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Educ. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 79 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): During the COVID‐19 pandemic, many learners were struggling with the self‐regulated learning activities required for continuous learning progress. Our study focused on the learning strategy of concept mapping (CM), which has been (1) directly related to positive effects on learning and retention performance and (2) reported to have constructive side effects regarding metacognitive skills and, thus, self-regulated learning. To grasp CM’s full potential, however, appropriate training of the strategy seems to be required. Our results show that high-intensity CM training is associated with considerable improvement of learners’ metacognitive judgments of learning (JOLs). Since the ability to give reliable JOLs is closely related to successful self‐regulated learning, such CM training could efficiently address learners’ difficulties. View this paper
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Article
The Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Learning Process among Students: A Comparison between Jordan and Turkey
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050365 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
COVID-19 was declared by the WHO as a pandemic affecting several aspects of human lives. Follow-up investigations showed that the pandemic affected tertiary education. This study was designed to assess the online learning process among students living in Turkey and Jordan during the [...] Read more.
COVID-19 was declared by the WHO as a pandemic affecting several aspects of human lives. Follow-up investigations showed that the pandemic affected tertiary education. This study was designed to assess the online learning process among students living in Turkey and Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey. The survey was followed by a focus group. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). A total number of 214 students participated in this study. Most of the participants were female, single, and undergraduates. Regarding the theory courses, the percentage of Turkish and Jordanian students who evaluated the online learning as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ or ‘good’ was greater than that for the practical courses. With regards to the practical training, more than half of the Turkish students (57.5%) ranked their experience in practical training as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ or ‘good’, while a lower proportion was reported by Jordanian students (47.7%). During the focus group, the cons of online learning were more numerous than the pros. The tertiary education in Turkey and Jordan was affected during the pandemic. Full article
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Article
Students’ Perceptions of Gained and Lost Value: A Case Study of a Summer School That Had to Suddenly Move Online
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050364 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The COVID-19 lockdown induced a sudden migration of traditionally presential learning activities to online domains, as was the case of inter-institutional summer schools. This research corresponds to a case study in which our organization had to reformulate, in less than three months, one [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 lockdown induced a sudden migration of traditionally presential learning activities to online domains, as was the case of inter-institutional summer schools. This research corresponds to a case study in which our organization had to reformulate, in less than three months, one of its traditional summer schools while trying to keep the original goals. Through qualitative and quantitative surveys, we aimed at identifying the impact of our reformulation through students’ perception of gained or lost value regarding four topics: (a) online teaching, (b) pre-recorded business cases, (c) online social events, and (d) technical solutions. By analyzing these four topics with emphasis on participants’ knowledge and learning experience, we identified some “tensions” leading to loss of value (i.e., belonging, performing, and organizing). These tensions suggest that future reformulations should be conducted considering students’ backgrounds and motivations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
Article
Understanding Motivation towards Teaching in SerProfe UDP: A First Step to Foster Equity in Teacher Education Admission in Chile
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050363 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Enrollment in pre-service teacher education in Chile has dropped by 19% in the last year. To better understand the motivations and perceptions towards teaching among those students who could potentially become teacher candidates, we explored teaching vocation on 11th- and 12th-grade students in [...] Read more.
Enrollment in pre-service teacher education in Chile has dropped by 19% in the last year. To better understand the motivations and perceptions towards teaching among those students who could potentially become teacher candidates, we explored teaching vocation on 11th- and 12th-grade students in Santiago. From a total of 1112 students who voluntarily participated in an online survey including the FIT-Choice scale, 381 expressed their interest in teacher education. Afterward, 83 students confirmed their participation in our mentoring program regarding teacher education and the teaching profession. The results show that the students who chose to be mentored have greater intrinsic motivation towards teaching and a greater self-perceived ability to teach. Additionally, they have a more positive perception of the teaching profession, including work–family conciliation, and project greater satisfaction with their professional choice. However, they also belong to one of the most vulnerable population groups in Chile, those who have more difficulties accessing university education through traditional admission processes conditioned on academic performance. Thus, to foster equity in teacher education and attract students with the vocational potential for becoming excellent teachers, we need to consolidate admission alternatives and provide greater opportunities to students that—due to the inequities of the educational system—fail to complete a successful application or do not make the cut to enroll. Full article
Article
Family Experiences with the Upbringing and Education of a Child with Congenital Malformations, Focusing on the Conditions of an Inclusive School Environment
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050362 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
The birth of a child with congenital malformation and serious illness impacts the experiences of all family members and the educational process, but there are only rare descriptions of such cases in the literature. The aim of this study is to understand better [...] Read more.
