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Dent. J., Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 28 articles

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Open AccessReview
Dental Plaque Removal by Ultrasonic Toothbrushes
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010028 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 855
Abstract
With the variety of toothbrushes on the market, the question arises, which toothbrush is best suited to maintain oral health? This thematic review focuses first on plaque formation mechanisms and then on the plaque removal effectiveness of ultrasonic toothbrushes and their potential in [...] Read more.
With the variety of toothbrushes on the market, the question arises, which toothbrush is best suited to maintain oral health? This thematic review focuses first on plaque formation mechanisms and then on the plaque removal effectiveness of ultrasonic toothbrushes and their potential in preventing oral diseases like periodontitis, gingivitis, and caries. We overviewed the physical effects that occurred during brushing and tried to address the question of whether ultrasonic toothbrushes effectively reduced the microbial burden by increasing the hydrodynamic forces. The results of published studies show that electric toothbrushes, which combine ultrasonic and sonic (or acoustic and mechanic) actions, may have the most promising effect on good oral health. Existing ultrasonic/sonic toothbrush models do not significantly differ regarding the removal of dental biofilm and the reduction of gingival inflammation compared with other electrically powered toothbrushes, whereas the manual toothbrushes show a lower effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health to Global Health: Impact of Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Profile Changes in Class II Individuals Treated by Means of Herbst Miniscope Appliance
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010027 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Background: To evaluate the profile changes following orthopedic/orthodontic treatment with the Herbst Miniscope® appliance in subjects affected with Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion. Methods: A total of 44 patients presenting a skeletal Angle Class II malocclusion (ANB > 4°) due to [...] Read more.
Background: To evaluate the profile changes following orthopedic/orthodontic treatment with the Herbst Miniscope® appliance in subjects affected with Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion. Methods: A total of 44 patients presenting a skeletal Angle Class II malocclusion (ANB > 4°) due to mandibular retrusion and a cervical maturation stage between CS2 and CS3 were included in the study. Of these 44 patients, 22 (mean age 11.9 ± 1.3, HBT group) were treated using the Herbst appliance, while 22 (mean age 10.6 ± 1.3, CTR group) were followed for a 12-month observational period. A cephalometric tracing was performed at the beginning of treatment (T0) and after 12 months (T1). Results: In both groups there was a significant advancement of soft tissue pogonion (HBT = 3.5 ± 3.0 mm, p < 0.001; CTR = 2.2 ± 2.9 mm, p < 0.001), but the difference between the two groups was not significant (p = 0.172). On the contrary, both groups had a significant advancement of the mandibular sulcus (HBT = 3.7 ± 2.8 mm, p < 0.001; CTR = 1.2 ± 2.2 mm, p < 0.001) and a lower lip protrusion (HBT = 3.45 ± 2.51 mm, p < 0.001; CTR = 1.7 ± 2.7 mm, p = 0.008), but in both cases the HBT group showed a statistically significant greater increase in sulcus protrusion (p = 0.002) and lower lip protrusion (p = 0.029) than controls. There were no statistically significant effects on the upper jaw. Conclusions: The Herbst appliance advanced the lower jaw soft tissues. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dentoskeletal Class II Malocclusion: Maxillary Molar Distalization with No-Compliance Fixed Orthodontic Equipment
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010026 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Dentoskeletal class II malocclusion due to a protruded upper dental arch is a major reason for an orthodontic treatment. In these cases, the correction of class II can be hindered by molar distalization, obtained with ‘no-compliance therapy’ that involves the use of appliances [...] Read more.
Dentoskeletal class II malocclusion due to a protruded upper dental arch is a major reason for an orthodontic treatment. In these cases, the correction of class II can be hindered by molar distalization, obtained with ‘no-compliance therapy’ that involves the use of appliances which minimize the need for such co-operation and attempt to maximize the predictability of results. The aim of this review was to outline the effectiveness of no-compliance fixed orthodontic devices in the molar distalization. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles from 2000 to 2019 were qualified for the final analysis. The literature shows various no-compliance fixed devices whose effect is to distalize the maxillary molars. The present revision allows to conclude that there is a need to increase the number of studies, especially with regard to the most recently introduced devices in the literature. The analysed studies allow to hypothesize that these appliances act with a minimal variability of molar distalization and disto-inclination among them, although different effects among the appliances can be observed as regards to the anchorage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Occlusal Risk Factors for Fractured Incisors among 11–12-Year-Old Children in the Trinidad and Tobago Population
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010025 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of fractured incisors in 11–12-year-olds. In addition we explored the relationship with overjet, incompetent lips, incisor inclination and to determine if there was any association with ethnicity and gender. All permanent incisors were [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of fractured incisors in 11–12-year-olds. In addition we explored the relationship with overjet, incompetent lips, incisor inclination and to determine if there was any association with ethnicity and gender. All permanent incisors were examined in 672 children comprising 356 females (53.1%) and 315 males (46.9%). The sample comprised 11–12-year-olds in high schools across Trinidad and Tobago. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of fractured incisors was 18.9%. Boys presented with an increased incidence of fractured incisors than girls. 86.3% of dental trauma was untreated. The average overjet of subjects with fractured incisors was 4.2 mm. 18.62% of subjects with fractured incisors had incompetent lips. The most common malocclusion (18.81%) with fractured incisors was class 2 division 1. The Afro-Trinidadian ethnicity had the highest prevalence of fractured incisors (11.0%) when compared to mixed ethnicities, which was statistically significant. Maxillary central incisors were the most commonly injured teeth. Most patients delayed in seeking dental treatment for fractured incisors in our population. Early orthodontic treatment is recommended to help reduce the risk of dental trauma. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Assessment of Pain Caused by the Placement of Banded Orthodontic Appliances with and without Low-Level Laser Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Prospective Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010024 - 04 Mar 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment due to related pain and discomfort. In this study, we investigate if low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reduce pain caused by orthodontic bands. Sixty subjects who needed bands placed on the upper permanent first molars were [...] Read more.
Patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment due to related pain and discomfort. In this study, we investigate if low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reduce pain caused by orthodontic bands. Sixty subjects who needed bands placed on the upper permanent first molars were assigned randomly to the LLLT group, placebo, and control groups. Inclusion criteria were: age range 10–14 years, fully erupted upper first molars in healthy condition, presence of tight mesial proximal contact. Exclusion criteria were: systemic or metabolic diseases, chronic pain or neurological or psychiatric disorders, use of pharmacological agents interfering with pain perception, previous orthodontic treatment or the simultaneous presence of other devices in the patient’s mouth. The assessment of pain was performed by using a numeric rating scale (NRS) considering different time intervals, i.e., immediately after bands placement, 6 h, 24 h, and from day 2 to day 5. Differences in the maximum pain and in pain experienced at each time-point, among the three groups, was assessed by using the Kruskal–Wallis H. The final sample included 56 patients, 29 males, and 27 females, with a mean age of 12.03 ± 1.3 years. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups (tested, control, and placebo group) with each group consisting respectively of 19, 20, and 17 individuals. Subjects in the LLLT experienced less pain at each time interval as well as the maximum pain score being lower in the LLLT compared to control and placebo groups. These findings were all statistically significant (p < 0.05). LLLT can alleviate the intensity of pain after the placement of orthodontic bands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonsyndromic Oral Cleft in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010023 - 04 Mar 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between cancer and nonsyndromic oral clefts in different populations. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of nonsyndromic oral clefts in families of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 50) and controls (n = [...] Read more.
Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between cancer and nonsyndromic oral clefts in different populations. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of nonsyndromic oral clefts in families of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 50) and controls (n = 125). The parents of the patients answered a questionnaire with basic demographic information and family history of nonsyndromic oral clefts in first-degree relatives. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s exact test. In the ALL group, 22 (44%) were male and 28 (56%) were female, and the average age was 13.2 ± 12.2 years. In the control group, 64 (51.2%) were male and 65 were female and the average age was 11.3 ± 10.3 years. Two out of 50 patients (4%) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had a positive history of nonsyndromic oral clefts, whereas there were no reported occurrences of nonsyndromic oral clefts in the control group (OR: 12.94, 95% CI: 0.61–274.6, p = 0.08). Despite the limited population, the frequency of nonsyndromic oral clefts was increased in the first-degree relatives of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Studies with larger samples and molecular analyses are needed to better understand the possible etiological relationship between cancer and nonsyndromic oral clefts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pre-Outplacement Perceptions of Dental Students Regarding Rural Oral Health Practice and Associated Factors
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010022 - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Rural outplacement programs have been offered by Australian universities to encourage dental students to consider rural careers. The dental curricula should be designed to provide graduates with a good understanding of oral health issues that rural oral health care workers face. Pre-outplacement perceptions [...] Read more.
Rural outplacement programs have been offered by Australian universities to encourage dental students to consider rural careers. The dental curricula should be designed to provide graduates with a good understanding of oral health issues that rural oral health care workers face. Pre-outplacement perceptions of dental students on rural practice are considered imperative to review and update the outplacement programs; however, they have not been investigated in detail. An online, anonymous, voluntary survey was conducted among the first-year dental students. The responses were solicited on the level of awareness and understanding of rural oral health, intention to practice in rural locations and factors informing the appeal of rural dental practice. The mean of a seven-point Likert scale revealed that most students had some level of perceived knowledge and awareness of rural communities and oral health. Students with rural affiliation were more likely to have the intent to practise rurally after graduation (p = 0.001). For short-term rural practice, students overall expressed positive intention. Greater job opportunities were the main motivating factor, while the distance from family and friends was the main deterring factor for practising rurally. Rural affiliation influences the intent to practise rurally on graduation. The pre-outplacement perceptions, in this study, are comparable with post-outplacement observations reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
Open AccessArticle
Primary Stability of Three Different Osteotomy Techniques in Medullary Bone: An in Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010021 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyse the primary stability of 20 implants placed with Twist drills (TD) versus 20 implants placed with Summers osteotomes (SO) and 20 implants placed with B&B bone compactors (BC) in medullary bone (quality [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyse the primary stability of 20 implants placed with Twist drills (TD) versus 20 implants placed with Summers osteotomes (SO) and 20 implants placed with B&B bone compactors (BC) in medullary bone (quality type III and type IV). Methods: The implants were placed in 10 fresh pig ribs fixed on a bench vice in order to avoid micro-movements during surgical procedures and measure recording. Peak insertion torque (PIT) and Peak removal torque (PRT) were recorded with MGT-12 digital torque gauge and ISQ was recorded through OSSTELL ISQ™ device by an independent operator. Results: Comparing our data (Tukey test p = 0.05), it was evidenced a statistically significant difference in the PIT between TD and BC groups (p = 0.01). Analysing ISQ data, there was a statistically significant difference between the TD and BC groups (p = 0.0001) and between the SO and BC groups (p = 0.014). The analysis of PRT evidenced a statistically significant difference between the TD and BC groups (p = 0.038). Conclusions: This study evidenced that bone compactor preparation can positively influence primary implant stability (PS), however further in vivo studies and a larger sample are necessary to assess the usefulness in several clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Model of Clinical Attachment Loss and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life through Depressive Symptomatology, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Proinflammatory Biomarkers: A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010020 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Subjective aspects such as oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and depression are important aspects in the periodontal care. The objectives of the study were to test a predictive model of clinical attachment loss and OHRQoL in a pooled sample of dental patients [...] Read more.
