibility by the extrusion technique. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Tea Polyphenols, Free Amino Acids and Caffeine Content in Tea Leaves during Wilting and Fermentation Using Hyperspectral Imaging
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162537 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The withering and fermentation degrees are the key parameters to measure the processing technology of black tea. The traditional methods to judge the degree of withering and fermentation are time-consuming and inefficient. Here, a monitoring model of the biochemical components of tea leaves [...] Read more.
The withering and fermentation degrees are the key parameters to measure the processing technology of black tea. The traditional methods to judge the degree of withering and fermentation are time-consuming and inefficient. Here, a monitoring model of the biochemical components of tea leaves based on hyperspectral imaging technology was established to quantitatively judge the withering and fermentation degrees of fresh tea leaves. Hyperspectral imaging technology was used to obtain the spectral data during the withering and fermentation of the raw materials. The successive projections algorithm (SPA), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and uninformative variable elimination (UVE) are used to select the characteristic bands. Combined with the support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and partial least square (PLS) methods, the monitoring models of the tea polyphenols (TPs), free amino acids (FAA) and caffeine (CAF) contents were established. The results show that: (1) CARS performs the best among the three feature band selection methods, and PLS performs the best among the three machine learning models; (2) the optimal models for predicting the content of the TPs, FAA, and CAF are CARS-PLS, SPA-PLS, and CARS-PLS, respectively, and the coefficient of determination of the prediction set is 0.91, 0.88, and 0.81, respectively; and (3) the best models for quantitatively judging the withering and fermentation degrees are FAA-SPA-PLS and TPs-CARS-PLS, respectively. The model proposed in this study can improve the monitoring efficiency of the biochemical components of tea leaves and provide a basis for the intelligent judgment of the withering and fermentation degrees in the process of black tea processing. Full article
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Article
Development of Saturated Fat Replacers: Conventional and Nano-Emulsions Stabilised by Lecithin and Hydroxylpropyl Methylcellulose
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162536 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The combination of two emulsifiers, lecithin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), into emulsions is an interesting strategy to design fat replacers in food matrices. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HPMC type and concentration on the formation, stability, and [...] Read more.
The combination of two emulsifiers, lecithin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), into emulsions is an interesting strategy to design fat replacers in food matrices. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HPMC type and concentration on the formation, stability, and microstructure of conventional emulsions and nanoemulsions. Two different types of HPMC with low and high content of methyl and hydroxypropyl groups (HPMC-L and HPMC-H) were evaluated. The results showed that the molecular structure and concentration of HPMC play a major role in the viscoelastic behaviour, the gelation temperature, and the strength of gel formed. The firmness and work of shear of HPMC solutions increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing concentration. HPMC-L illustrated a more stable gel structure than the HPMC-H solution. Nanoemulsions showed lower moduli values, firmness, and work of shear than conventional emulsions due to the influence of high-pressure homogenization. A combination of lecithin and HPMC improved the physical and lipid oxidative stability of the emulsions, presenting a lower creaming index and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In conclusion, HPMC-L at 2% w/w could be a suitable type and concentration combined with lecithin to formulate a saturated fat replacer that could mimic butter technological performance during food manufacturing operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Food Hydrocolloids)
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Article
Establishment and Validation of Reference Genes of Brassica napus L. for Digital PCR Detection of Genetically Modified Canola
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162535 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
As an effective tool for genetically modified organism (GMO) quantification in complex matrices, digital PCR (dPCR) has been widely used for the quantification of genetically modified (GM) canola events; however, little is known about the quantification of GM canola events using endogenous reference [...] Read more.
As an effective tool for genetically modified organism (GMO) quantification in complex matrices, digital PCR (dPCR) has been widely used for the quantification of genetically modified (GM) canola events; however, little is known about the quantification of GM canola events using endogenous reference gene (ERG) characteristics by dPCR. To calculate and quantify the content of GM canola using endogenous reference gene (ERG) characteristics, the suitability of several ERGs of canola, such as cruciferin A (CruA), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (BnAcc), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP), cruciferin storage (BnC1), oleoyl hydrolase (Fat(A)), and high-mobility-group protein I/Y (HMG-I/Y), was investigated by droplet dPCR. BnAcc and BnC1 were more specific and stable in copy number in the genome of Brassica napus L. than the other genes. By performing intra-laboratory validation of the suitability of ERG characteristics for the quantification of GM canola events, the ddPCR methods for BnAcc and BnC1 were comprehensively demonstrated in dPCR assays. The methods could provide technical support for GM labeling regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PCR in Food Science: Current Technology and Applications)
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Article
Sacha Inchi Oil Press-Cake Protein Hydrolysates Exhibit Anti-Hyperuricemic Activity via Attenuating Renal Damage and Regulating Gut Microbiota
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162534 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The incidence of hyperuricemia has increased globally due to changes in dietary habits. The sacha inchi oil press-cake is generally discarded, resulting in the waste of resources and adverse environmental impact. For the purpose of developing sacha inchi oil press-cake and identifying natural [...] Read more.