The birth of a child with congenital malformation and serious illness impacts the experiences of all family members and the educational process, but there are only rare descriptions of such cases in the literature. The aim of this study is to understand better the lived experiences of a Czech family who have a child with congenital malformations with a focus on his education in an inclusive environment. The study is based on van Manen’s methodology and autobiographic (or semi-structured) interviews with Karl (19), his mother (46), and his father (49). Data were analyzed for every participant separately: the mother—repeated challenges associated with increasing new health complications, discomfort of son, school support, the future, optimism, and gratefulness; the father—comprehensive support of the son, including all family; Karl—concealment of disability, difficulties associated with disability, participation, school support, relationship with peers, and the future. Based on the results of this case study, for the education of students with congenital malformation and illness, we recommend including parents, healthcare professionals, and school staff in the mutual teamwork; adapting the timetables and spatial arrangements at school; and coordinating the educational process with necessary interventions. Full article
Article
A GoPro Look on How Children Aged 17–25 Months Assess and Manage Risk during Free Exploration in a Varied Natural Environment
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050361 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Research indicates that risky play has positive effects on children’s development, learning and health, and ability to assess and manage risk, but there is a lack of knowledge on how toddlers engage in risky play. This study aims to investigate how toddlers assess [...] Read more.
Research indicates that risky play has positive effects on children’s development, learning and health, and ability to assess and manage risk, but there is a lack of knowledge on how toddlers engage in risky play. This study aims to investigate how toddlers assess and manage risk in free exploration in a varied natural environment and was conducted within an explorative qualitative approach. Observations were collected through head-mounted GoPro cameras while seven toddlers freely explored a natural environment. The results show that toddlers are able to assess and manage risks in challenging natural environments. They develop their own risk management skills and assess risks directly and indirectly. The results also show that practitioners sometimes perform risk assessment/management on behalf of the child and thus override the child’s own actions. The findings suggest implications for an early childhood education and care (ECEC) practice where children even as young as 17–25 months should be allowed to explore challenging environments and learn how to assess and manage risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning Space and Environment of Early Childhood Education)
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Article
When the Invisible Makes Inequity Visible: Chilean Teacher Education in COVID-19 Times
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050360 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Although there is high inequity in the Chilean education system, the sanitary situation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has repositioned the debate about inequity in teacher education. We explored the following two questions: what are the (new) inequities highlighted in teacher [...] Read more.
Although there is high inequity in the Chilean education system, the sanitary situation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has repositioned the debate about inequity in teacher education. We explored the following two questions: what are the (new) inequities highlighted in teacher education during the pandemic in Chile? What can we learn from teacher educators’ responses to these issues? Using content analysis, we analyzed interviews held with 16 teacher educators from four different programs across the country. Findings show that the pandemic makes unequal pre-service teachers’ living and studying conditions visible, becoming a source of stress but also an opportunity to rethink program support. Teacher educators’ responses to inequity were based on a distributive and/or recognition perspective of justice, mediated by program resources and characteristics. We identified difficulties in achieving justice of participation by teacher educators in this context, influenced by scarce program resources or a sense of urgency. Conclusions highlighted the role of teacher education in addressing students’ inequities and the importance of remaining vigilant about these issues in the aftermath of the pandemic, keeping them visible. Full article
Article
Resistances to Educational Change: Teachers’ Perceptions
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050359 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Educational changes require a great effort on the part of the entire educational community and, above all, the active involvement of teachers. The aim of this article was to analyze the main resistances to change that predominate among teachers at different educational stages. [...] Read more.
