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Dent. J., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 32 articles

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Open AccessCase Report
Minimally Invasive Diastema Restoration with Prefabricated Sectional Veneers
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020060 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
This case report presents a new technique for sectional veneer fabrication and diastema restoration with a prefabricated composite veneer. For the purpose of diastema restoration, a prefabricated sectional veneer provides the same benefits of a traditional ceramic sectional veneer (highly esthetic restoration with [...] Read more.
This case report presents a new technique for sectional veneer fabrication and diastema restoration with a prefabricated composite veneer. For the purpose of diastema restoration, a prefabricated sectional veneer provides the same benefits of a traditional ceramic sectional veneer (highly esthetic restoration with no need for tooth preparation) but involves a less technically demanding and time-consuming clinical procedure and a less delicate restoration with a reduced risk of accidental breakage and post-bonding crack formation. The technique presented in this case report bridges the gap between a direct and indirect technique for diastema restoration and introduces a new treatment option to close anterior spacing with a highly esthetic sectional veneer in a predictable and timely manner. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Oral and Dental Abnormalities Caused by a Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumor Treatment: A Clinical Case Report
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020059 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children. The therapy for this condition has evolved significantly over recent decades, as has survival rates. Nevertheless, multiagent chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical resection or a combination of these modalities still have to be [...] Read more.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children. The therapy for this condition has evolved significantly over recent decades, as has survival rates. Nevertheless, multiagent chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical resection or a combination of these modalities still have to be performed. This case report presents a 16-year-old boy with oral and dental effects after rhabdomyosarcoma treatment, diagnosed at the age of 4 years old. This report highlights the key role of dentists in the clinical management of rhabdomyosarcoma cases before, during and after treatment, and its potential side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Debonding and Clean-Up in Orthodontics: Evaluation of Different Techniques and Micro-Morphological Aspects of the Enamel Surface
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020058 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
There is currently no consensus on the best way to remove adhesive remnants from teeth following debonding. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of four adhesive resin removal (clean-up) techniques, performed with or without the use [...] Read more.
There is currently no consensus on the best way to remove adhesive remnants from teeth following debonding. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of four adhesive resin removal (clean-up) techniques, performed with or without the use of an operative microscope. Forty human teeth were duplicated using an epoxy resin for impregnation. Brackets were bonded to teeth and debonded from teeth. Then, the samples were randomly divided into two equal groups—the naked eye group and the magnification group—and further subdivided into four equal subgroups, in order to compare the different techniques used for the clean-up. Each subgroup was formed of five natural teeth with the respective pre- and post-bonding replicas. Macro- and micro-analysis by means of a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy evaluated, qualitatively and quantitatively, the adhesive remnant index and the damage index of the enamel. Overall, the magnification improved the removal of resins compared to the naked eye (p < 0.001), and the use of magnification constantly reduced resin residual and surface damage. Enamel damage and adhesive residual from the clean-up procedures represent an ascertained risk in orthodontics. The use of a magnification system improves the quality of debonding and clean-up techniques in a significant way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessCommunication
2019-nCoV: Measures Adopted at the Departments of Oral Surgery and Radiology during the Period of an Uncontrolled Transmission Increase
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020057 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
A new mutation of 2019-nCoV emerged and has been spreading worldwide. Dental practices are an important person-to-person transmission route. In this regard, preventive measures are required to avoid the cross contamination among professionals and patients. This report brings recommended measures for dental assistance [...] Read more.
A new mutation of 2019-nCoV emerged and has been spreading worldwide. Dental practices are an important person-to-person transmission route. In this regard, preventive measures are required to avoid the cross contamination among professionals and patients. This report brings recommended measures for dental assistance during the pandemic phase. The clinical protocol applied at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial and Surgery, such as at the Department of Radiology, Hospital University Münster, is described. A management protocol was applied to prevent the transmission route of 2019-nCoV. Patients infected with 2019-nCoV are treated only in emergency situations. The use of protective equipment and dental office isolation were the major points to avoid the contact between infected and non-infected patients. Preventive measures should be taken in order to reduce the spread of 2019-nCoV infection. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Implant Diameter, Length, and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral: A Study Using Polyurethane Foam Blocks
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020056 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
The amount of energy necessary to place an implant in its seat, described as the integral of the torque-depth curve at insertion (I), has been validated as a reliable measure of primary stability. This study aimed to investigate whether (I) may detect the [...] Read more.
The amount of energy necessary to place an implant in its seat, described as the integral of the torque-depth curve at insertion (I), has been validated as a reliable measure of primary stability. This study aimed to investigate whether (I) may detect the variations in primary stability caused by changes in the implant length or diameter better than the insertion torque (IT). Cylindric implants featuring a double-etched, sandblasted surface with different diameters or lengths were placed into monolithic polyurethane foam blocks with different densities that mimicked human bone. (I)-, (I)*-, IT-, IT*-diameter and -length plots ((I)* and IT* were the derived values corrected for undersizing) were drawn and the relation between (I), (I)*, IT, and IT* and the fixture diameter or length was investigated with correlation analysis. (I)* and IT* correlated better than (I) and IT with the fixture diameter; (I), (I)*, IT, and IT* correlated equally well with the fixture length. In all cases, the slopes of the lines best fitting the experimental data were greater for (I) or (I)* than IT or IT*, respectively. (I) or (I)* were better detectors than IT or IT* of the changes in primary stability that can be achieved by increasing the fixture diameter or length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
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Open AccessCase Report
The Strange Case of a Broken Periodontal Instrument Tip
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020055 - 03 Jun 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
This case report describes a rare case of a broken periodontal probe tip and its removal. A male patient presented himself in June 2019 due to a painful tooth in the upper left quadrant. The patient elected treatment in the dental school’s student [...] Read more.