The incidence of hyperuricemia has increased globally due to changes in dietary habits. The sacha inchi oil press-cake is generally discarded, resulting in the waste of resources and adverse environmental impact. For the purpose of developing sacha inchi oil press-cake and identifying natural components with anti-hyperuricemic activities, we systemically investigated the underlying mechanisms of sacha inchi oil press-cake protein hydrolysates (SISH) in the hyperuricemic rat model. SISH was obtained from sacha inchi oil press-cake proteins after trypsin treatment, and 24 peptides with small molecular weight (<1000 Da) were identified. The results of animal experiments showed that SISH significantly decreased the serum uric acid (UA) level by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and regulating the gene expression related to UA production and catabolism in hyperuricemia rats, such as Xdh and Hsh. In addition, SISH attenuated the renal damage and reduced the gene expression related to inflammation (Tlr4, Map3k8, Pik3cg, Pik3ap1, Ikbke, and Nlrp3), especially Tlr4, which has been considered a receptor of UA. Notably, SISH reversed high purine-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, particularly by enhancing the relative abundance of butyric acid-producing bacteria (unidentified_Ruminococcaceae, Oscillibacter, Ruminiclostridium, Intestinimonas). This research provided new insights into the treatment of hyperuricemia. Full article
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Article
Application of Ethyl Cellulose and Ethyl Cellulose + Polyethylene Glycol for the Development of Polymer-Based Formulations using Spray-Drying Technology for Retinoic Acid Encapsulation
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162533 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Ethyl cellulose (EC)-based microparticles, with and without the incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a second encapsulating agent, were prepared using the spray-drying process for the encapsulation of retinoic acid (RA). The production of a suitable controlled delivery system for this retinoid will [...] Read more.
Ethyl cellulose (EC)-based microparticles, with and without the incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a second encapsulating agent, were prepared using the spray-drying process for the encapsulation of retinoic acid (RA). The production of a suitable controlled delivery system for this retinoid will promote its antitumor efficiency against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) due to the possibility of increasing the bioavailability of RA. Product yield ranged from 12 to 28% in all the microparticle formulations, including unloaded microparticles and RA-loaded microparticles. Microparticles with a mean diameter between 0.090 ± 0.002 and 0.54 ± 0.02 µm (number size distribution) and with an irregular form and rough surface were obtained. Furthermore, regarding RA-loaded microparticles, both polymer-based formulations exhibited an encapsulation efficiency of around 100%. A rapid and complete RA release was reached in 40 min from EC− and EC + PEG-based microparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Innovative Spray Drying Technology on Food Engineering)
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Editorial
Recent Advances in OMICs Technologies and Application for Ensuring Meat Quality, Safety and Authenticity
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162532 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Consumers and stakeholders are increasingly demanding that the meat industry guarantees high-quality meat products with stable and acceptable sensory and safety properties [...] Full article
Article
Effect of Functional Water on the Antioxidant Property of Concentrated Reconstituted Juice
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162531 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
People often consume juice to easily ingest antioxidants, which can scavenge free radicals and reduce the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, the SOD assay kit-WST method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of two types of functional water, alkaline electrolyzed [...] Read more.
People often consume juice to easily ingest antioxidants, which can scavenge free radicals and reduce the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, the SOD assay kit-WST method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of two types of functional water, alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) and tourmaline water (TMW), reconstituted commercially available (Tropicana) and freshly squeezed concentrated juices and the effect of functional waters on physicochemical parameters and sensory evaluation of reconstituted juices was also analyzed. The reconstituted juice exhibited the highest antioxidant activity when the electrolysis current of AlEW was 8A or the tourmaline stone treatment temperature of TMW was 75 °C. Compared with the control group (69.4%), SOD activity of the reconstituted orange juice in the 8A-AlEW (77.2%) and 75 °C-TMW (84.5%) groups increased by 7.8 and 15.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the color and pH of the functional water reconstituted juice were not significantly different from the juice before concentration, and the taste was better. In summary, functional water could enhance the antioxidant activity of concentrated juice as a formula which could provide novel ideas for the development of functional beverages with antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Processing and Nutrition of Fruit and Vegetable Juice)
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Article
Occurrence of Toxic Metals and Metalloids in Muscle and Liver of Italian Heavy Pigs and Potential Health Risk Associated with Dietary Exposure
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162530 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Muscle and liver tissues from Italian heavy pigs were analyzed to investigate whether the chronic consumption of these products by local consumers could represent a health risk in relation to the contamination by some toxic metals and metalloids (TMMs). The concentrations of Al, [...] Read more.