Educational changes require a great effort on the part of the entire educational community and, above all, the active involvement of teachers. The aim of this article was to analyze the main resistances to change that predominate among teachers at different educational stages. Through a non-experimental design, using an online questionnaire, teachers’ beliefs about factors influencing resistance to change were collected. The results indicate that the participants do not have great resistance to educational change and that legislative changes and the perception of teachers as having excessive functions are the most common aspects of resistance. There is greater resistance to change among men and in public schools and as the experience and age of the teaching staff increases. Based on the results, it is suggested that the educational center be placed as the unit of change, increasing the leadership of the director to carry out the changes suggested by the center itself, fostering teamwork among teachers, and institutionally supporting innovative initiatives that are evaluated or facilitating teacher training in relation to their teaching practice. Full article
Article
The Impact of Effective Teaching Practices on Academic Achievement When Mediated by Student Engagement: Evidence from Australian High Schools
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050358 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Previous research has proposed a conceptual framework indicating the mediating role of student engagement on the relationship between effective teaching practices and student academic outcomes. This study is the first internationally to empirically test this conceptual framework for the key aspects of teaching [...] Read more.
Previous research has proposed a conceptual framework indicating the mediating role of student engagement on the relationship between effective teaching practices and student academic outcomes. This study is the first internationally to empirically test this conceptual framework for the key aspects of teaching practice—effective learning time and expectations for success—using robust, linked longitudinal survey–administrative data from 6825 public school students in Australia. Drawing on a system of structural equations, we demonstrate that effective learning time has a direct effect on students’ performance and an indirect effect via improved positive behavior, attendance and homework behavior. Expectations for success, in contrast, have a largely indirect effect, affecting students’ academic performance through improved positive behavior, attendance and homework behavior. Full article
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Article
Unpacking the Shortcomings of “College and Career Readiness” as an Educative Approach in Urban Schools as Preparation for Tomorrow’s Economy
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050357 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
As the language of “college and career readiness” continues to permeate American public education, the fixation on preparing students for college and careers is potentially harmful for students, particularly urban students of color. In promoting “college and career readiness”, certain assumptions are taken [...] Read more.
As the language of “college and career readiness” continues to permeate American public education, the fixation on preparing students for college and careers is potentially harmful for students, particularly urban students of color. In promoting “college and career readiness”, certain assumptions are taken for granted: that American schools are sites of egalitarian meritocracy and not spaces of social reproduction; that tomorrow’s job market desires more individuals with formal education, and that the jobs market will be viable for tomorrow’s willing workers. Here, we argue that as “college and career readiness” continues to be the dominant approach in American schools, it ignores the realities that the workplace of tomorrow is growing harsher as corporations continue their efforts to maximize profits by keeping labor costs low by reducing worker participation and seeking cheaper labor. Simultaneously, American students of color are more vulnerable to tomorrow’s workplace in that they continue to experience racial discrimination coupled with the growing tenuous nature of the future domestic job market. Thus, students who are being schooled in “college and career readiness” have to contend with the possibility that, though they are more formally educated, the economy of tomorrow may still deem them expendable. Full article
Article
Implementing Digital Competencies in University Science Education Seminars Following the DiKoLAN Framework
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050356 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
Prospective teachers must acquire subject-specific digital competencies to design contemporary lessons and to promote digital competencies among students themselves. The DiKoLAN framework (Digital Competencies for Teaching in Science Education) describes basic digital competencies for the teaching profession in the natural sciences precisely for [...] Read more.