This case report describes a rare case of a broken periodontal probe tip and its removal. A male patient presented himself in June 2019 due to a painful tooth in the upper left quadrant. The patient elected treatment in the dental school’s student course. In October 2019, in preparation for full-mouth rehabilitation, a complete diagnostic status was performed, including radiographs. In this context, a metal-dense fragment was identified in the apical region of the (missing) tooth 45. It was diagnosed as the broken tip of a periodontal probe (type AE P OWB). Since a PCP-12 probe is generally used in-house, iatrogenic damage during the initial examination or student course could be excluded a priori. The patient was not able to remember any treatment that could be associated with the instrument’s breaking. Since the probe fragment was palpable and a translocation could not be precluded, the patient agreed to its removal under local anesthesia, after a cone-beam CT. This article describes and discusses this particular case, with special emphasis on iatrogenic instrument fractures and their removal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Impact of Non-Surgical and Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in a Greek Population—A Prospective Cohort Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020054 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 863
Abstract
While periodontitis deteriorates patients’ quality of life, non-surgical periodontal treatment seems to offer an improvement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) utilizing patient-centered assessments [...] Read more.
While periodontitis deteriorates patients’ quality of life, non-surgical periodontal treatment seems to offer an improvement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) utilizing patient-centered assessments and surrogate clinical measurements in Greek adults. Eighty-three individuals with chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. Assessment of OHRQoL with the use of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire in conjunction with clinical measurements of pocket probing depth (PPD), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were performed at baseline (t0), after non-surgical therapy (t1) and after periodontal surgery (t2). A statistically significant reduction of OHIP-14 score was recorded at t1 and t2 examination compared to baseline (p < 0.001) and a statistically significant improvement in all clinical parameter at all time points was recorded (p < 0.05). No correlation between the clinical parameters and the total score of OHIP-14 was recorded at any time point. Non-surgical periodontal treatment seemed to improve OHRQoL in terms of OHIP-14 scores, whilst supplementary surgical periodontal therapy did not offer any additional benefit. No correlation was found between patients’ perception of quality of life expressed by OHIP-14 score and the surrogate clinical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Dentistry–A Comprehensive Review of Literature
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020053 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5880
Abstract
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has become a real challenge for healthcare providers around the world and has significantly affected the dental professionals in practices, universities and research institutions. The aim of this article was to review the available literature on the relevant [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has become a real challenge for healthcare providers around the world and has significantly affected the dental professionals in practices, universities and research institutions. The aim of this article was to review the available literature on the relevant aspects of dentistry in relation to COVID-19 and to discuss potential impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on clinical dentistry, dental education and research. Although the coronavirus pandemic has caused many difficulties for provision of clinical dentistry, there would be an opportunity for the dental educators to modernize their teaching approaches using novel digital concepts in teaching of clinical skills and by enhancement of online communication and learning platforms. This pandemic has also highlighted some of the major gaps in dental research and the need for new relevant knowledge to manage the current crisis and minimize the impact of such outbreaks on dentistry in the future. In conclusion, COVID-19 has had many immediate complications for dentistry of which some may have further long-term impacts on clinical practice, dental education and dental research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Intraoral and Extraoral Digital Scanners: Evaluation of Surface Topography and Precision
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020052 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface topography and the precision measurements of different intraoral and extraoral digital scanners. A reference model of a maxillary arch with four implant analogs was prepared and scanned by three intraoral and two extraoral [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface topography and the precision measurements of different intraoral and extraoral digital scanners. A reference model of a maxillary arch with four implant analogs was prepared and scanned by three intraoral and two extraoral scanners. The reference model was scanned fifteen times with each digital scanning system, investigating the surface topography and precision measurements for the same-arch and cross-arch measurements. The data was exported to 3D inspection and mesh-processing software (GOM Inspect, Braunschweig, Germany). Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with the Tukey method for pairwise comparisons. The effect of parameters on generating the surface topography was analyzed by Univariate Linear Regression Analysis. Of the scanner systems evaluated, iTero (IT) exhibited the most number of triangulation points, followed by Trios 3 Shape (TR) and Straumann Cares (SC). There were no significant differences observed in the surface topography when comparing flat and contoured surfaces, the anterior and posterior position, and interproximal areas. For the precision measurement in the same quadrant, no statistical difference was noted between intra- and extraoral scanners. However, the extraoral scanners showed substantially higher precision measurements for the cross-arch measurement. Surface topography did not correlate to precision. Rather, precision correlated with the scanning mechanism. For a quadrant scanning, both intraoral and extraoral scanners are recommended, but extraoral scanners are recommended for a full-arch scanning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Ceramics and Metal-Free Materials in The Digital Workflow)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Assessment of Endodontic Lesions with a Low-Dose CBCT Protocol
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020051 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Background: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often used in different fields of dental science, especially in complex anatomical districts like the endodontic one. The aim of this study is to propose a low-dose CBCT protocol useful in cases of endodontic lesions. [...] Read more.