Muscle and liver tissues from Italian heavy pigs were analyzed to investigate whether the chronic consumption of these products by local consumers could represent a health risk in relation to the contamination by some toxic metals and metalloids (TMMs). The concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, U, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer, while Hg analysis was performed by using a mercury analyzer. Fe, Zn, and Cu were the most abundant elements in both tissues, while U was detected only at ultra-trace levels. As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, U, and Zn showed significantly higher concentrations in livers compared to muscles (p ≤ 0.01), with Cd and Cu being 60- and 9-fold more concentrated in the hepatic tissue. Despite this, concentrations of all TMMs were found to be very low in all the samples to the point that the resulting estimated dietary intakes did not suggest any food safety concern. Indeed, intakes were all below the toxicological health-based guidance values or resulted in low margins of exposure. Nevertheless, in the calculation of the worst-case exposure scenario, the children’s estimated intake of Cd, Fe, and Zn through the sole consumption of pig liver contributed to more than 23, 38, and 39% of the tolerable weekly intakes of these elements, while the combined consumption of pig liver and pig muscle to more than 24, 46, and 76%. These findings alert about the probability of exceeding the toxicological guidance values of Cd, Fe, and Zn though the whole diet, suggesting long-term negative health effects for the younger population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Microbiological and Chemical Hazards in Foods)
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Article
Sargassum thunbergii Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice by Modulating AMPK Activation and the Gut Microbiota
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162529 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze (ST) is a brown alga rich in indole-2-carboxaldehyde. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of ethanol extract from ST in in vitro and in vivo models. In 3T3-L1 cells, ST extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation [...] Read more.
Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze (ST) is a brown alga rich in indole-2-carboxaldehyde. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of ethanol extract from ST in in vitro and in vivo models. In 3T3-L1 cells, ST extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes while lowering adipogenic genes (C/epba and Pparg) and enhancing metabolic sensors (Ampk, Sirt1), thermogenic genes (Pgc-1a, Ucp1), and proteins (p-AMPK/AMPK and UCP1). During animal investigation, mice were administered a chow diet, a high-fat diet (HF), or an HF diet supplemented with ST extract (at dosages of 150 and 300 mg/kg bw per day) for 8 weeks (n = 10/group). ST extract administration decreased weight gain, white adipose tissue weight, LDL-cholesterol, and serum leptin levels while improving glucose intolerance. In addition, ST extract increased the expression of Ampk and Sirt1 in adipose tissue and in the liver, as well as p-AMPK/AMPK ratio in the liver, compared to HF-fed mice. The abundance of Bacteroides vulgatus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the feces increased in response to ST extract administration, although levels of Romboutsia ilealis decreased compared with those in HF-fed mice. ST extract could prevent obesity in HF-fed mice via the modulation of AMPK activation and gut microbiota composition. Full article
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Article
Effects of Cabya (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) Fruit Developmental Stage on VOCs
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162528 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The differences in VOCs can affect the flavor and medicinal value of cabya, and the flavor changes that occur in stages as the fruit develops are currently unknown. In order to investigate the influence of the developmental stage on the aroma composition of [...] Read more.
The differences in VOCs can affect the flavor and medicinal value of cabya, and the flavor changes that occur in stages as the fruit develops are currently unknown. In order to investigate the influence of the developmental stage on the aroma composition of cabya essential oil, VOCs at each of the four developmental stages were analyzed by steam distillation (SD) extraction combined with GC-MS detection. The similarities and differences in fruit composition among the developmental stages were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 60 VOCs, mainly alcohols, alkenes and alkanes, were identified across all of the developmental stages. The most acidic substances were detected in phase A and have a high medicinal value. There was no significant difference between the B and C phases, and the alcohols in those phases mainly promoted terpenoid synthesis in the D phase. Constituents during the D phase were mainly alkenes, at 57.14%, which contributed significantly to the aroma of the essential oil. PCA and HCA both were able to effectively differentiate the cabya fruit developmental stages based on the SD-GC-MS data. In summary, this study investigated the flavor variation characteristics and the diversity of VOCs in cabya fruits at different developmental stages, and its findings can provide a reference for developing essential oil products for different uses and determining appropriate stages for harvesting cabya resources. Full article
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Article
Integrated Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Differential Flavonoid Accumulation and Its Underlying Mechanism in Fruits of Distinct Canarium album Cultivars
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162527 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Canarium album fruit has great potential to be consumed as a raw material not only for food but also medicine. The diverse active metabolites composition and content of C. album fruits greatly affect their pharmacological effects. However, up to now, there has been [...] Read more.
