Special Issue "New Frontiers in Orthodontics"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Simona Tecco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dental School, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
Interests: interceptive orthodontics; functional orthodontic appliances; orthodontic materials; temporomandibular joint disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New Frontiers in orthodontics aims to express the ongoing debate in orthodontics. Orthodontics is a dentistry area in continuous evolution, which draws from the most recent technological innovations, as well as from the most accredited scientific reports and practical experience, the basis for updating knowledge in the field. This Special Issue provides a comprehensive view of the state-of-art in orthodontics, outlined by research experts from different countries, to clarify emerging directions in the orthodontic field.

Recent years have seen an increased demand for orthodontic treatment from both adolescents and adults, and in addition, patient and clinician expectations of treatment outcomes continue to rise. Further, the desire for more aesthetic materials has resulted in both smaller and/or invisible appliances. The communication between patient and doctor has also improved due to new technology. Today, patients can see a 3D model of their teeth and how it will change with treatment, knowing their treatment outcomes before agreeing to their treatment plan.

All these innovations make it necessary to constantly update our knowledge with the help of experts and clinicians, to acquire and consolidate new skills more and more. With this aim, the present Special Issue covers a variety of topics, including technological innovations, orthodontic materials, the management of malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, the epidemiology and risk factors in orthodontics, the preventive approach to malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders, and the differences between growing and adult patients.

Prof. Dr. Simona Tecco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • orthodontic appliances
  • orthodontic treatment
  • interceptive orthodontics
  • temporomandibular joint disorders