Prospective teachers must acquire subject-specific digital competencies to design contemporary lessons and to promote digital competencies among students themselves. The DiKoLAN framework (Digital Competencies for Teaching in Science Education) describes basic digital competencies for the teaching profession in the natural sciences precisely for this purpose. In this article, we describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a university course based on DiKoLAN which promotes the digital competencies of science teachers. As an example, the learning module Data Processing in Science Education is presented, and its effectiveness is investigated. For this purpose, we used a questionnaire developed by the Working Group Digital Core Competencies to measure self-efficacy, which can also be used in the future to promote digital competencies among pre-service teachers. The course evaluation showed a positive increase in the students’ self-efficacy expectations. Overall, the paper thus contributes to teacher education by using the course as a best-practice example—a blueprint for designing new courses and for implementing a test instrument for a valid evaluation. Full article
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Article
Bridging Theory and Practice Using Facebook: A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050355 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
In the past few years, Facebook has been increasingly studied for academic purposes due to its potential benefits to undergraduate education. Problems commonly found in university education include the lack of course engagement and the gap between theory and practice. This research contributes [...] Read more.
In the past few years, Facebook has been increasingly studied for academic purposes due to its potential benefits to undergraduate education. Problems commonly found in university education include the lack of course engagement and the gap between theory and practice. This research contributes to the literature by investigating the impact of incorporating a non-mandatory Facebook group on learning outcomes. The analysis was done using a Taguchi method design, conducted with three two-level controlled factors (term, Facebook, and teacher). Results indicated that the students who participated in Facebook groups were more engaged with the course and applied theoretical knowledge to real-life problems better than students who learned under traditional instructional designs. Moreover, the use of Facebook groups led to better evaluation of teachers by the students. Furthermore, the student academic impact (knowledge and competence) was higher even though this complementary activity was not included in the course grade. We concluded that Facebook groups are excellent support tools that boost student engagement and their understanding of theoretical concepts and applying them in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Trends and Issues in Engineering Education)
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Article
Equity, Justice, and Quality during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: Considerations on Learning and Scholarly Performance in Brazilian Schools
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050354 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Due to the imperative need for change in habits caused by the COVID-19 pandemic that has plagued the world, this exploratory study plans to analyze the directions taken in teaching activities in public and private schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro [...] Read more.
Due to the imperative need for change in habits caused by the COVID-19 pandemic that has plagued the world, this exploratory study plans to analyze the directions taken in teaching activities in public and private schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and their consequences for learning and scholarly performance concerning elementary and middle schools. In this way, this study verifies through an email questionnaire if there was equality, justice, and quality in teaching methods during the COVID-19 pandemic. The descriptive analysis was carried out based on statistical calculations of quantitative and qualitative variables with various tests, whenever necessary, such as the chi-square, and when inconclusive, Fischer’s exact test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk, non-parametric Mann–Whitney (when the comparison between two independent groups was mandatory), ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Friedman test. The results show that teachers tried to interact with students to overcome the problems faced during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Additionally, the study showed that there were differences in scholarly and learning performance, equality, and quality in the types of schools analyzed. This paper will help to fill the literature gap on the subject and will boost ongoing discussion on the inclusion of sustainable concepts in education. Full article
Article
A Theory-Led Evaluation of a Scalable Intervention to Promote Evidence-Based, Research-Informed Practice in Schools to Address Attainment Gaps
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050353 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Evidence-based practice is a salient solution that has been presented to address the persistent educational attainment gap linked to economic disadvantage. However, most schools do not engage with research, and we know little about facilitating school-led research use at scale. Linking different approaches [...] Read more.