Canarium album fruit has great potential to be consumed as a raw material not only for food but also medicine. The diverse active metabolites composition and content of C. album fruits greatly affect their pharmacological effects. However, up to now, there has been no report on the global metabolome differences among fruits from distinct C. album cultivars. In our present study, by using non-targeted metabolomics techniques, we identified 87 DAMs (differentially accumulated metabolites) including 17 types of flavonoids from fruits of four different C. album cultivars. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis- and flavonoid biosynthesis-related DAMs were major factors determining their metabolome differences. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that 15 KEGG pathways were significantly enriched by genes of the identified 3655 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) among different C. album cultivars. Consistent with the metabolome data, flavonoid biosynthesis-related DEGs, including eight key structural genes (such as FLS, CCoAOMT, CHI, C4H, DFR, LAR, and C3′H, etc.) and several regulatory transcription factor (TF) genes (including 32 MYBs and 34 bHLHs, etc.), were found to be significantly enriched (p < 0.01). Our study indicated that the differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes and accumulation of flavonoids played dominant roles in the various metabolome compositions of fruits from different C. album cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Differences, Dynamic Evolution and Trend of the Coupled Coordination Relationship between Urbanization and Food Security in China
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162526 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Scientific assessment of the coupled coordination degree between urbanization and food security (CDUFS) revealed regional differences and sources. Dynamic evolution and trends are important references for achieving a coordinated interaction between high-quality urbanization and ensuring food security. Specifically, the CDUFS was measured using [...] Read more.
Scientific assessment of the coupled coordination degree between urbanization and food security (CDUFS) revealed regional differences and sources. Dynamic evolution and trends are important references for achieving a coordinated interaction between high-quality urbanization and ensuring food security. Specifically, the CDUFS was measured using prefectural panel data in China from 2000 to 2019 and the coupling coordination degree model, which revealed its spatial correlation and differentiation. On this basis, in order to examine the spatiotemporal differences and evolution of the CDUFS, the Dagum–Gini coefficient and Kernel density estimation were innovatively used to analyze its regional differences and evolution distribution. The spatial Markov chain was further employed to examine the evolution trend of the CDUFS. The study found that the CDUFS showed a downward trend in fluctuation within the low coordination interval. There was a positive spatial correlation, with a more stable distribution pattern of high–high and low–low clusters. The regional differences in the CDUFS were obvious and the overall difference has expanded. The main source of regional differences among different food functional areas was inter-regional differences, followed by intra-regional differences. The regional difference between food main producing areas and food main marketing areas was the highest. The CDUFS shows a single-peak distribution; the imbalance between regions was still prominent with a left trailing phenomenon and no convergence. The CDUFS has the stability of maintaining the original state, and the probability of leapfrogging evolution is low in the short term. Finally, the geospatial effect plays an important role in the dynamic evolution of the CDUFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges and Strategies of Food Security under Global Change)
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Article
Influence of Seaweeds on the Quality of Pasta as a Plant-Based Innovative Food
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162525 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 548
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of the incorporation of seaweed on the physicochemical and technological quality of pasta. For this purpose, enriched wheat pastas from different seaweeds (sea lettuce—Ulva lactuca, nori—Porphyra tenera, and wakame—Undaria pinnatifida) were made [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of the incorporation of seaweed on the physicochemical and technological quality of pasta. For this purpose, enriched wheat pastas from different seaweeds (sea lettuce—Ulva lactuca, nori—Porphyra tenera, and wakame—Undaria pinnatifida) were made and compared with durum wheat pasta as a control treatment. Firstly, optimal cooking times were established by visual and instrumental methods. Then, the technological properties of weight gain (WG), swelling index (SI), cooking losses (CL), and moisture (H%) were determined. Protein and fiber analyses, texture profile analysis (TPA), and color measurements were also performed to evaluate the physicochemical properties. Overall, enriched pasta with seaweed revealed slightly shorter optimal cooking times than control pasta. Texture properties were also modified, with a lower value of hardness, and higher values of adhesiveness and resilience. However, due to the low percentages of seaweed (3%), noticeable effects were not appreciated. Moreover, color variations of enriched pasta were relevant due to the difference among seaweeds. Nonetheless, these additions increased the protein content and soluble fiber in these foods. In conclusion, pasta enriched with marine ingredients improved this nutritional profile, and the changes in technological properties did not have a major impact on the product quality. Full article
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Review
An Exploratory Critical Review on TNF-α as a Potential Inflammatory Biomarker Responsive to Dietary Intervention with Bioactive Foods and Derived Products
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162524 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
This review collects and critically examines data on the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lean, overweight and obese subjects, and the effects of intervention with different foods and food products containing bioactive constituents in overweight/obese individuals. We additionally explore the influence [...] Read more.