Background: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often used in different fields of dental science, especially in complex anatomical districts like the endodontic one. The aim of this study is to propose a low-dose CBCT protocol useful in cases of endodontic lesions. Methods: The device used was a MyRay Hyperion X9-11x5; the low dose setting of the machine was 90 Kv, 27 mAs, CTDI/Vol 2.89 mGy. The absorbed organ doses have been evaluated with an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters positioned at the level of sensitive organs like brain, bone marrow, salivary glands, thyroid, esophagus, oral mucosa, extrathoracic airways, and lymph nodes. Equivalent and effective doses have been calculated; the last one has been calculated using the recommendations approved by the Main Commission of ICRP (International Commission Radiological Protection) in March 2007. For the assessment of image quality, five senior clinicians, independent and experienced clinicians, were asked to state if CBCT scans were accurate enough to assess endodontic lesions. Results: The use of a low-dose CBCT acquisition produced the lowest organ dose (5.01 microSv) at the level of the esophagus. Image quality has been considered accurate enough for endodontic diagnostic needs. Conclusions: CBCT low-dose protocol can be used over the standard one in endodontic special cases because it provides a significantly lower radiation dose to the patients while ensuring good image quality. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the opportunity of low-dose CBCT exams in endodontic clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Endodontic and Periodontic Lesions)
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Open AccessArticle
‘I Would Rather Be Having My Leg Cut off Than a Little Needle’: A Supplementary Qualitative Analysis of Dentally Anxious Children’s Experiences of Needle Fear
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020050 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Fear of needles is common in childhood, with up to 50% being affected to some degree. In individuals who are dentally anxious, the prevalence may be as high as 91%. Fear of needles, and therefore intra-oral injections can have negative impacts on children’s [...] Read more.
Fear of needles is common in childhood, with up to 50% being affected to some degree. In individuals who are dentally anxious, the prevalence may be as high as 91%. Fear of needles, and therefore intra-oral injections can have negative impacts on children’s quality of life and healthcare experiences, including a requirement for pharmacological methods to facilitate dental treatment. The aim of this study is to identify whether dentally anxious children report fear of injections and explore how these children experience a fear of needles in a dental setting. A supplementary analysis of interviews collected as part of two previous studies relating to children with dental anxiety. Five main themes were identified: feelings about needles; the nature of needle fear; the context of the fear, its consequences and how children tried to control the process. Children showed a desire to have control of their healthcare interventions, and wanted to trust the healthcare professionals giving the injections. There is evidence that children with dental anxiety also experience fear of needles, including intra-oral injections. Further primary qualitative research is needed to explore this topic in more depth and to design appropriate child centred interventions to reduce needle fear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood, Volume Ⅱ)
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Open AccessCase Report
Salvage of Dental Implant Located in Mandibular Odontogenic Cyst. A Conservative Surgical Treatment Proposal
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020049 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
The aim of this case report was to evaluate the use of Partsch I cystotomy in order to preserve a dental implant located in an odontogenic cyst extended from 3.2 to 4.4. A 50 year-old woman showed a circular, well-defined unilocular radiolucent area, [...] Read more.
The aim of this case report was to evaluate the use of Partsch I cystotomy in order to preserve a dental implant located in an odontogenic cyst extended from 3.2 to 4.4. A 50 year-old woman showed a circular, well-defined unilocular radiolucent area, Ø2.5 cm, in the right mandibular region with an oral implant intruding inside it. The overdenture in the mandibular right site showed no clinical mobility. The authors decided to perform a surgical treatment aimed to preserve the implant. The patient underwent Partsch I surgery followed by iodoform gauze insertion replaced weekly for one month, revision of the previous orthograde endodontic treatments, and an acrylic resin obturator prosthesis application for the following two months. The twelve month follow-up showed no clinical mobility of the right lateral mandibular implant prostheses. Radiographical analysis revealed cystic lesion healing and perimplant bone regeneration. This report highlights the opportunity to apply cystotomy when the cyst involves a dental implant and undermines its stability. This possibility is offered by the peculiar clinical scenario where the implant was stabilized by the presence of a previous prosthetic fixation. Our study led to the application of an operative protocol that allowed for the preservation of the implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Endodontic and Periodontic Lesions)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Technique for Direct Fabrication of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Bridge: A Long-Term Clinical Observation
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020048 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
The use of fiberglass in dentistry has increased due to the improvements in the development of adhesive techniques reducing the cost of treatment and avoiding abutment tooth craving. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the new technique to fabricate [...] Read more.
