Special Issue "Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Benjamin Pippenger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Preclinical & Translational Research Group, Institut Straumann, Basel, Switzerland
Interests: periodontal tissue regeneration; bone grafting and dental implants; tissue engineering; craniofacial biology; neuroectodermal-derived cells
Dr. Stephen Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Interests: periodontal tissue regeneration; bone grafting and dental implants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We live in exciting times for dental implant research. A paradigm shift is occurring in the implant research domain, effectively bringing into focus soft tissue integration around dental implants and placing this subject on equal footing to osseointegration. Over the years, osseointegration has been and continues to be the focus of countless studies, both in terms of novel surface technologies but also as the defining parameter of dental implant success. Recent opinion suggests the peri-implant soft tissue is an equally important criterion of health and long-term success and is therefore worthy of more concerted research approaches for novel surfaces, abutment connection design, and clinical treatment/workflow investigations.

We would like to invite you to submit your in vitro, in vivo, and clinical research studies, letters, critical/narrative reviews, and reviews. If you are interested in evidence-based dentistry and would like to contribute to this topic, please refer to the keywords below and submit to this Special Issue.

Dr. Benjamin Pippenger
Dr. Stephen Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Soft tissue attachment
  • Dental implant surface
  • Hemi-desmosome
  • Peri-implantitis treatment
  • Soft tissue seal
  • Osseointegration
  • Peri-implant tissue regeneration
  • Junctional epithelium
  • Bone-to-implant