Subjective aspects such as oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and depression are important aspects in the periodontal care. The objectives of the study were to test a predictive model of clinical attachment loss and OHRQoL in a pooled sample of dental patients with periodontitis and mental health patients with depressive symptomatology, and test the invariance of the model across both types of patients. Three self-report scales were applied to assess depression, OHRQoL and oral hygiene habits, saliva samples were collected for three proinflammatory biomarkers, and the clinical attachment loss was measured in 35 patients with periodontitis and 26 patients with depressive symptomatology. Data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. The one-group analysis revealed a psychosomatic complaint model of disagreement between the complaint and the clinically observable. In the multi-group analysis, the model was not invariant. It was necessary to introduce a singularity in relation to depressive symptomatology for each population. Thus, a good and equivalent fit was achieved between the six nested models in constraints, as well as equivalent parameters between both types of patients. The study of a dental population in conjunction with a mental health population with a psychosomatic risk factor reveals interesting and unexpected results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Management of a Facilitated Aesthetic Orthodontic Treatment with Clear Aligners and Minimally Invasive Corticotomy
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010019 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement has become a topical issue and the corticotomy seems to be the only effective and safe technique reported in the literature. Simultaneously, aesthetic orthodontic treatment with removable clear aligners has become commonly requested. The aim of this paper is [...] Read more.
Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement has become a topical issue and the corticotomy seems to be the only effective and safe technique reported in the literature. Simultaneously, aesthetic orthodontic treatment with removable clear aligners has become commonly requested. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the management of facilitated aesthetic orthodontic treatment, a combined approach including piezocision corticotomy and clear aligners for orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic planning for traditional clear aligners should be modified to take advantage of the corticotomy technique in order to facilitate the most difficult orthodontic movements needed to achieve treatment completion, where each aligner will be used for four days rather than 15 days for a total time of four months. A corticotomy with a modified minimally invasive flapless piezocision technique should be performed in both jaws at the same time, before the time window of the orthodontic treatment, where the most difficult orthodontic movements are planned. Treatment planning where difficult orthodontic movements, such as anterior open-bite closure and extraction space closure, are easily managed with clear aligners and are presented as examples of facilitated aesthetic orthodontic treatment application. The combination between aesthetic treatment with clear aligners and modified piezocision corticotomy, if carefully planned, seems to represent a synergy that achieves the current goals of orthodontic treatment. The primary objectives of this combination should be facilitating difficult orthodontic movements and reducing treatment duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessArticle
CD163+ Foamy Macrophages Are Associated with the Morphogenesis of Oral Verruciform Xanthoma through Angiogenesis by VEGF Expression: An Immunohistochemical Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010018 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Oral verruciform xanthoma (OVX) is an uncommon benign lesion that is characterized histologically by the accumulation of several foamy macrophages in the lamina propria papillae. The pathogenesis of OVX has not been completely elucidated, although the significance of macrophage polarization (M1, tumor suppression; [...] Read more.
Oral verruciform xanthoma (OVX) is an uncommon benign lesion that is characterized histologically by the accumulation of several foamy macrophages in the lamina propria papillae. The pathogenesis of OVX has not been completely elucidated, although the significance of macrophage polarization (M1, tumor suppression; and M2, tumor promotion) and the contribution of M2 macrophages to angiogenesis are well established. This study investigated the role of foamy macrophages in OVX, with a focus on angiogenesis. Four patients who underwent surgical excision or total excisional biopsy for OVXs were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the expression of the macrophage markers CD68 (broad) and CD163 (M2) and the CD34-positive microvessel density (MVD) of OVXs. The foamy macrophages of all patients exhibited positivity to CD68 and CD163. We evaluated the MVD and the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) based on histological architecture. The MVD of all OVX cases was significantly higher than that of the corresponding normal epithelia. Interestingly, the MVD of verrucous-type OVX cases was higher than that of the other type. VEGF was expressed on foamy macrophages in all cases. Overall, the foamy macrophages expressing CD163 were associated with the morphogenesis of OVX through the process of angiogenesis by VEGF expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Biocompatibility of Biodentine™ ® with Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells: In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010017 - 08 Feb 2020
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Biodentine™ is a tricalcium silicate-based cement material that has a great impact on different biological processes of dental stem cells, compared to other biomaterials. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the optimum biocompatible concentration of Biodentine™ with stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (hPDLSCs) [...] Read more.