The use of fiberglass in dentistry has increased due to the improvements in the development of adhesive techniques reducing the cost of treatment and avoiding abutment tooth craving. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the new technique to fabricate a direct fiber-reinforced composite bridge (FRCB) over a long period of time. Twenty-one FRCB were performed with the new direct technique on 21 patients with a mean age of 58.85 years and female predominance in the Faculty of Dentistry of Oviedo (Spain). The framework design releases the embrasures allowing adequate interproximal brushing, avoidance of periodontal disease and interproximal caries. A baseline examination was performed and the patients were examined regularly at six-month intervals (nine years’ follow-up). The restorations were also evaluated by an examiner using parameters to check their stability, longevity and the lack of periodontal disease. The most frequent location was the maxillary premolar region and the purpose of the restorations was to give a definitive bridge in 100% of the patients. Only one total debonding of the prostheses was detected during the observation period at 24 months and three partial adhesive–cohesive veneering composite fractures at the pontic after 60, 72 and 84 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier was performed to detect the overall survival rate of the restorations at the end of the follow-up. Nine-year survival rates for the FRCB was 95.2%. All the cases had a clinically acceptable periodontal condition and an interproximal absence of caries in the abutment teeth. Currently, this type of restoration allows a minimally invasive aesthetic and is an affordable procedure, being a good alternative to other types of treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers for Aligner Manufacturing: In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020047 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The use of metal-free thermoplastic materials plays a key role in the orthodontic digital workflow due to the increasing demand for clear aligner treatments. Three thermoplastic polymers commonly used to fabricate clear aligners, namely Duran®, Biolon® and Zendura®, [...] Read more.
The use of metal-free thermoplastic materials plays a key role in the orthodontic digital workflow due to the increasing demand for clear aligner treatments. Three thermoplastic polymers commonly used to fabricate clear aligners, namely Duran®, Biolon® and Zendura®, were investigated to evaluate the effect of thermoforming (T.), storage in artificial saliva (S.A.S.) and their combination on their mechanical properties. Elastic modulus and yield stress of the specimens were characterized. Each material was characterized for each condition through tensile tests (ISO527-1). The results showed that thermoforming does not lead to a significant decrease in yield stress, except for Zendura® that showed about a 30% decrease. An increase of the elastic modulus of Duran® and Zendura®, instead, was observed after thermoforming. The same increase was noticed for the yield stress of Duran®. For S.A.S. specimens, the elastic modulus generally decreases compared to supplier condition (A.S.) and simply thermoformed material. A decrease of yield stress, instead, is significant for Zendura®. The results demonstrated that the impact of the operating conditions on the mechanical properties can vary according to the specific polymer. To design reliable and effective orthodontic treatments, the materials should be selected after their mechanical properties are characterized in the simulated intraoral environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Ceramics and Metal-Free Materials in The Digital Workflow)
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Care Dentistry and COVID-19 Outbreak: What Lesson Should We Learn?
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020046 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the declaration of pandemic by the World Health Organization have made an enormous impact on medical and dental care across the world. The [...] Read more.
The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the declaration of pandemic by the World Health Organization have made an enormous impact on medical and dental care across the world. The current COVID-19 situation may teach dental teams a better approach and optimal ways concerning the management of patients with special needs, by bringing people together to discuss and optimize standards of care, as often happens in challenging situations. We can always learn new things that turn out to be valuable and useful even in exceptionally difficult times, and in addition, dental services can benefit from enabling positive attitudes and introducing constructive changes. Clinicians just need to keep in mind that adjustment to a new future reality appears inevitable for both patients and professionals who provide care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Care Dentistry)
Open AccessArticle
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Knowledge, Awareness and Acceptance among Dental Students and Post-Graduate Dental Residents
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020045 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Introduction: The recent development of a vaccine that is highly effective against the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been met with widespread clinical and public health professional acceptance. However, social and societal barriers to vaccination may hamper public health efforts to prevent HPV-mediated diseases. [...] Read more.