This review collects and critically examines data on the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lean, overweight and obese subjects, and the effects of intervention with different foods and food products containing bioactive constituents in overweight/obese individuals. We additionally explore the influence of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TNF-α levels and compare the response to food products with that to some anti-obesity drugs. Our aim was to provide an overview of the variability, consistency, and magnitude of the reported effects of dietary factors on TNF-α, and to envisage the reliability of measuring changes in the levels of this cytokine as a biomarker responsive to food intervention in association with the reduction in body weight. Regarding the circulating levels of TNF-α, we report: (i) a large intra-group variability, with most coefficients of variation (CV%) values being ≥30% and, in many cases, >100%; (ii) a large between-studies variability, with baseline TNF-α values ranging from <1.0 up to several hundred pg/mL; (iii) highly variable effects of the different dietary approaches with both statistically significant and not significant decreases or increases of the protein, and the absolute effect size varying from <0.1 pg/mL up to ≈50 pg/mL. Within this scenario of variability, it was not possible to discern clear differentiating limits in TNF-α between lean, overweight, and obese individuals or a distinct downregulatory effect on this cytokine by any of the different dietary approaches reviewed, i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), Vitamin-D (VitD), mixed (micro)nutrients, (poly)phenols or other phytochemicals. Further, there was not a clear relationship between the TNF-α responses and body weight changes. We found similarities between dietary and pharmacological treatments in terms of variability and limited evidence of the TNF-α response. Different factors that contribute to this variability are discussed and some specific recommendations are proposed to reinforce the need to improve future studies looking at this cytokine as a potential biomarker of response to dietary approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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Article
Green Technology for Pork Loin Wet Curing—Unconventional Use of Cow and Soy Milk Treated with Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162523 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using plasma-activated cow and soy milk powders as a substitute for sodium nitrite for wet curing of pork meat (m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum). Pork loin slices were cured for 4 d [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using plasma-activated cow and soy milk powders as a substitute for sodium nitrite for wet curing of pork meat (m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum). Pork loin slices were cured for 4 d at refrigerate conditions in four brines: water + salt (NC group), water + salt + sodium nitrite (PC group), water + salt + plasma-activated cow milk powder (B1 group), and water + salt + plasma-activated soy milk powder (B2 group). Importantly, brines from groups PC, B1, and B2 were characterized by the same concentration of NO2 ions (200 ppm). Results show that samples from B1 and B2 groups had significantly (p < 0.05) higher values of redness, nitrosylhemochrome content, and lower values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) compared to samples from the NC group. At the same time, the groups cured with alternative curing agents were characterized by lower residual nitrite content with regard to groups cured with NaNO2. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) were found in pH and shear force values among the treatments. Finally, the aroma profile of the samples from groups B1 and B2 was similar to the aroma profile of the samples from the PC group (the aroma differed by a maximum of 1.73% in the case of brine containing plasma-activated cow milk powder) but differed significantly from the NC group (the aroma differed in 97.21%). Due to the higher nitrite depletion in the final product, while maintaining the quality parameters similar to traditionally cured pork loins, both alternative curing agents can be recommended, with a predominance of plasma-treated soy milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation and Green Processing of Meat Products)
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Article
Detection of Soluble Solids Content in Different Cultivated Fresh Jujubes Based on Variable Optimization and Model Update
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162522 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
To solve the failure problem of the visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy model, soluble solids content (SSC) detection for fresh jujubes cultivated in different modes was carried out based on the method of variable optimization and model update. Iteratively retained informative variables (IRIV) and [...] Read more.
To solve the failure problem of the visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy model, soluble solids content (SSC) detection for fresh jujubes cultivated in different modes was carried out based on the method of variable optimization and model update. Iteratively retained informative variables (IRIV) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) algorithms were used to extract characteristic wavelengths, and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to establish detection models. Compared with IRIV, IRIV-SPA achieved better performance. Combined with the offset properties of the wavelength, repeated wavelengths were removed, and wavelength recombination was carried out to create a new combination of variables. Using these fused wavelengths, the model was recalibrated based on the Euclidean distance between samples. The LS-SVM detection model of SSC was established using the update method of wavelength fusion-Euclidean distance. Good prediction results were achieved using the proposed model. The determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of the test set on SSC of fresh jujubes cultivated in the open field were 0.82, 1.49%, and 2.18, respectively. The R2, RMSE, and RPD of the test set on SSC of fresh jujubes cultivated in the rain shelter were 0.81, 1.44%, and 2.17, respectively. This study realized the SSC detection of fresh jujubes with different cultivation and provided a method for the establishment of a robust VIS/NIR detection model for fruit quality, effectively addressing the industry need for identifying jujubes grown in the open field. Full article
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Article
Effects of Glucose and Homogenization Treatment on the Quality of Liquid Whole Eggs
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162521 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
To investigate the effect of glucose on the protein structure, physicochemical and processing properties of liquid whole eggs (LWE) under homogenization, different concentrations of glucose (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 g/mL) were added into LWE, followed by homogenizing at different pressures (5, 10, 20, [...] Read more.