Evidence-based practice is a salient solution that has been presented to address the persistent educational attainment gap linked to economic disadvantage. However, most schools do not engage with research, and we know little about facilitating school-led research use at scale. Linking different approaches to studying educational effectiveness, equity and change, and drawing on cultural-historical activity theory, this study develops intermediate theory about the mechanisms influencing institutions’ success in using research. In the context of the Opportunity Area Programme, supporting place-based interventions in the UK’s most socio-economically disadvantaged regions, we conducted a theory-led evaluation of the Evidence-Based Practice Fund (EBPF), aimed at supporting school-led research engagement to improve learning outcomes. We analysed the documentation of 83 EBPF projects, 8 focus groups, and a school survey. We demonstrate that enabling schools to address locally identified needs motivates research engagement but formulating these as stimulus for change requires scaffolding. Schools were keen but needed re-translation to use research to address those challenges. Low-key school-to-school support was found adequate. Leadership support and collaboration were significant but require relational expertise and professional learning to be effective. This study demonstrates that the use of research by schools at scale is possible and can transform a school’s agency in developing their own practice to improve equity. Full article
Editorial
Play, Problem-Solving, STEM Conceptions, and Efficacy in STEM: An Introduction to the STEM in Early Childhood Education Special Issue
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050352 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
This Special Issue of Education Sciences focuses on STEM in Early Childhood Education [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEM in Early Childhood Education)
Article
Self-Reported Flow in Online Learning Environments for Teacher Education: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using a Counterbalanced Design
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050351 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Digitization in teacher education is currently being promoted, but the choice between face-to-face instruction and online learning environments remains challenging. Previous studies have documented ambivalent results regarding personal preference and academic achievement, and experimental investigations into attention comparing learning in these two settings [...] Read more.
Digitization in teacher education is currently being promoted, but the choice between face-to-face instruction and online learning environments remains challenging. Previous studies have documented ambivalent results regarding personal preference and academic achievement, and experimental investigations into attention comparing learning in these two settings are largely lacking. In this context, the present study adopts a counterbalanced design to compare different dimensions of student experience of flow in face-to-face settings and online learning environments. Two groups of students in teacher-training programs (n = 37) completed an EduFlow questionnaire at the end of the same interactive courses in the two different settings. The results indicate globally lower attention and engagement in the online environment, suggesting that in-person instruction induces better cognitive absorption, greater time transformation, and a stronger autotelic experience. While the findings represent a contribution to the discussion on how to best design online education, more research is needed to identify the specific mechanisms regarding attention and motivation that can impact flow in these two environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Online and Distance Learning)
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Article
Responsive Teaching and the Instructional Reasoning of Expert Elementary Mathematics Teachers
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050350 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
This study examines instructional reasoning in an approximation of practice that simulates a teacher sitting down after class to examine students’ written work. The participants were prompted to attend to, interpret, and decide how to respond to student thinking contained in a piece [...] Read more.
This study examines instructional reasoning in an approximation of practice that simulates a teacher sitting down after class to examine students’ written work. The participants were prompted to attend to, interpret, and decide how to respond to student thinking contained in a piece of written work. Our purpose was to capture the additional cognitive work that teachers engage in. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified the most frequent types of instructional reasoning used by expert teachers just prior to engaging in a responsive deciding action about how to respond. We used the results of our analysis to present three illustrative cases of responsive instructional reasoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
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Article
Barriers and Facilitators to Toddlers’ Physical Activity during the COVID-19 Pandemic, as Perceived by Teachers, Principals and Parents: A Challenge for the Early Childhood Educational Environments
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050349 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
The aim of our study was to explore the barriers and facilitators that teachers, principals, and parents face when adapting to COVID-19 pandemic scenario in terms of promoting toddlers’ physical activity (PA). Thirty-four (20 teachers and principals, and 14 parents) semi-structured qualitative interviews [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to explore the barriers and facilitators that teachers, principals, and parents face when adapting to COVID-19 pandemic scenario in terms of promoting toddlers’ physical activity (PA). Thirty-four (20 teachers and principals, and 14 parents) semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted from October 2020 to March 2021. The socioecological model has enabled the identification of barriers and facilitators, some of which are related to the pandemic and others which are not. The main results suggest that upon reopening the ECEC institutions, regarding environmental barriers, educators mentioned the impact on the use of space, and parents, the modification of