Introduction: The recent development of a vaccine that is highly effective against the human papillomavirus (HPV) has been met with widespread clinical and public health professional acceptance. However, social and societal barriers to vaccination may hamper public health efforts to prevent HPV-mediated diseases. Although a few studies have evaluated knowledge or awareness of HPV vaccination among dentists or dental educators, few studies have evaluated the acceptance, knowledge and awareness of HPV vaccination among dental students and post-graduate dental residents. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate survey responses regarding acceptance, knowledge and awareness of HPV vaccination among dental students and post-graduate dental residents. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of a previously administered and collected questionnaire. The original protocol was reviewed by the UNLV Biomedical Institutional Research Board (IRB) and was deemed excluded from IRB review (OPRS#0811-2911). Results: Two hundred and ninety-three (N = 293) dental student and forty-one (N = 41) post-graduate dental resident questionnaires were available for a total sample size of N = 334. In brief, although the majority of dental students and residents agreed that vaccines are safe and effective, less than half of dental students (37.5%) or dental residents (48.7%) had discussed the HPV vaccine with a physician or had received the vaccine themselves. In addition, a significant percentage of dental students and residents felt they did not have enough information regarding the HPV vaccine (25.6% and 26.8%, respectively) or had significant concerns about the side effects (17.1%). Conclusions: The data suggest more specific information in dental school microbiology and immunology courses might be needed to increase awareness and knowledge of the safety and effectiveness of vaccines, including the HPV vaccine. This enhanced education might also serve as a curricular focal point to answer questions regarding vaccine-related side effects and provide a mechanism for answering important questions regarding this vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Myofunctional Trainer versus Twin Block in Developing Class II Division I Malocclusion: A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020044 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 846
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the dentoalveolar effects of the myofunctional trainer T4KTM versus twin block in children with class II division I malocclusion. Two parallel arm randomized comparative clinical trial was conducted, including twenty healthy children, 9–12 years old, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the dentoalveolar effects of the myofunctional trainer T4KTM versus twin block in children with class II division I malocclusion. Two parallel arm randomized comparative clinical trial was conducted, including twenty healthy children, 9–12 years old, showing Angle’s class II division I malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion. Children were randomly assigned into two groups according to the appliance used; Group 1: T4k, and Group II: twin block. Follow-up was done every 4 weeks for 9 months. Postoperative cephalometric X ray, study casts and photographs were taken for measurements and comparison. T4K showed a statistically significant reduction in the overjet (−2.50 ± 1.00 mm) (p < 0.0001), and a significant increase in the lower arch perimeter (LAP) (1.19 ± 0.96 mm) (p = 0.01). The twin block showed a statistically significant reduction in the overjet (−3.75 ± 1.10 mm) (p < 0.0001), a significant reduction in the overbite (−16.22 ± 17.02 %) (p = 0.03), and a significant increase in the LAP (1.69 ± 0.70 mm) (p < 0.0001). The overjet showed a higher significant decrease in the twin block group than in T4K (p = 0.03). The mean values of the overbite were significantly decreased in twin block than in T4k (p < 0.0001). Both groups showed significant dentoalveolar improvements toward class I occlusion; however, the twin block showed significantly better results than T4K appliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Utility of Photodynamic Therapy in Dentistry: Current Concepts
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020043 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
The significant growth in scientific and technological advancements within the field of dentistry has resulted in a wide range of novel treatment modalities for dentists to use. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging, non-invasive treatment method, involving photosensitizers, light of a specific wavelength [...] Read more.
The significant growth in scientific and technological advancements within the field of dentistry has resulted in a wide range of novel treatment modalities for dentists to use. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging, non-invasive treatment method, involving photosensitizers, light of a specific wavelength and the generation of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to eliminate unwanted eukaryotic cells (e.g., malignancies in the oral cavity) or pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this review article is to summarize the history, general concepts, advantages and disadvantages of PDT and to provide examples for current indications of PDT in various subspecialties of dentistry (oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral medicine, endodontics, preventive dentistry, periodontology and implantology), in addition to presenting some images from our own experiences about the clinical success with PDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photobiomodulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Cleaning Action of Ultrasonic Irrigation on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020042 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 712
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the spatial cleaning effect of ultrasonic irrigation in simulated root canal with oblong cross section in the absence of antimicrobial agent. A 7-day E. faecalis biofilm was cultivated in a rectangular, simulated canal model and subjected to passive [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the spatial cleaning effect of ultrasonic irrigation in simulated root canal with oblong cross section in the absence of antimicrobial agent. A 7-day E. faecalis biofilm was cultivated in a rectangular, simulated canal model and subjected to passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with sterile saline for 5 minutes. After that, the biofilm was examined by confocal microscopy after bacterial viability staining at 58 sites around and beyond the endosonic file. Results showed that, at the vicinity of the file, the amount of viable bacteria ranged from 13.1% (2.75 mm from the tip) to 40.5% (4.5 mm level). Lesser amounts of live bacteria were observed within 1 mm from the vibrating file, which amount increased for sites farther away. At 3 mm distance, the amount of bacteria (35.5 to 64.4%) was significantly greater than areas situated close to the vibrating file (P < 0.01). Sites next to the anti-nodes of file had less bacteria remaining than sites near the nodes (P = 0.050). Apically (0.5 mm or more), the amount of bacteria was significantly greater than that at the file tip (16.4%) (P < 0.05). It was concluded that PUI is able to dislodge a single-species biofilm, provided that they are situated in close vicinity to the vibrating file. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics: from Microbiology to Clinical Procedures)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Full Diagnostic Process for the Orthodontic Treatment Strategy: A Documented Case Report
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020041 - 06 May 2020
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The need for extractions in orthodontic treatment has always been a controversial topic. However, to date there is not a specific clinical guideline that can help the clinicians deciding to plan an extractive or a non-extractive orthodontic treatment. In this respect, clinicians must [...] Read more.