Biodentine™ is a tricalcium silicate-based cement material that has a great impact on different biological processes of dental stem cells, compared to other biomaterials. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the optimum biocompatible concentration of Biodentine™ with stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (hPDLSCs) by determining cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration, adhesion and mineralization potential. hPDLSCs were treated with Biodentine™ extract at different concentrations; 20, 2, 0.2 and 0.02 mg/mL. Cells cultured without Biodentine™ were used as a blank control. The proliferation potential of hPDLSCs was evaluated by MTT viability analysis for 6 days. Cytotoxicity assay was performed after 3 days by using AnnexinV/7AAD. Migration potential was investigated by wound healing and transwell migration assays at both cellular and molecular levels. The expression levels of chemokines CXCR4, MCP-1 and adhesion molecules FGF-2, FN, VCAM and ICAM-1 were measured by qPCR. The communication potentials of these cells were determined by adhesion assay. In addition, mineralization potential was evaluated by measuring the expression levels of osteogenic markers; ALP, OCN, OPN and Collagen type1 by qPCR. Our results showed significant increase in the proliferation of hPDLSCs at low concentrations of Biodentine™ (2, 0.2 and 0.02 mg/mL) while higher concentration (20 mg/mL) exhibited cytotoxic effect on the cells. Moreover, 2 mg/mL Biodentine™ showed a significant increase in the migration, adhesion and mineralization potentials of the derived cells among all concentrations and when compared to the blank control. Our findings suggest that 2 mg/mL of Biodentine™ is the most biocompatible concentration with hPDLSCs, showing a high stimulatory effect on the biological processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous Measurement of Three-Dimensional Root Canal Curvature Using Cone-Beam Computed and Micro-Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010016 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The knowledge of root canal curvature is crucial regarding the prevention of ledge formation, root perforation and the possibility of endodontic instruments’ fracture during endodontic treatments. Therefore, a quantification method of the root canal curvature as well as the applicability of diagnostically relevant [...] Read more.
The knowledge of root canal curvature is crucial regarding the prevention of ledge formation, root perforation and the possibility of endodontic instruments’ fracture during endodontic treatments. Therefore, a quantification method of the root canal curvature as well as the applicability of diagnostically relevant tomographic three-dimensional (3D) imaging data is necessary. Hereby, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and micro-computed tomography (µCT) data of distal root canals were analysed concerning the continuous three-dimensional curvature of human mandibular molars ( n = 50). The curvature of the canal’s three-dimensional centre line was determined by evaluating the tomographic images. The centroids of each root canal slice were identified and approximated by spline curves to obtain the centre line and therefore, its curvature. Comparing the results evaluated from CBCT and µCT images, minimum radii of curvature of 2.6 mm and 2.1 mm were determined, respectively. The observation of the centre line demonstrated the requirement of the three-dimensional imaging data from CBCT and µCT for a reliable curvature analysis. Conclusively, the evaluation of CBCT and µCT images results in comparable radii of curvature. Thus, the application of the introduced method in combination with CBCT applied to patient cases could offer an important preliminary diagnostical step to prevent endodontic treatment complications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Safety and Design Aspects of Powered Toothbrush—A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010015 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 874
Abstract
The powered toothbrush has become a modern dental tool that is available in the supermarket. Indeed, the design of the powered toothbrush, e.g., mechanical and electrical, would affect not only the efficacy but also the safety of the products. This narrative review attempted [...] Read more.
The powered toothbrush has become a modern dental tool that is available in the supermarket. Indeed, the design of the powered toothbrush, e.g., mechanical and electrical, would affect not only the efficacy but also the safety of the products. This narrative review attempted to view the powered toothbrush from design, safety, and application points with respect to tufts, filaments, handles, mechanics, motions, and materials interactions from various available sources. Different brands and models of powered toothbrushes have their own designs that might affect the clinical outcome. The rotational design was advocated to be clinically more effective than the manual one, some modern models might be designed with vibrational or oscillation (or mixed) tufts head that might be useful in patients with specific needs, such as having xerostomia or for the elderly. To conclude, tuft retention design is important in the powered toothbrush as it contributes significantly to safety as the fallen off tufts, filaments and metal parts might cause injury. Tests revealing the retention force of brush head plates and brush head bristles will be significant references for consumers to determine which design of powered toothbrushes is relatively safer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Virtual Implant Rehabilitation of the Severely Atrophic Maxilla: A Radiographic Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010014 - 02 Feb 2020
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Background: Advanced maxillary atrophy is one of the most common clinical scenarios where implant placement could become difficult. Nevertheless, a volumetric evaluation using a suitable diagnostic software could facilitate the implant planning. The purpose of the present study is to suggest the potential [...] Read more.