To investigate the effect of glucose on the protein structure, physicochemical and processing properties of liquid whole eggs (LWE) under homogenization, different concentrations of glucose (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 g/mL) were added into LWE, followed by homogenizing at different pressures (5, 10, 20, 40 MPa), respectively. It was shown that the particle size and turbidity of LWE increased with the increase in glucose concentration while decreasing with the increase in homogenization pressure. The protein unfolding was increased at a low concentration of glucose combined with homogenization, indicating a 40.33 ± 5.57% and 165.72 ± 33.57% increase in the fluorescence intensity and surface hydrophobicity under the condition of 0.02 g/mL glucose at 20 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the remarkable increments in foaming capacity, emulsifying capacity, and gel hardness of 47.57 ± 5.1%, 66.79 ± 9.55%, and 52.11 ± 9.83% were recorded under the condition of 0.02 g/mL glucose at 20 MPa, 0.04 g/mL glucose at 20 MPa, and 0.02 g/mL glucose at 40 MPa, respectively. Reasonably, glucose could improve the processing properties of LWE under homogenization, and 0.02 g/mL–0.04 g/mL and 20–40 MPa were the optimal glucose concentration and homogenization pressure. This study could contribute to the production of high-performance and stable quality of LWE. Full article
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Article
Effect of Czech Hop Varieties on Aroma of Dry-Hopped Lager Beer
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162520 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The hoppy aroma in beer is characterized by an overall pleasant profile. The impacts of five Czech hop cultivars, Rubin, Saaz, Vital, Harmonie, and Kazbek, were tested on the hop aroma of the resulting beers, compared with a control beer sample, which was [...] Read more.
The hoppy aroma in beer is characterized by an overall pleasant profile. The impacts of five Czech hop cultivars, Rubin, Saaz, Vital, Harmonie, and Kazbek, were tested on the hop aroma of the resulting beers, compared with a control beer sample, which was hopped with a commercial hop extract during wort boiling. GC-MS analysis was used for the identification and quantification of aroma-active compounds in the hops and beer. Dry hopping was successful in terms of improving the hoppy aroma in beer. Odorants such as β-myrcene, linalool, geraniol, β-citronellol, humulene epoxide I, and 2-methylbutyl-2-methylpropanoate were found at higher concentrations than the control in all dry-hopped beers. To quantify the success of dry hopping, the transfer rates of hop odorants were calculated. Those of linalool, geraniol and humulene epoxide I were adequate, whereas the transfer rates of polar compounds, e.g., β-myrcene, were relatively low, mostly due to their polarity. Changes in hop oil constituents were clearly notable, with the generation of β-citronellol, the release of other terpene alcohols from their glycosides or oxidation of α-humulene. Yeast metabolism also played an important role in these changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies to Improve Beer Quality)
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Article
Valorization of Green Biomass: Alfalfa Pulp as a Substrate for Oyster Mushroom Cultivation
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162519 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
In this study, the potential of alfalfa pulp as an alternative substrate to wheat straw for the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was investigated. The major components associated with different mushroom stages were evaluated, as well as changes in lignocellulolytic [...] Read more.
In this study, the potential of alfalfa pulp as an alternative substrate to wheat straw for the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was investigated. The major components associated with different mushroom stages were evaluated, as well as changes in lignocellulolytic enzyme activities in substrates composed of alfalfa pulp, wheat straw or a combination of both. Based on the results, alfalfa pulp was demonstrated to be a better substrate than wheat straw for the production of oyster mushrooms, with a high biological efficiency of 166.3 ± 25.4%. Compared to the cultivation period on commercial straw (31 days), a shorter lifecycle for oyster mushroom was found on alfalfa pulp (24 days), which could help to reduce the risk of contamination during industrial production. Study of the spent substrate as well as the harvested mushrooms revealed that the biological efficiency was related to the higher protein content (17.42%) in the alfalfa pulp compared to wheat straw, as well as greater degradation of cellulose (57.58%) and hemicellulose (56.60%). This was, by and large, due to greater extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activity from the mushroom growth in the alfalfa pulp. The quality and safety of the fruiting bodies produced on alfalfa pulp was evaluated, which showed that the protein content was 20.4%, of which 46.3% was essential amino acids, and levels of trace elements and heavy metals were below acceptable limits. Hence, oyster mushroom cultivation using alfalfa pulp provides an alternative method to produce a value-added product, while reducing the biomass wastes in the green protein bio-refinery, and may contribute to sustainable growth in the agricultural industry. Full article
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Article
Extracts of Common Vegetables Inhibit the Growth of Ovary Cancer Cells
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162518 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
There is recent interest in a diet that can be recommended for patients suffering from cancer. In this respect, the effects were studied of the extracts of several common fruits, herbs and vegetables on the viability of two human ovary cancer cell lines [...] Read more.