daily activities generated by COVID-19. However, educators also considered that the presence of suitable spaces in the school for practicing PA was a facilitator. At the intra- and interpersonal level, facilitators of PA that were unrelated to the pandemic included, for parents, the predisposition of children to be physically active and their own function as role models, and for educators, the curricular practices themselves. At an environmental level, the risk of danger in the traditional classroom plus bad weather were considered barriers by educators, while parents mentioned difficulties accessing outdoor space and the poor suitability of indoor spaces. Our results suggest the simultaneous analysis of the perceptions of different actors in the educational environments offers a broad vision of the ecological alternatives for offering children opportunities for PA in these difficult times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning Space and Environment of Early Childhood Education)
Article
Mixed Methods in Analysis of Aggressiveness and Attractiveness: Understanding PE Class Social Networks with Content Analysis
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050348 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The aim of this study is to detect and analyze the relationship between verbal aggressiveness and interpersonal attractiveness using four secondary-school PE classes in central Greece (88 nodes). Content analysis of open-ended questions, social network analysis, Spearman test and PCA have been implemented. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to detect and analyze the relationship between verbal aggressiveness and interpersonal attractiveness using four secondary-school PE classes in central Greece (88 nodes). Content analysis of open-ended questions, social network analysis, Spearman test and PCA have been implemented. Main results: scientific and social attractiveness are interrelated with a subsequent emergence of power structures and negatively related to verbal aggressiveness. Targets of verbal aggressiveness receive aggressiveness consisting of hurt, irony, rudeness and threat. The general grade and students’ tendency for distinction are positively related to attractiveness and negatively related to verbal aggressiveness. Types of targets of interpersonal attractiveness are proposed (“the untargeted powerful” and “the targeted powerful”). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed-Methods Perspectives on Social Networks in Education Research)
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Article
Impact of an Active Learning Methodology on Students’ Emotions and Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards the Learning of Chemical Reactions—The Case of Secondary Education Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050347 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The main goal of this article was to analyse the impact of the implementation of an active methodology, namely inquiry-based learning, on the emotions experienced by students and their self-efficacy beliefs toward the curricular content in relation to chemical reactions. A sample of [...] Read more.
The main goal of this article was to analyse the impact of the implementation of an active methodology, namely inquiry-based learning, on the emotions experienced by students and their self-efficacy beliefs toward the curricular content in relation to chemical reactions. A sample of 56 students at the third level of compulsory secondary education (K-9) was considered. It was found that the use of an active methodology had on the one hand, a statistically significant effect on the promotion of positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions and on the other hand a positive effect on the improvement of students’ self-efficacy beliefs towards learning the curricular content related to chemical reactions. The implementation of practical activities in the classroom might lead to better learning of scientific content; at least, the results presented in the current article point in that direction. Full article
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Article
Walking through Algebraic Thinking with Theme-Based (Mobile) Math Trails
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050346 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Tasks are a key resource in the process of teaching and learning mathematics, which is why task design continues to be one of the main research issues in mathematics education. Different settings can influence the principles underlying the formulation of tasks, and so [...] Read more.
Tasks are a key resource in the process of teaching and learning mathematics, which is why task design continues to be one of the main research issues in mathematics education. Different settings can influence the principles underlying the formulation of tasks, and so does the outdoor context. Specifically, a math trail can be a privileged context, known to promote positive attitudes and additional engagement for the learning of mathematics, confronting students with a sequence of real-life tasks, related to a particular mathematical theme. Recently, mobile devices and apps, i.e., MathCityMap, have been recognized as an important resource to facilitate the extension of the classroom to the outdoors. The study reported in this paper intends to identify the principles of design for mobile theme-based math trails (TBT) that result in rich learning experiences in early algebraic thinking. A designed-based research is used, through a qualitative approach, to develop and refine design principles for TBT about Sequences and Patterns. The iterative approach is described by cycles with the intervention of the researchers, pre-service and in-service teachers and students of the targeted school levels. The results are discussed taking into account previous research and data collected along the cycles, conducing to the development of general design principles for TBT tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEAM Education and Problem Solving)
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Article
Novel Mixed Reality Use Cases for Pilot Training
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050345 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 638
Abstract
This study explored novel mixed reality (MR) use cases for pilot training using a mix of methods rooted in the general innovation theory of dynamic capabilities. The aim was to identify areas of improvement for various aspects of the flight training based on [...] Read more.