Background: Advanced maxillary atrophy is one of the most common clinical scenarios where implant placement could become difficult. Nevertheless, a volumetric evaluation using a suitable diagnostic software could facilitate the implant planning. The purpose of the present study is to suggest the potential application of the maxillary retro-canine area as the designated location for virtual tilted implants. Methods: A sample of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images from the Department of Dentistry (IRCSS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy) was evaluated. After a 3D anatomical evaluation, tilted implants were virtually positioned in the retro-canine regions. All the implants were inserted using the same procedure at 30° and 45° degrees of tilting. The length, palatal angulation and diameter of the placed implant were identified. Results: A total of 220 tilted implants were placed. An average implant measurement of 13.51 mm in length and 3.42 mm in diameter were calculated. Additionally, an average buccal–palatal angulation of 6° was identified. Upon statistical analysis, the implant length was found to be significantly higher at 45° degrees of mesio-distal angulation than at 30° degrees (<0.0001). Conclusions: A considerable number of patients show a significant degree of bone atrophy. The implant-supported treatment plan can rely on three-dimensional imaging of the residual bone as a guiding tool to establish the most effective implant position for each specific case. In this study, it was found that an implant could have a greater length if its mesio–distal angulation was more accentuated. In addition, owing to the volumetric evaluation, it was possible to virtually insert tilted implants in almost all of the cases of atrophy. This could lead clinicians to consider the retro-canine area as a viable place to insert a longer tilted implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Technologies)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Dentistry Journal in 2019
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010013 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Use of an Oral Device in the Stabilization of Facial Advancement after Early Removal of the Osteodistraction Device for Postoperative Sequelae
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010012 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The aim of this study is to present an oral device that improves splanchnocranium stability after osteodistraction in children treated for correction of craniofacial malformations. When removal of the distraction device before the end of the treatment is necessary, the reposition of a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to present an oral device that improves splanchnocranium stability after osteodistraction in children treated for correction of craniofacial malformations. When removal of the distraction device before the end of the treatment is necessary, the reposition of a new fixation system might not be possible. In these cases, regrown bone is immature, and relapse of malformation occurs frequently. We have been treating these cases by the application of an oral device named Maxillary Advancement Contention (MAC). MAC is used in every patient when any complication interrupts the protocol of osteodistraction before the end of the stabilization time. The device is placed immediately after the removal of the distraction device and left in place for at least three months. We used MAC in six children surgically treated for correction of craniosynostosis with facial or craniofacial advancement. To establish the relapse of malformation we analyzed relations Sella-Nasion-Orbitale (SNOr) and Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) angles before application of the MAC and after one year. The analysis of stability was excellent in every patient. This device might help, with a minimally invasive procedure, to maintain the obtained advancement allowing stabilization of the regrown bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
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Open AccessReview
Hall Technique for Carious Primary Molars: A Review of the Literature
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010011 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 910
Abstract
The high frequency of caries in primary teeth and its inadequate treatment are major public health problems during childhood. Nowadays, the Hall technique is one of the methods used for biological sealing in carious lesions in primary molars. Thus, the bacteria will be [...] Read more.
The high frequency of caries in primary teeth and its inadequate treatment are major public health problems during childhood. Nowadays, the Hall technique is one of the methods used for biological sealing in carious lesions in primary molars. Thus, the bacteria will be sealed from oral environment and the caries will be inactive. The objective of this article was to provide an updated search on the Hall technique description, indication, contraindication, advantages, concerns, success and failure, cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and preference in pediatric dentistry, and to compare the Hall technique with traditional crown preparation and conventional treatment options for carious primary molars. A discussion of the recently published articles on the Hall technique reveals that the Hall technique is considered a promising restorative option with high acceptability and longevity; with low failure rate for managing carious primary molars compared to conventional treatment modalities used in primary care settings. Furthermore, the survival rate of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) is considered high, whether provided using Hall technique or traditional preparation by a pediatric dentist. Thus, the Hall technique can be an effective addition to the clinician’s range of treatment options for carious primary molars. However, it should be chosen in restricted cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Restorative Dentistry and Traumatology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Toothpaste with Swiss Medicinal Herbs towards Patients Suffering from Gingivitis and Initial Stage of Periodontitis: From Clinical Efficacy to Mechanisms
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010010 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Objective: To distinguish clinical effects and mechanisms of sodium monofluorophosphate plus xylitol and herbal extracts of Swiss medicinal plants (Chamomilla recutita, Arnica montana, Echinacea purpurea, and Salvia officinalis). Materials and Methods: A 2-month-long comparative clinical study of toothpaste [...] Read more.