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Implant Soft-Tissue Attachment Using 3D Oral Mucosal Models—A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030072 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate soft-tissue attachment to different metal, ceramic, and polymer implant surfaces using an inflamed, three-dimensional (3D), tissue-engineered, human oral mucosal model, as well as multiple-endpoint qualitative and quantitative biological approaches. Methods: Normal human oral fibroblasts, [...] Read more.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate soft-tissue attachment to different metal, ceramic, and polymer implant surfaces using an inflamed, three-dimensional (3D), tissue-engineered, human oral mucosal model, as well as multiple-endpoint qualitative and quantitative biological approaches. Methods: Normal human oral fibroblasts, OKF6/TERT-2 keratinocytes and THP-1 monocytes were cultured, and full-thickness, 3D oral mucosal models were engineered inside tissue culture inserts. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) and machined (M) titanium–zirconium alloy (TiZr; commercially known as Roxolid; Institut Straumann AG, Switzerland), ceramic (ZrO2), and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rods (Ø 4 mm × 8 mm) were inserted into the center of tissue-engineered oral mucosa following a Ø 4mm punch biopsy. Inflammation was simulated with addition of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha to the culture medium. Implant soft-tissue attachment was assessed using histology, an implant pull-test with PrestoBlue assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Inflamed, full-thickness, 3D human oral mucosal models with inserted implants were successfully engineered and histologically characterized. The implant pull-test with PrestoBlue assay showed higher viability of the tissue that remained attached to the TiZr-SLA surface compared to the other test groups. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed evidence of epithelial cell attachment on different implant surfaces. Conclusions: The inflamed, 3D, oral mucosal model has the potential to be used as a suitable in vitro test system for visualization and quantification of implant soft-tissue attachment. The results of our study indicate greater soft tissue attachment to TiZr-SLA compared to TiZr-M, ceramic, and PEEK surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
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Article
Implant Diameter, Length, and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral: A Study Using Polyurethane Foam Blocks
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020056 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The amount of energy necessary to place an implant in its seat, described as the integral of the torque-depth curve at insertion (I), has been validated as a reliable measure of primary stability. This study aimed to investigate whether (I) may detect the [...] Read more.
The amount of energy necessary to place an implant in its seat, described as the integral of the torque-depth curve at insertion (I), has been validated as a reliable measure of primary stability. This study aimed to investigate whether (I) may detect the variations in primary stability caused by changes in the implant length or diameter better than the insertion torque (IT). Cylindric implants featuring a double-etched, sandblasted surface with different diameters or lengths were placed into monolithic polyurethane foam blocks with different densities that mimicked human bone. (I)-, (I)*-, IT-, IT*-diameter and -length plots ((I)* and IT* were the derived values corrected for undersizing) were drawn and the relation between (I), (I)*, IT, and IT* and the fixture diameter or length was investigated with correlation analysis. (I)* and IT* correlated better than (I) and IT with the fixture diameter; (I), (I)*, IT, and IT* correlated equally well with the fixture length. In all cases, the slopes of the lines best fitting the experimental data were greater for (I) or (I)* than IT or IT*, respectively. (I) or (I)* were better detectors than IT or IT* of the changes in primary stability that can be achieved by increasing the fixture diameter or length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
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Article
Clinical Evaluation of the Nasopalatine Canal in Implant-Prosthetic Treatment: A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020030 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth in the anterior maxilla is often challenging due to ongoing bone resorption and remodeling events and may require regeneration procedures involving the nasopalatine canal (NPC). We describe a surgical approach with a block graft in relation to the [...] Read more.
Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth in the anterior maxilla is often challenging due to ongoing bone resorption and remodeling events and may require regeneration procedures involving the nasopalatine canal (NPC). We describe a surgical approach with a block graft in relation to the NPC and evaluate clinical performance, sensory perception, and aesthetic result of the implant-prosthetic treatment over a two- to nine-year (mean: 3.5 years) follow-up. Ten implants (six in the right central incisor and four in the left central incisor) were, respectively, placed in 10 consecutive patients with bone defects affecting the NPC and unfavorable widening of the incisive foramen. Treatment stages included: (1) Diagnosis: evaluation of clinical-aesthetic parameters using Cone Beam Computed Tomography; (2) Surgery: block graft placement by palatine and incisal with simultaneous guided bone regeneration, and late (6–10 months) implant placement; (3) Prosthetics: placement of a screw-retained crown (torque of 32 N/cm). At treatment initiation, all the NPCs evaluated in our study were free of pathologies. Treatment evaluation included bone crest thickness, neurosensory status, patients’ treatment perception, and pink and white aesthetic scores (PES/WES). Pre-surgery, anterior ridge thickness at the level of the incisive foramen was (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 2 mm, 5.4 ± 1.5 mm, and 6.1 ± 1.9 mm at heights of 4, 8, and 14 mm apical to the marginal bone crest, respectively. Post-treatment values were, respectively, 10.1 ± 2.0 mm, 10.5 ± 1.0 mm, and 13.4 ± 3.0 mm. The perception of treatment with the aesthetic pink and white indices (PES/WES) was an average of 7.5 and 7 points, respectively, out of a total of 10 each index, with a recovery of 100% of the neurosensory perception of the area. We propose that bone augmentation using block and particulate graft material can compensate for anatomical variations in the NPC, optimize implant’s three-dimensional positioning and improve facial contour, providing tissue and implant stability and good aesthetic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
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Article
Osseous Healing in Surgically Prepared Bone Defects Using Different Grafting Materials: An Experimental Study in Pigs
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010007 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Regeneration of large jaw bone defects still remains a clinical challenge. To avoid incomplete bone repair, bone grafts have been advocated to support the healing process. This study comparatively evaluated new bone formation among a synthetic graft substitute, a human bone derivative, and [...] Read more.
Regeneration of large jaw bone defects still remains a clinical challenge. To avoid incomplete bone repair, bone grafts have been advocated to support the healing process. This study comparatively evaluated new bone formation among a synthetic graft substitute, a human bone derivative, and a bovine xenograft. Materials were placed in 3 out of the 4 bone cavities, while 1 deficit was left empty, serving as a control, in mono-cortical defects, surgically prepared in the porcine calvaria bone. Animals were randomized in 2 groups and euthanized at 8 and 12 weeks. Harvested tissue specimens were qualitatively evaluated by histology. New bone formation was quantitatively measured by histomorphometry. Maximum new bone formation was noticed in defects grafted with beta-tricalcium phosphate b-TCP compared to the other bone substitutes, at 8 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Bovine and human allograft induced less new bone formation compared to empty bone cavity. Histologic analysis revealed that b-TCP was absorbed and substituted significantly, while bovine and human allograft was maintained almost intact in close proximity with new bone. Based on our findings, higher new bone formation was detected in defects filled with b-TCP when compared to bovine and human graft substitutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
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