The need for extractions in orthodontic treatment has always been a controversial topic. However, to date there is not a specific clinical guideline that can help the clinicians deciding to plan an extractive or a non-extractive orthodontic treatment. In this respect, clinicians must deal with patients’ occlusal, functional, periodontal and aesthetics characteristics before planning an orthodontic treatment including extraction. Considering the absence of specific guidelines, the choice to extract teeth or not is complicated, particularly in borderline cases. In this case report, we present a borderline case of a patient with the skeletal Class III pattern and significant crowding in both arches that could be treated with or without extraction, illustrating the diagnostic and decision-making processes that were conducted for the orthodontic treatment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Biofilm Formation on Dental Implant Surface Treated by Implantoplasty: An In Situ Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020040 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is a biofilm-related disease whose characteristics are peri-implant tissues inflammation and bone resorption. Some clinical trials report beneficial effects after implantoplasty, namely the surgical smoothening of the implant surface, but there is a lack of data about the development of the bacterial [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is a biofilm-related disease whose characteristics are peri-implant tissues inflammation and bone resorption. Some clinical trials report beneficial effects after implantoplasty, namely the surgical smoothening of the implant surface, but there is a lack of data about the development of the bacterial biofilm on those smoothened surfaces. The aim of this study is to evaluate how implantoplasty influences biofilm formation. Three implants with moderately rough surfaces (control) and three implants treated with implantoplasty (test) were set on a tray reproducing the supra- and sub-gingival environment. One volunteer wore this tray for five days. Every 24 h, plaque coverage was measured and, at the end of the period of observartion, the implant surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The proportion of implant surface covered with plaque was 65% (SD = 7.07) of the control implants and 16% (SD = 0) of the test implants. Untreated surfaces showed mature, complex biofilm structures with wide morphological diversity, and treated surfaces did not show the formation of mature biofilm structures. This study supports the efficacy of implantoplasty in reducing plaque adhesion and influencing biofilm formation. These results can be considered a preliminary proof of concept, but they may encourage further studies about the effects of implantoplasty on biofilm formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Peri-Implantitis)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Oral Commensal Streptococci on Porphyromonas gingivalis Invasion into Oral Epithelial Cells
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020039 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine if the interaction between common oral commensal bacteria and oral epithelial cells would provide protective effects against the invasion of periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Oral epithelial OKF6/Tert cells were used in co-cultures with Streptococcus gordonii [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine if the interaction between common oral commensal bacteria and oral epithelial cells would provide protective effects against the invasion of periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Oral epithelial OKF6/Tert cells were used in co-cultures with Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus intermedius. The viability of OKF6/Tert cells following a bacterial challenge was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion. The adherence of commensal species was determined by CFU counts. P. gingivalis invasion in OKF6/Tert cells was assessed before and after exposure to commensal species according to CFU counts. Viability assays show that only S. gordonii and S. intermedius display low toxicity toward OKF6/Tert cells. Both commensals adhere to OKF6/Tert cells at an average ratio of 1 CFU to 10 cells. P. gingivalis invasion into host cells is significantly reduced by 25% or 60% after exposure to S. gordonii or S. intermedius, respectively. The results suggest that these commensal species bind to host cells and diminish P. gingivalis invasion. This is important in the context of periodontal disease since P. gingivalis primarily acts on the host by invading it. Therefore, efforts to decrease invasion will eventually lead to future therapies harnessing the mechanisms employed by oral commensal bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Hand and Rotary Instruments on the Fracture Resistance of Teeth: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020038 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Objective: Endodontic treatment should be both conservative and effective. Endodontic instruments with a greater taper are used for coronal flaring, for proper debridement with efficient irrigation. However, increased taper of an instrument can remove a larger amount of pericervical dentin, compromising the strength [...] Read more.
Objective: Endodontic treatment should be both conservative and effective. Endodontic instruments with a greater taper are used for coronal flaring, for proper debridement with efficient irrigation. However, increased taper of an instrument can remove a larger amount of pericervical dentin, compromising the strength of the tooth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hand files, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and V Taper rotary instrument systems on the fracture resistance of teeth. Materials and Methods: In total, 60 extracted human maxillary first premolars were divided into four groups—Group I (Hand Files; HF), Group II (ProTaper Universal; PT), group III (ProTaper Next; PTN) and Group IV (V Taper; VT) (N = 15). Each group was instrumented with the respective instrument system, irrigated, obturated, restored, and mounted in cold cure acrylic. A universal load-testing machine (Shimadzu, Japan) was used to apply a vertical compressive load. The maximum force was recorded in Newton. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Independent t-tests were applied to compare the maximum mean force required to fracture the tooth. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in fracture resistance between Group I (HF) and Group II (PT) and between Group II (PT) and Group IV (VT) (p < 0.001). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between Group II (PT) and Group III (PTN) (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between Group I (HF) and Group III (PTN), and between Group III (PTN) and Group IV (VT) (p < 0.05), too. However, there was no statistically significant difference between Group I (HF) and group IV (VT) (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Rotary files with more taper seem to remove more pericervical dentin than traditional manual and rotary files with less taper, thus altering the strength of the tooth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Repair of Veneered Zirconia Crowns with Ceramic or Composite Resin: An in Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020037 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Statement of problem: Current techniques for repairing porcelain-chipped restorations have several limitations. With advances in CAD/CAM technology, the combination of resin cements and high-strength ceramic materials might offer new options for repairing the chipping of veneering ceramic. Purpose: The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Statement of problem: Current techniques for repairing porcelain-chipped restorations have several limitations. With advances in CAD/CAM technology, the combination of resin cements and high-strength ceramic materials might offer new options for repairing the chipping of veneering ceramic. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the load-to-failure of veneered zirconia crowns repaired by different materials. Material and Methods: Veneered zirconia crowns were made on aluminum dies (n = 10/group). Feldspathic porcelain (Vita VM9, Vident) was applied to the zirconia coping (Vita In-Ceram YZ, Vident) in a cylindrical shape (Ø 10.5 mm, height 7.5 mm). A bevel cut on the porcelain veneer (45 degree, 3 mm width) was made at one side of each crown to simulate porcelain chipping. The crowns were then divided into four different groups according to the repair materials: 1. Conventional resin composite (A; Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent); 2. Flowable resin composite (B; G-aenial Universal Flo, GC america); 3. CAD/CAM milled feldspathic ceramic (C; Vita Trilux Forte, Vident); 4. CAD/CAM milled lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (D; IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). Resin cement (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) was used to cement the CAD/CAM ceramic materials to the beveled crowns. Each crown underwent 5000 cycles of thermocycling. The strength test was performed on an Instron universal testing machine by loading force on the center of repaired part to record load-to-failure. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). Results: Mean loads-to-failure (in Newton +/− SD) of repaired veneered zirconia crowns were: Gr. A: 660.0 ± 200.5; Gr. B: 681.7 ± 175.9; Gr. C: 1236.0 ± 188.8; Gr. D: 1536.3 ± 286.1. Catastrophic failure was the most dominant failure mode in every group. Few specimens exhibited cohesive failure. Only one specimen in group D had adhesive failure. Conclusions: Within the limitation of the study, veneered zirconia crowns repaired with CAD/CAM ceramic materials have significantly higher load-to-failure than veneered crowns repaired with resin composite (p ≤ 0.05). Clinical Implications: Traditionally, porcelain-chipped restorations are often repaired with resin composite and bonding technique. Repairing chipped porcelain with CAD/CAM ceramics fitting the fractured parts can be alternative option with potential advantages. More well-designed studies are necessary to justify this novel repair technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Ceramics and Metal-Free Materials in The Digital Workflow)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Hygiene Awareness and Practices among a Sample of Primary School Children in Rural Bangladesh
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020036 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Inadequate oral health knowledge and awareness is more likely to cause oral diseases among all age groups, including children. Reports about the oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices of children in Bangladesh are insufficient. Therefore, the objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Inadequate oral health knowledge and awareness is more likely to cause oral diseases among all age groups, including children. Reports about the oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices of children in Bangladesh are insufficient. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the oral health awareness and practices of junior school children in Mathbaria upazila of Pirojpur District, Bangladesh. The study covered 150 children aged 5 to 12 years of age from three primary schools. The study reveals that the students have limited awareness about oral health and poor knowledge of oral hygiene habits. Oral health awareness and hygiene practices amongst the school going children was found to be very poor and create a much-needed niche for implementing school-based oral health awareness and education projects/programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-level Determinants of Dental Health and Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Enamel Color Variation Using Infiltration Resin Treatment of White Spot Lesions at One Year Follow-Up
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020035 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the color changes and the stability at a 1-year follow-up of white spot lesions (WSLs) treated with an infiltrating technique by using etching and TEGDMA resin. The color of 22 white spot lesions and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the color changes and the stability at a 1-year follow-up of white spot lesions (WSLs) treated with an infiltrating technique by using etching and TEGDMA resin. The color of 22 white spot lesions and the sound adjacent enamel (SAE) were assessed with a spectrophotometer at T0 (baseline), T1 (after treatment), and T2 (1 year after). The color change ΔE (WSLs-SAE) at T0 vs. T1 were compared to evaluate the camouflage effect efficiency, and at T1 vs. T2 to assess the stability of outcomes. To evaluate the effect on the treatment outcome of gender, the presence or not of previous orthodontic treatment, WSLs onset more/less than 10 years, the age of the patient, and the ΔE WSL (T0 vs. T1) was analyzed. The difference between ΔE (WSLs-SAE) at T0 and T1 resulted in statistical significance (p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found between ΔE (WSLs-SAE) at T1 vs. T2. The variables considered showed no statistical differences in treatment outcomes. The results of our investigation show that the technique used is immediately effective and the camouflage effect keeps up and steady one year after treatment. Such results do not appear to be influenced by analyzed clinical variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Lower Dental Arch Crowding and Dimension after Treatment with Lip Bumper versus Schwarz Appliance. A Prospective Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020034 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Aim: The treatment of patients with mixed dentition, with inferior moderate dental crowding (the so-called borderline cases, between extraction and expansion) is not yet clear. Two examples of widely used appliances for increasing lower dental arch dimensions are the Schwarz’s appliance and lip [...] Read more.