Objective: To distinguish clinical effects and mechanisms of sodium monofluorophosphate plus xylitol and herbal extracts of Swiss medicinal plants (Chamomilla recutita, Arnica montana, Echinacea purpurea, and Salvia officinalis). Materials and Methods: A 2-month-long comparative clinical study of toothpaste containing 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate and xylitol (control, 15 patients) and toothpaste additionally containing extracts of the medicinal herbs (experiment, 35 patients) was performed on patients with gingivitis and the initial stage of periodontitis. Clinical indices of gingivitis/periodontitis were quantified by Loe & Silness’s, CPITN, OHI-S, and PMA indexes. The pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory interleukins, nitrites/nitrates, total antioxidant activity, and bacterial pattern characteristic for gingivitis and periodontitis were quantified in the gingival crevicular fluid and plaque. In the in vitro tests, direct anti-bacterial effects, inhibition of catalase induction in Staphylococcus aureus, in response to oxidative burst of phagocytes, and intracellular bacterial killing were determined for the toothpastes, individual plant extracts, and their mixture. Results: Experimental toothpaste was more efficient clinically and in the diminishing of bacterial load specific for gingivitis/periodontitis. Although the control toothpaste exerted a direct moderate anti-bacterial effect, herbal extracts provided anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, direct, and indirect anti-bacterial actions through inhibition of bacterial defence against phagocytes. Conclusions: Chemical and plant-derived anti-bacterials to treat gingivitis and periodontitis at the initial stage should be used in combination amid their different mechanisms of action. Plant-derived actives for oral care could substitute toxic chemicals due to multiple modes of positive effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Consistency of Food Substances on Health and Related Factors of Residents in Welfare Facilities for Seniors in Japan
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010009 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of food consistency on health and related factors among residents in welfare facilities for seniors (n = 227; mean age, 86.2 ± 8.0 years; 78.9% female). Residents who ate regular food had a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of food consistency on health and related factors among residents in welfare facilities for seniors (n = 227; mean age, 86.2 ± 8.0 years; 78.9% female). Residents who ate regular food had a lower incidence of fever during the 3-month period (p < 0.001) and consumed more calories (1325.97 ± 220.2 kcal) than those who ate chopped (1125.0 ± 256.8 kcal), paste (1122.0 ± 288.5 kcal), and gastric tube food (812.5 ± 150.7 kcal) (p < 0.001). Modifying a resident’s food by making it softer and finer did not reduce the incidence of choking. Logistic regression analysis (backward elimination method) revealed four factors related to eating regular food: vitality index, appetite, number of remaining teeth, and choking frequency. Causal relationships were not obtained because this was a cross-sectional study. The findings of this study suggest that a regular consistency of food positively influences the health of older individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Maternal Reports of Young Children’s Dental Disease Status: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010008 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
Background: Parental reports of their children’s health status is integral to pediatric medical and dental care. Therefore, understanding the accuracy of such reports is vital. Our objectives were to (1) assess the correlation between maternal reports of their children’s indicators of caries experience [...] Read more.
Background: Parental reports of their children’s health status is integral to pediatric medical and dental care. Therefore, understanding the accuracy of such reports is vital. Our objectives were to (1) assess the correlation between maternal reports of their children’s indicators of caries experience (subjective assessment) and actual caries status determined by oral examination (objective assessment), and (2) identify potential modifiers of this correlation. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (n = 1429) was used to assess the correlation between maternal reports of the number of missing and filled teeth of children aged 38 months, 54 months, and 5.5 years and clinical oral examinations of decayed, missing and filled teeth conducted when the same children were 31, 43 months, and five years of age. Homogeneity chi-square tests assessed differences in correlations according to sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall, we found a statistically significant correlation that was weak to moderate in magnitude. Maternal reports of missing teeth at 38 months was significantly correlated with decayed teeth, 0.27 (p < 0.001); missing teeth, 0.23 (p < 0.001), and the decayed, missing and filled (dmft) index, 0.35 (p < 0.001) based on oral examination at 31 months. A maternal report of filled teeth at 54 months was significantly correlated with decayed teeth, 0.30 (p < 0.001); filled teeth 0.30 (p < 0.001), and dmft 0.40 (p < 0.001) at 43 months. Mothers tended to underestimate the extent of missing and filled teeth in their children irrespective of the child’s age, but the extent of underestimation was greater among younger children. Maternal age, education level, and whether the child had ever visited a dentist were significant modifiers of subjective and objective caries assessments. Conclusions: From a clinical and dental public health perspective, our findings of a weak to moderate correlation of maternal assessments of their children’s caries experience may be concerning when reporting the burden of dental diseases in large population studies or for surveillance purposes that rely on self-reported measures and must therefore be utilized with caution because of the potential to result in underestimated disease burden. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Osseous Healing in Surgically Prepared Bone Defects Using Different Grafting Materials: An Experimental Study in Pigs
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010007 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Regeneration of large jaw bone defects still remains a clinical challenge. To avoid incomplete bone repair, bone grafts have been advocated to support the healing process. This study comparatively evaluated new bone formation among a synthetic graft substitute, a human bone derivative, and [...] Read more.