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Debonding and Clean-Up in Orthodontics: Evaluation of Different Techniques and Micro-Morphological Aspects of the Enamel Surface
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020058 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
There is currently no consensus on the best way to remove adhesive remnants from teeth following debonding. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of four adhesive resin removal (clean-up) techniques, performed with or without the use [...] Read more.
There is currently no consensus on the best way to remove adhesive remnants from teeth following debonding. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of four adhesive resin removal (clean-up) techniques, performed with or without the use of an operative microscope. Forty human teeth were duplicated using an epoxy resin for impregnation. Brackets were bonded to teeth and debonded from teeth. Then, the samples were randomly divided into two equal groups—the naked eye group and the magnification group—and further subdivided into four equal subgroups, in order to compare the different techniques used for the clean-up. Each subgroup was formed of five natural teeth with the respective pre- and post-bonding replicas. Macro- and micro-analysis by means of a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy evaluated, qualitatively and quantitatively, the adhesive remnant index and the damage index of the enamel. Overall, the magnification improved the removal of resins compared to the naked eye (p < 0.001), and the use of magnification constantly reduced resin residual and surface damage. Enamel damage and adhesive residual from the clean-up procedures represent an ascertained risk in orthodontics. The use of a magnification system improves the quality of debonding and clean-up techniques in a significant way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Article
Evaluation of Lower Dental Arch Crowding and Dimension after Treatment with Lip Bumper versus Schwarz Appliance. A Prospective Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020034 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Aim: The treatment of patients with mixed dentition, with inferior moderate dental crowding (the so-called borderline cases, between extraction and expansion) is not yet clear. Two examples of widely used appliances for increasing lower dental arch dimensions are the Schwarz’s appliance and lip [...] Read more.
Aim: The treatment of patients with mixed dentition, with inferior moderate dental crowding (the so-called borderline cases, between extraction and expansion) is not yet clear. Two examples of widely used appliances for increasing lower dental arch dimensions are the Schwarz’s appliance and lip bumper. The aim of this prospective study was to compare dental crowding and arch dimensions from pre- to post-treatment with lip bumper versus Schwarz’s appliance. Subjects and Methods: Pre- and post-treatment orthodontic records of twenty subjects (10 males and 10 females) were analyzed in the present study. Inclusion criteria were: first/second molar class malocclusion; crowding of the mandibular arch, from mild to moderate (4–6 mm); mixed dentition; age ≤ 9 years at the beginning of the treatment; stage CS1 or CS2 of maturation of the cervical vertebrae analysis (CVM) at the beginning of the treatment. Ten subjects were treated with a lip bumper, and ten with the removable Schwarz appliance. The primary outcomes were the variations in dental crowding and arch dimensions from pre- to post-treatment. Results: Both the two appliances caused a statistically significant mean improvement/reduction in crowding, of 3.5 mm and 2.9 mm, for the Schwarz appliance and lip bumper, respectively. The Schwarz appliance resulted more effective in increasing arch dimension at the intercanine level, and arch perimeter, while the lip bumper achieves a higher increase in arch length. Conclusions: A lip bumper and Schwarz appliance are both useful in reducing crowding in mixed dentition. This improvement is due to the increase in dental arch dimensions, although the distribution of space resulted slightly differently between the two appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Article
Oral Hygiene in a Sample of Children/Adolescents Living in Family-Homes from the Province of Milan (Italy): A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8020033 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Objective: This pilot study is a prospective controlled clinical trial, designed to evaluate the short-term clinical results (the plaque index) of an educational/motivational program for home oral hygiene, directed to children and adolescents who live in family-homes. Methods: The setting of the project [...] Read more.
Objective: This pilot study is a prospective controlled clinical trial, designed to evaluate the short-term clinical results (the plaque index) of an educational/motivational program for home oral hygiene, directed to children and adolescents who live in family-homes. Methods: The setting of the project was the province of Milan (Italy), where two family-homes were selected. The study group included 26 children (16 females and 10 males) aged between 7 and 15 years, of Italian nationality, from the family-home communities. The control group included 26 children (15 females and 11 males, aged between 7 and 15 years) of Italian nationality, matched for age and gender distribution with the study group, that were not in a socially disadvantaged condition. Collection of the plaque index (PI) was performed at t0. Then, all basic oral hygiene instructions were given to all children/adolescents and their educators. Education and motivation were repeated in the same way after 4–7 weeks (T1), and after 10–12 weeks (T2). The PI was taken also at T1 and T2. Results: An improvement in the PI was generally found in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups over time. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a statistically significant effect of time [F (1, 52) = 90.73, p < 0.001], regardless of the assignment group, in consequence of which the plaque index presented a moderate and significant improvement. Conclusion: The present data confirm the validity of the educational/motivational program to improve oral hygiene in children/adolescents, regardless of the assignment group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Article
Management of a Facilitated Aesthetic Orthodontic Treatment with Clear Aligners and Minimally Invasive Corticotomy
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010019 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement has become a topical issue and the corticotomy seems to be the only effective and safe technique reported in the literature. Simultaneously, aesthetic orthodontic treatment with removable clear aligners has become commonly requested. The aim of this paper is [...] Read more.
Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement has become a topical issue and the corticotomy seems to be the only effective and safe technique reported in the literature. Simultaneously, aesthetic orthodontic treatment with removable clear aligners has become commonly requested. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the management of facilitated aesthetic orthodontic treatment, a combined approach including piezocision corticotomy and clear aligners for orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic planning for traditional clear aligners should be modified to take advantage of the corticotomy technique in order to facilitate the most difficult orthodontic movements needed to achieve treatment completion, where each aligner will be used for four days rather than 15 days for a total time of four months. A corticotomy with a modified minimally invasive flapless piezocision technique should be performed in both jaws at the same time, before the time window of the orthodontic treatment, where the most difficult orthodontic movements are planned. Treatment planning where difficult orthodontic movements, such as anterior open-bite closure and extraction space closure, are easily managed with clear aligners and are presented as examples of facilitated aesthetic orthodontic treatment application. The combination between aesthetic treatment with clear aligners and modified piezocision corticotomy, if carefully planned, seems to represent a synergy that achieves the current goals of orthodontic treatment. The primary objectives of this combination should be facilitating difficult orthodontic movements and reducing treatment duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Article
Biological Effects of Anodic Oxidation on Titanium Miniscrews: An In Vitro Study on Human Cells
Dent. J. 2019, 7(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7040107 - 17 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
This controlled in vitro study compared the effects of varying the thickness of a TiO2 layer on cellular activity using commercially available miniscrew samples with identical surface features to derive information with direct clinical impact. Titanium grade V plates with four different [...] Read more.
This controlled in vitro study compared the effects of varying the thickness of a TiO2 layer on cellular activity using commercially available miniscrew samples with identical surface features to derive information with direct clinical impact. Titanium grade V plates with four different thicknesses of TiO2 layer/color were used: absent/gray (Control group), 40–50 nm/pink (Pink group), 130 nm/gold (Gold group) and 140 nm/rosé (Rosé group). In vitro experiments used Saos-2 cells and included cell growth analysis, phospho-Histone H3 and procollagen I staining, cell viability analysis, and a cell migration assay at 12, 24, 40 and to 48 h. Few differences were seen among the groups, with no clear behavior of cellular activity according to the TiO2 thickness. The Control group showed a greater cell count. Phospho-Histone H3 staining was similar among the groups and procollagen I staining was greater in the Rosé group. Cell viability analysis showed a significant difference for live cell counts (greater in the Rosé group) and no difference for the dead cell counts. The cell migration assay showed a delay for the Rosé group up to 40 h, where full repopulation of cell-free areas was obtained at 48 h. The results suggest that the TiO2 layers of the commercial miniscrews have minimal biological effects, including cytotoxicity, with possibly negligible or minimal clinical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Review