This study explored novel mixed reality (MR) use cases for pilot training using a mix of methods rooted in the general innovation theory of dynamic capabilities. The aim was to identify areas of improvement for various aspects of the flight training based on MR, in a socially and economically sustainable manner. Multiple surveys and workshops have been conducted with flight instructors, administrative staff, pilots and student pilots. The main result of this study is a systematic identification of the three most promising MR use cases: interactive theory training, cockpit procedure, and outside check training. These results are important because they inform the development of technical didactic tools for pilot training. The applicability of MR technologies to accommodate diverse user needs and preferences is addressed, while also considering aspects of economical sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Online Technical Applications for Non-Face-to-Face Learning)
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Article
Active Blended Learning Engineering Students: A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050344 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
An ongoing technological, economic, and societal change forces a new understanding of engineering and modifies the requirements for higher engineering education. Consequently, an educational approach based on the combination of blended learning and active learning promises great prospects for the enhancement of the [...] Read more.
An ongoing technological, economic, and societal change forces a new understanding of engineering and modifies the requirements for higher engineering education. Consequently, an educational approach based on the combination of blended learning and active learning promises great prospects for the enhancement of the knowledge and skills acquisition thanks to the flexibility it opens up. In this research, an attitude to study is first ever analysed from the standpoint of students enrolled in three various degree levels, namely, a Bachelor of Science program, a Master of Science program, and a new EuroTeQ program. The strengths and weaknesses of the blended and active learning combination are evaluated from didactic and methodological sides. It shows a fundamentally different approach to learning from students belonging to various degree programs. Most of the bachelor degree learners volunteered to participate in active learning, although a significant proportion of them was unable to succeed. In contrast, the learning of master students looks more circumspect and selective; they devote less time to study, but spend it more wisely, being more highly responsible for the outcomes than bachelors. The EuroTeQ participants did not push on many active learning activities, but demonstrated quite high motivation in quizzes, labs, and online consultations. As a result, the outcomes of the first academic year satisfied mainly the most strong of the EuroTeQ students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education in Knowledge Based Society)
Article
Work-Related Well-Being Profiles among Health Education Teachers
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050343 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the well-being of Finnish health education teachers (n = 108) by examining the latent profiles of work burnout and work engagement by using a person-centered approach. Additionally, this study explored to what extent [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the well-being of Finnish health education teachers (n = 108) by examining the latent profiles of work burnout and work engagement by using a person-centered approach. Additionally, this study explored to what extent different job and personal resources (social support, pedagogical self-efficacy, and social belonging) and job demands (work overload) are associated with teachers’ belonging to the work-related well-being profiles. The Job Demands-Resources model was used as the theoretical framework for this study. The study found that three different work-related well-being profiles could be identified among health education teachers: those who were engaged (45%), those who were already experiencing burnout (43%), and those at risk of burnout (12%). The more demands the teachers experienced, the likelier they were to belong to the burnout profile. Experiences of pedagogical self-efficacy, social belonging, and social support increased the probability of belonging to the engaged profile group. Determining job and personal resources and job demands might be beneficial for health education teacher well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leadership Behaviour and Teacher Job Attitudes)
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Editorial
The Silent Path towards Medical Apartheid within STEM Education: An Evolving National Pedagogy of Poverty through the Absenting of STEM-Based Play in Early Childhood
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050342 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
STEM is notoriously uninviting to wide swaths of the population [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEM in Early Childhood Education)
Article
Dependence of Socio-Emotional Competence Expression on Gender and Grade for K5–K12 Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050341 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Socio-emotional education is referred to as the missing part that links academic knowledge to successes in school, family, community, workplace, and life. Socio-emotional education, in conjunction with academic instruction, aims to lay the groundwork for a sound moral education. This manuscript is aimed [...] Read more.