Aim: The treatment of patients with mixed dentition, with inferior moderate dental crowding (the so-called borderline cases, between extraction and expansion) is not yet clear. Two examples of widely used appliances for increasing lower dental arch dimensions are the Schwarz’s appliance and lip bumper. The aim of this prospective study was to compare dental crowding and arch dimensions from pre- to post-treatment with lip bumper versus Schwarz’s appliance. Subjects and Methods: Pre- and post-treatment orthodontic records of twenty subjects (10 males and 10 females) were analyzed in the present study. Inclusion criteria were: first/second molar class malocclusion; crowding of the mandibular arch, from mild to moderate (4–6 mm); mixed dentition; age ≤ 9 years at the beginning of the treatment; stage CS1 or CS2 of maturation of the cervical vertebrae analysis (CVM) at the beginning of the treatment. Ten subjects were treated with a lip bumper, and ten with the removable Schwarz appliance. The primary outcomes were the variations in dental crowding and arch dimensions from pre- to post-treatment. Results: Both the two appliances caused a statistically significant mean improvement/reduction in crowding, of 3.5 mm and 2.9 mm, for the Schwarz appliance and lip bumper, respectively. The Schwarz appliance resulted more effective in increasing arch dimension at the intercanine level, and arch perimeter, while the lip bumper achieves a higher increase in arch length. Conclusions: A lip bumper and Schwarz appliance are both useful in reducing crowding in mixed dentition. This improvement is due to the increase in dental arch dimensions, although the distribution of space resulted slightly differently between the two appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Hygiene in a Sample of Children/Adolescents Living in Family-Homes from the Province of Milan (Italy): A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020033 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Objective: This pilot study is a prospective controlled clinical trial, designed to evaluate the short-term clinical results (the plaque index) of an educational/motivational program for home oral hygiene, directed to children and adolescents who live in family-homes. Methods: The setting of the project [...] Read more.
Objective: This pilot study is a prospective controlled clinical trial, designed to evaluate the short-term clinical results (the plaque index) of an educational/motivational program for home oral hygiene, directed to children and adolescents who live in family-homes. Methods: The setting of the project was the province of Milan (Italy), where two family-homes were selected. The study group included 26 children (16 females and 10 males) aged between 7 and 15 years, of Italian nationality, from the family-home communities. The control group included 26 children (15 females and 11 males, aged between 7 and 15 years) of Italian nationality, matched for age and gender distribution with the study group, that were not in a socially disadvantaged condition. Collection of the plaque index (PI) was performed at t0. Then, all basic oral hygiene instructions were given to all children/adolescents and their educators. Education and motivation were repeated in the same way after 4–7 weeks (T1), and after 10–12 weeks (T2). The PI was taken also at T1 and T2. Results: An improvement in the PI was generally found in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups over time. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a statistically significant effect of time [F (1, 52) = 90.73, p < 0.001], regardless of the assignment group, in consequence of which the plaque index presented a moderate and significant improvement. Conclusion: The present data confirm the validity of the educational/motivational program to improve oral hygiene in children/adolescents, regardless of the assignment group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Management of Endodontic and Periodontal Lesions: the Role of Regenerative Dentistry and Biomaterials
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020032 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Regenerative dentistry represents a novel interdisciplinary approach involving biomaterials, several molecules and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), preferably derived from oral tissues. The pivotal role of MSCs depends on the fact that they can differentiate into different cell lineages and have the strategic role [...] Read more.
Regenerative dentistry represents a novel interdisciplinary approach involving biomaterials, several molecules and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), preferably derived from oral tissues. The pivotal role of MSCs depends on the fact that they can differentiate into different cell lineages and have the strategic role to release bioactive substances that stimulate the renewal and regeneration of damaged tissues. The role of regenerative dentistry is promising in all the branches of dentistry: the most intriguing application is related to the management of endodontic and periodontal defects, overcoming the surgical approach and the implantology as a consequence of a poorly efficient therapeutic plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Endodontic and Periodontic Lesions)
Open AccessArticle
Dental Caries Preventive Considerations: Awareness of Undergraduate Dental Students
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020031 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of undergraduate dental students of common caries-related preventive considerations and to highlight these factors in a concise manner to act as a guide for dental practitioners. A sample of 118 undergraduate students [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of undergraduate dental students of common caries-related preventive considerations and to highlight these factors in a concise manner to act as a guide for dental practitioners. A sample of 118 undergraduate students at a local government dental school was included. An interactive survey that contains questions related to common preventive strategies against dental caries was presented to the students. The survey contained 22 questions concerning dietary and therapeutic strategies. Students casted their votes using their mobile cellphones. The correct answer for each question was shown to the students, and further discussion was held. Data was collected, and the statistical analysis was conducted using one-sample z- and chi-squared tests at 0.05 significance level. The students answered the questions related to oral hygiene practices, xylitol, and the common knowledge regarding fluoride. The questions related to the use of chlorhexidine, dietary factors, and fluoride formulations were answered mostly incorrectly. The students seemed to grasp details of important concepts of flossing, brushing, reducing frequency of sugar exposure, and the use of fluoride products. Still, more emphasis should be given to increase students’ awareness of dietary guidelines for caries prevention, since adequate knowledge of these modalities is paramount for graduating dentists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inter-Professional Oral Health Education)
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