There is recent interest in a diet that can be recommended for patients suffering from cancer. In this respect, the effects were studied of the extracts of several common fruits, herbs and vegetables on the viability of two human ovary cancer cell lines (SKOV-3 and PEO1) in vitro. Normal human MRC-5 fibroblasts were used as a control cell line. The extracts of garlic, horseradish and curly kale as well as green and black tea were the most effective in lowering the viability of ovarian cancer cells, while not affecting the viability of MRC-5 fibroblasts. Except for garlic and horseradish, the cytotoxic effects of the extracts correlated with their polyphenol content. The examination of changes in the content of ATP and glutathione, in the level of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial potential and mitochondrial mass did not show a consistent pattern, suggesting that various extracts may act via different mechanisms. Although the extracts’ toxicity to cells in vitro is a first and direct suggestion concerning their possible anticancer effects in vivo, these results point to potential vegetable candidates to become diet components recommended for ovary cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Article
Insight into the Gel Properties of Antarctic Krill and Pacific White Shrimp Surimi Gels and the Feasibility of Polysaccharides as Texture Enhancers of Antarctic Krill Surimi Gels
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162517 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Antarctic krill is a potential and attractive resource for consumption. However, most Antarctic krill meat is used to produce primary products with low commercial value, with few highly processed products. This study aimed to evaluate and improve the gelling properties of Antarctic krill [...] Read more.
Antarctic krill is a potential and attractive resource for consumption. However, most Antarctic krill meat is used to produce primary products with low commercial value, with few highly processed products. This study aimed to evaluate and improve the gelling properties of Antarctic krill surimi, with Pacific white shrimp surimi as control. Compared with Pacific white shrimp surimi, the lower β-sheet content and protein aggregation degree had a severe impact on the formation of the gel network of Antarctic krill surimi, which resulted in weaker breaking force, gel strength, and viscoelasticity (p < 0.05). Moreover, water retention capacity and molecular forces had a positive effect on the stability of the gel matrix of shrimp surimi. Thus, the high α-helix/β-sheet ratio, weak intermolecular interactions, and low level of protein network cross-linkage were the main reasons for the poor quality of Antarctic krill surimi. On this basis, the effects of six polysaccharides on the texture properties of Antarctic krill surimi were studied. Chitosan, konjac glucomannan, sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose, and waxy maize starch resulted in no significant improvement in the texture properties of Antarctic krill surimi (p > 0.05). However, the addition of ι-carrageenan (2%) or κ-carrageenan (1~2%) is an effective way to improve the texture properties of Antarctic krill surimi (p < 0.05). These findings will contribute to the development of reconstituted Antarctic krill surimi products with high nutritional quality and the promotion of deep-processing products of Antarctic krill meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Foods from the Sea)
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Article
Comparison of Volatile Compounds Contributing to Flavor of Wild Lowbush (Vaccinium augustifolium) and Cultivated Highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) Blueberry Fruit Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162516 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 421
Abstract
The flavor of blueberry fruit products is an important parameter determining consumer satisfaction. Wild lowbush blueberries are primarily processed into products, but their flavor chemistry has not been characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the aroma chemistry of lowbush blueberries [...] Read more.
The flavor of blueberry fruit products is an important parameter determining consumer satisfaction. Wild lowbush blueberries are primarily processed into products, but their flavor chemistry has not been characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the aroma chemistry of lowbush blueberries and compare it with that of highbush. Aroma volatiles of lowbush blueberries from four Canadian provinces and five highbush blueberry cultivars were isolated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and characterized using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and 2-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). Lowbush fruit volatiles were composed of 48% esters, 29% aldehydes and 4% monterpenoids compared to 48% aldehydes, 26% monoterpenoids and 3% esters in highbush fruit. Twenty-three aroma-active peaks were identified in lowbush compared to forty-two in highbush fruit using GC-O. The most aroma-active compounds in lowbush fruit were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 3-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate and ethyl propanoate compared to geraniol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-one, α-terpineol and linalool in highbush fruit. The aroma volatile composition was more consistent among lowbush fruit samples than the five highbush cultivars. Aroma-active GC-O peaks were described more frequently as “floral”, “fruity”, “sweet” and “blueberry” in lowbush than in highbush fruit. Results suggest wild lowbush blueberries would provide “fruitier” and “sweeter” flavors to food products than cultivated highbush fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatiles in Foods - Impact on Consumer Acceptance)
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Article
Antioxidant Capacity and Profiles of Phenolic Acids in Various Genotypes of Purple Wheat
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162515 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The total phenolic content, phenolic compositions, and antioxidant capacity in the grain of 40 purple wheat genotypes were studied. In this study, purple wheats were investigated in terms of their composition of free and bound phenolic acids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. The [...] Read more.