Regeneration of large jaw bone defects still remains a clinical challenge. To avoid incomplete bone repair, bone grafts have been advocated to support the healing process. This study comparatively evaluated new bone formation among a synthetic graft substitute, a human bone derivative, and a bovine xenograft. Materials were placed in 3 out of the 4 bone cavities, while 1 deficit was left empty, serving as a control, in mono-cortical defects, surgically prepared in the porcine calvaria bone. Animals were randomized in 2 groups and euthanized at 8 and 12 weeks. Harvested tissue specimens were qualitatively evaluated by histology. New bone formation was quantitatively measured by histomorphometry. Maximum new bone formation was noticed in defects grafted with beta-tricalcium phosphate b-TCP compared to the other bone substitutes, at 8 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Bovine and human allograft induced less new bone formation compared to empty bone cavity. Histologic analysis revealed that b-TCP was absorbed and substituted significantly, while bovine and human allograft was maintained almost intact in close proximity with new bone. Based on our findings, higher new bone formation was detected in defects filled with b-TCP when compared to bovine and human graft substitutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Enamel Topography after Debonding Orthodontic Ceramic Brackets by Different Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG Lasers Settings
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010006 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 463
Abstract
In the last decade, the success of lasers in simplifying many dental procedures has heightened the need for research in the orthodontic field, in order to evaluate the benefits of laser-assisted ceramic brackets debonding. Conventional ceramic brackets removal delivers a high shear bond [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the success of lasers in simplifying many dental procedures has heightened the need for research in the orthodontic field, in order to evaluate the benefits of laser-assisted ceramic brackets debonding. Conventional ceramic brackets removal delivers a high shear bond strength (SBS), which might lead to enamel damage. Nowadays, debonding ceramic brackets by Er:YAG laser seems a viable alternative technique; however, there is no data on the use of Er,Cr:YSGG in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the difference in enamel topography derived from different erbium laser settings used during debonding. One hundred and eighty bovine incisors teeth were randomly divided into fifteen experimental groups, according to different erbium laser settings using scanning methods. SBS testing was performed after debonding; stereomicroscopic and SEM analyses were done after cleaning the remaining adhesive so as to assess the incidence of enamel microcracks formation and enamel loss. There were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of teeth with normal enamel topography within the control group when compared with any of the Er:YAG groups. However, the proportion of teeth with a normal enamel topography in Er,Cr:YSGG was 4 W/20 Hz (83.3%) and in Er:YAG was 5 W/20 Hz (91.7%), which was statistically significantly higher than the control group (41.7%). The selection of erbium lasers’ optimal parameters during debonding influences the enamel topography. When considering the evaluation of both microscopic and statistical analyses, irradiation by Er:YAG (120 mJ/40 Hz) displayed a significant reduction in microcracks compared with conventional debonding, even though some microstructural changes in the enamel could be noted. Er,Cr:YSGG (4 W/20 Hz) respected the enamel topography the most out of the studied groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Light and Laser Dentistry)
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Open AccessEditorial
Promoting Inclusion Oral Health: Social Interventions to Reduce Oral Health Inequities
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010005 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 503
Abstract
To advance our understanding of inclusion oral health and to address the impact of social exclusion upon oral health, this group of papers sets out to provide an argument for the need for social and community-based interventions, theoretically underpinned by pluralistic definitions of [...] Read more.
To advance our understanding of inclusion oral health and to address the impact of social exclusion upon oral health, this group of papers sets out to provide an argument for the need for social and community-based interventions, theoretically underpinned by pluralistic definitions of evidence-based practice and the radical discourse of health promotion for those experiencing exclusion. Using the definition and framework of inclusion oral health, these papers illustrate the requirement for mixed-methods research, the incorporation of experts by experience in the research process, and the need for co-design and co-produced interventions. The papers in this Special Issue present various sources of evidence used to transform top-down into bottom-up community-based interventions for people experiencing homelessness, people in custody, and families residing in areas of high social deprivation. The first two papers provide the evidence for extreme oral health in those experiencing exclusion, and the final four papers report on the implementation and evaluation of social or community-based interventions. This collection of research papers will be of interest to all those wishing to reduce health inequities. This will be achieved by focusing on prevention, adopting a common risk factor agenda, and incorporating co-design and co-production elements into interventions, to tackle the oral health inequities felt by those most excluded in our societies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Fixed Orthodontic Appliance and Clear Aligners on the Periodontal Health: A Prospective Clinical Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010004 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 798
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health of orthodontic patients with supportive periodontal therapy in a 3 month follow-up. The sample comprised 20 patients (mean age 20.6 ± 8.1 years) in treatment with multibracket fixed appliances (fixed group—FG) and 20 patients (mean [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health of orthodontic patients with supportive periodontal therapy in a 3 month follow-up. The sample comprised 20 patients (mean age 20.6 ± 8.1 years) in treatment with multibracket fixed appliances (fixed group—FG) and 20 patients (mean age 34.7 ± 12.5 years) in treatment with clear aligners (clear aligners group—CAG). At baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival recession (REC) were measured. Patients were trained to perform an individualized tooth brushing technique, and every 2 weeks they were re-called to reinforce the oral hygiene instructions. The intra-group comparisons (T1 vs. T0) were calculated with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, while a linear regression model was used for the inter-group comparisons (FG vs. CAG). The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Statistically significant decrease in both groups was found for PD (FG: Δ, −9.2 inter-quartile range (IQR), −22.5, −5.5; CAG: Δ, −12.6 IQR, −25.4, −4.8), BOP (FG: Δ, −53.5 IQR, −70.5, −37; CAG: Δ, −37.5 IQR, −54.5, −23), and PI (FG: Δ, −17.5 IQR, −62.5, 14.5; CAG: Δ, −24 IQR, −49.5, −5). The result of the linear regression models suggested that the type of appliance did not have any effects on the improvement of periodontal variables. Therefore, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners did not show differences in gingival health when followed by a dental hygienist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Hygiene and Biofilms in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of s-IgA and IL-6 Salivary with Caries Disease and Oral Hygiene Parameters in Children
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010003 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 565
Abstract
This study evaluates salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in saliva of children and its correlation to tooth decay severity. Fifty-nine patients were divided into two groups: caries free (A group) and caries active (B group). B group was investigated according [...] Read more.