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Review
Dentoskeletal Class II Malocclusion: Maxillary Molar Distalization with No-Compliance Fixed Orthodontic Equipment
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8010026 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Dentoskeletal class II malocclusion due to a protruded upper dental arch is a major reason for an orthodontic treatment. In these cases, the correction of class II can be hindered by molar distalization, obtained with ‘no-compliance therapy’ that involves the use of appliances [...] Read more.
Dentoskeletal class II malocclusion due to a protruded upper dental arch is a major reason for an orthodontic treatment. In these cases, the correction of class II can be hindered by molar distalization, obtained with ‘no-compliance therapy’ that involves the use of appliances which minimize the need for such co-operation and attempt to maximize the predictability of results. The aim of this review was to outline the effectiveness of no-compliance fixed orthodontic devices in the molar distalization. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles from 2000 to 2019 were qualified for the final analysis. The literature shows various no-compliance fixed devices whose effect is to distalize the maxillary molars. The present revision allows to conclude that there is a need to increase the number of studies, especially with regard to the most recently introduced devices in the literature. The analysed studies allow to hypothesize that these appliances act with a minimal variability of molar distalization and disto-inclination among them, although different effects among the appliances can be observed as regards to the anchorage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Other

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Case Report
The Effect of High-Frequency Vibration on Tooth Movement and Alveolar Bone in Non-Growing Skeletal Class II High Angle Orthodontic Patients: Case Series
Dent. J. 2020, 8(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8040110 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
This study presents a novel technique utilizing high-frequency vibration to shorten treatment time and preserve alveolar bone in challenging orthodontic cases that have been treated with Invisalign® clear aligners. Four non-growing orthodontic patients (age range 14–47 years old) with Class II skeletal [...] Read more.
This study presents a novel technique utilizing high-frequency vibration to shorten treatment time and preserve alveolar bone in challenging orthodontic cases that have been treated with Invisalign® clear aligners. Four non-growing orthodontic patients (age range 14–47 years old) with Class II skeletal patterns (convex profiles with retrognathic mandibles) who sought correction of their crowded teeth and non-surgical correction of their convex profiles were included in this study. These patients were treated using Invisalign clear aligners together with high-frequency vibration (HFV) devices (120 Hz) (VPro5™) that were used by all patients for five minutes per day during active orthodontic treatment. Vertical control and forward rotation of the mandible for each patient was achieved through pre-programming the Invisalign to produce posterior teeth intrusion. Successful forward rotation of the mandibles achieved in all patients led to improvement of their facial convex profiles (apical base relationship (ANB) improved 2.1 ± 0.5 degrees; FMA (Frankfurt mandibular plane angle) improved 1.2 + 1.1 degrees). Dental decompensation was achieved by lingual tipping of the lower incisors and palatal root torque of upper incisors. The use of HFV together with Invisalign facilitated achieving these results within a 12 ± 6 months period. In addition, more bone labial to the lower incisors after their lingual movement was noted. In conclusion, the use of HFV concurrent with SmartTrack Invisalign aligners allowed complex tooth movement and forward mandibular projection without surgery in non-growing patients with skeletal Class II relationships. The clinical impact and implications of this case series are: (1) the use of HFV facilitates complex orthodontic tooth movement including posterior teeth intrusion and incisor decompensation; (2) forward mandibular projection of the mandible and increased bone formation labial to lower incisors can be achieved in non-growing patients that may minimize the need for surgical intervention in similar cases or gum recession due to lower incisors labial inclination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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Case Report
The Use of High Frequency Vibration and Clear Aligners in Management of an Adult Patient with Class III Skeletal Malocclusion with Open Bite and Severe Bimaxillary Protrusion: Case Report
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030075 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Adult orthodontic patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, open bite and bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion are complex problems that normally require surgical intervention to correct. This is a report of an adult female with a skeletal Class III jaw relationship; in addition, the patient [...] Read more.
Adult orthodontic patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, open bite and bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion are complex problems that normally require surgical intervention to correct. This is a report of an adult female with a skeletal Class III jaw relationship; in addition, the patient had anterior open bite and bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion. The patient also had three premolars in the lower left quadrant. Treatment involved extracting the extra premolar distal to lower left canine, retraction of lower anterior teeth, closing extraction space and anterior open bite utilizing Invisalign clear aligners. The patient initially changed aligners every week before this was changed to 3–5 days after starting to use a high frequency vibration (HFV = 120 Hz) device. Satisfactory results were achieved in a relatively shorter period. Comparing before and after treatment cone beam computed tomography revealed that new bone has been formed labial to the lower incisors after their retraction/correction of their initial proclined position and the use of HFV and myofunctional therapy without gingival graft. The present case report shows the comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach in treatment for such cases and the advantage of using HFV to improve bone formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthodontics)
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