The total phenolic content, phenolic compositions, and antioxidant capacity in the grain of 40 purple wheat genotypes were studied. In this study, purple wheats were investigated in terms of their composition of free and bound phenolic acids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. The free phenolic content ranged from 164.25 to 271.05 mg GAE/100 g DW and the bound phenolic content was between 182.89–565.62 mg GAE/100 g wheat. The total phenolic content of purple wheat samples ranged from 352.65 to 771.83 mg GAE/100 g wheat. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, m-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, chrysin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, sinapic acid, and chlorogenic acid were detected by HPLC system. Gallic acid, benzoic acid derivatives, and dominant phenolics, which are frequently found in cereals, were also dominant in purple wheat samples and were found in free fractions. The antioxidant capacity was assessed using the DPPH method. The antioxidant capacity (AA%) in the free phenolic extracts of the purple wheats was between 39.7% and 59.5%, and the AA% values of bound phenolic extract of the purple wheat varied between 42.6% and 62.7%. This study suggested that purple wheat samples have high phenolic compound content as antioxidant potential and therefore consumption of purple wheat-containing food products may provide health benefits. Full article
Article
Comparative Study of Food-Grade Pickering Stabilizers Obtained from Agri-Food Byproducts: Chemical Characterization and Emulsifying Capacity
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162514 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Natural Pickering emulsions are gaining popularity in several industrial fields, especially in the food industry and plant-based alternative sector. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize and compare six agri-food wastes/byproducts (lupin hull, canola press-cake, lupin byproduct, camelina press-cake, linseed hull, [...] Read more.
Natural Pickering emulsions are gaining popularity in several industrial fields, especially in the food industry and plant-based alternative sector. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize and compare six agri-food wastes/byproducts (lupin hull, canola press-cake, lupin byproduct, camelina press-cake, linseed hull, and linseed press-cake) as potential sources of food-grade Pickering stabilizers. The results showed that all samples contained surface-active agents such as proteins (46.71–17.90 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (67.10–38.58 g/100 g). Canola press-cake, camelina press-cake, and linseed hull exhibited the highest concentrations of polyphenols: 2891, 2549, and 1672 mg GAE/100 g sample, respectively. Moreover, the agri-food byproduct particles presented a partial wettability with a water contact angle (WCA) between 77.5 and 42.2 degrees, and they were effective for stabilizing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The emulsions stabilized by Camelina press-cake, lupin hull, and lupin by-product (≥3.5%, w/w) were highly stable against creaming during 45 days of storage. Furthermore, polarized and confocal microscopy revealed that the particles were anchored to the interfaces of oil droplets, which is a demonstration of the formation of a Pickering emulsion stabilized by solid particles. These results suggest that agri-food wastes/byproducts are good emulsifiers that can be applied to produce stable Pickering emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Emulsions: Structures and Functionality)
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Article
Utilization of By-Products from Livestock: Study on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Biodegradable Containers Made with Pork Skin Gelatin Polymer
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162513 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 377
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a biodegradable container made of pork gelatin. Gelatin was extracted from pork skin by hot water at 80 °C, and containers were prepared by adding eggshell powder (20%) as a pore agent, and walnut powder (0.08 wt%; PEW1, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a biodegradable container made of pork gelatin. Gelatin was extracted from pork skin by hot water at 80 °C, and containers were prepared by adding eggshell powder (20%) as a pore agent, and walnut powder (0.08 wt%; PEW1, 0.14 wt%; PEW2) to improve hardness. The blends were molded for each experiment and dried at 30 °C for 24 h, at 40 °C for 16 h, and at 121 °C for 16 h. The containers were analyzed with respect to morphological (SEM; scanning electron microscope), mechanical (tensile strain and stress), and thermal (DSA; differential scanning calorimetry and TGA; thermogravimetric analysis) properties, as well as biodegradability. SEM investigation showed a smoother surface for PEW1 than for PEW2. The tensile stress of PEW2 (37.86 MPa) was significantly higher than that of PEW1 (28.40 MPa), and the melting enthalpies were 137.60 J/g (PEW1) and 309.60 J/g (PEW2). TGA showed similar properties, but PEW2 contained more lignin; therefore, its decomposition temperature was higher. The PEW1 and PEW2 containers were completely biodegraded after approximately 7 and 11 weeks, respectively. Walnut shell powder increased the hardness, but slowed the biodegradation process. The applications of this biodegradable container are short-lived products such as food packaging. Full article
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