This study evaluates salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in saliva of children and its correlation to tooth decay severity. Fifty-nine patients were divided into two groups: caries free (A group) and caries active (B group). B group was investigated according to Mount and Monse indices. Mean salivary IgA rate between two groups (A 16.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL vs. B 21.8 ± 12.9 mg/dL) was not significant, while IL-6 rate (A 19.02 ± 5.3 pg/mL vs. B 30.2 ± 11.8 pg/mL) was statistically different. This study revealed that salivary IL-6 levels were significantly higher in children with active caries when compared with the caries-free group, while the s-IgA rate showed no significant differences between the two groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Endodontic and Periodontic Lesions)
Open AccessArticle
Loxoprofen Sodium Versus Diclofenac Potassium for Post-Dental Extraction Pain Relief: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Clinical Trial
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010002 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 659
Abstract
One of the most common post-operative complications of tooth extraction is pain. Oral analgesics, namely loxoprofen sodium and diclofenac potassium, are often prescribed; however, the efficacy of these drugs irrespective of gender and type of extraction has not been tested. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
One of the most common post-operative complications of tooth extraction is pain. Oral analgesics, namely loxoprofen sodium and diclofenac potassium, are often prescribed; however, the efficacy of these drugs irrespective of gender and type of extraction has not been tested. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the efficacy of these two drugs in post-dental extraction pain relief among male and female patients in cases of simple and surgical tooth extraction. A single-center, triple-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted among 100 male and female patients who underwent tooth extraction at Taibah University Dental College and Hospital in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The patients reported their pain post-operatively after 6 hours and every 12 h for 3 days using the Verbal Descriptor Scale (e.g., “no pain”, “mild pain”). Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were run to analyze the data. An equal number of patients received either the drug loxoprofen sodium or diclofenac potassium and completed the study follow-up. Patients allocated to the diclofenac potassium drug group after 36 h were statistically significantly in their reporting of “no pain” and “mild pain” compared to patients allocated to the loxoprofen sodium group (86% vs. 66%, respectively; p = 0.019), irrespective of gender or type of tooth extraction. However, both groups demonstrated comparable (p > 0.05) post-operative pain relief over the other aforementioned allocated time intervals. In conclusion, the diclofenac potassium group had slightly better control over post-operative pain than the group receiving loxoprofen sodium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Capacity of Periodontal Gel to Occupy the Spaces Inside the Periodontal Pockets Using Computational Fluid Dynamic
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010001 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The aim of the current work is to demonstrate the capacity of a new periodontal gel to occupy the spaces inside the periodontal pockets through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The test gel consists of two resorbable medical grade polymers (PEO, Poly Ethylen Oxide [...] Read more.
The aim of the current work is to demonstrate the capacity of a new periodontal gel to occupy the spaces inside the periodontal pockets through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The test gel consists of two resorbable medical grade polymers (PEO, Poly Ethylen Oxide and HPMC, Hydroxy Propyl Metyl Cellulose), Type I Collagen, SAP (Vitamin C), and PBS (Saline Solution), while the control gel is 14% doxyclin controlled release gel, which is used for treating periodontal pockets with probing ≥5 mm after scaling and root plaining. The study examined the fluid dynamic analysis (Computational Fluid Dynamic—CFD) of two different gels, used in dentistry to treat periodontitis, in relation to both the geometry of the periodontal pocket and the function of two different types of needles that are used to distribute the preparation. The periodontal pocket was determined by reading DICOM images taken from the patient’s CAT scan. The results show that the H42® gel comes out uniformly compared to the other gel. Moreover, it is possible to observe how the rheological properties of the gel allow the fluid to spread evenly within the periodontal pocket in relation to the geometry of the needle. In particular, H42® gel exits in a constant way both from the first and the second exit. In fact, it was observed that by changing the geometry of the needle or the type of periodontal gel, the distribution of the gel inside the pocket was no longer homogeneous. Thus, having the correct rheological properties and correct needle geometries both speeds up the gel and optimizes the pressure distribution. Currently, the literature is still lacking, therefore further studies will be needed to confirm these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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