Socio-emotional education is referred to as the missing part that links academic knowledge to successes in school, family, community, workplace, and life. Socio-emotional education, in conjunction with academic instruction, aims to lay the groundwork for a sound moral education. This manuscript is aimed at proving that socio-emotional education may improve children’s mental health. In total, 1322 students (of grades K5–K12) participated in this study back in October 2020. A statistically validated and partially modified questionnaire according to The Limbic Performance Indicators™ (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, p < 0.000) was used to assess general education school students’ social–emotional competencies. The study uses an abbreviated version of the questionnaire adapted by the Lithuanian Association of Social Emotional Education, which has been adapted with the consent of the selected age group. As a result, this study explores how to determine general education school students’ knowledge and skills in socio-emotional education while also identifying the best pedagogical approaches to addressing socio-emotional education. According to research findings, students that participated in the study displayed more personal values, respect for others, internal balance, collaboration, emotional perception of others, or basic emotional needs. Personal values, respect for others, emotional perception of others, internal balance, support, and basic emotional needs were estimated to be greater in the target group of girls than in the target group of boys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Emotional Education in Schools)
Article
Positive Creativity and the Intentions, Discretion, Problem Finding, and Divergent Thinking That Support It Can Be Encouraged in the Classroom
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050340 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
This article begins by presenting a definition of positive creativity. This definition is based in part on the standard view of creativity, which points to originality and effectiveness. A brief discussion of the distinction between benevolent creativity and malevolent creativity indicates that intentions [...] Read more.
This article begins by presenting a definition of positive creativity. This definition is based in part on the standard view of creativity, which points to originality and effectiveness. A brief discussion of the distinction between benevolent creativity and malevolent creativity indicates that intentions should also be required of positive creativity. Intentions may seem like difficult things to monitor in the classroom, but several useful methods are described herein. The suggestions that are offered here to support positive creativity involve divergent thinking and decision making. The most novel claim in this article is that positive creativity may involve not just problem solving but also problem finding. A second important claim is that educators must be prepared to take the good with the bad. More specifically, when creativity is encouraged, students are likely to think in truly divergent directions, which means they may offer negative as well as positive ideas. Educators should be prepared for ideas that they themselves do not understand. Practical suggestions are offered, including the recommendation that educators should encourage careful decision-making about what constitutes a worthwhile problem (as well as how to solve such problems in a creative fashion). Quite a few instances of malevolence take the form of pseudo-problems. These must be recognized as such and attention must be directed instead to the significant problems that do plague society, such as the climate crisis, the protection of voting rights, and racial discrimination. Positive creativity is needed now more than ever before. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educating for Positive Creativity)
Article
Mongolian Pre-Service English Teachers’ Voices about Their Teaching Practicum Experiences
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050339 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Despite the growing uptake of the English language by Mongolian youth and policy initiatives at the governmental level that have emphasized English education, there is very limited internationally available discussion and research on English language teacher education in Mongolia. Thus, the paper aims [...] Read more.
Despite the growing uptake of the English language by Mongolian youth and policy initiatives at the governmental level that have emphasized English education, there is very limited internationally available discussion and research on English language teacher education in Mongolia. Thus, the paper aims to examine teaching practicum experiences of pre-service English teachers in Mongolian secondary school settings and explore what challenges they face. Eleven pre-service English teachers, who completed their 12-week teaching practicum in secondary schools in Ulaanbaatar, participated in this study by writing personal narratives on their teaching practicum experiences. The findings indicate that the participants struggled in their teaching contexts due to the lack of mentoring by public school mentor teachers, insufficient university-school partnerships, and classroom-level constraints caused by the mismatch between what they had learned at university and the realities faced in school classrooms. It is recommended to develop a comprehensive teacher development program to improve the quality of both in-service and pre-service English teachers, and to reduce educational inequality associated with access to quality English language education. Furthermore, incorporating social justice education into English teacher preparation programs is important to help future teachers become more critical, reflexive, and transformative. Full article
Article
An Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Students’ Learning in Scientific Courses through Constructive Alignment—A Case Study from an MIS Course
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050338 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 2054
Abstract
This study aimed to explore students’ effectiveness in scientific courses that have adopted the framework of constructive alignment. The researchers conducted an experimental study in the education sector to compare two different teaching models—traditional and following constructive alignment—and used statistical tools to analyse [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore students’ effectiveness in scientific courses that have adopted the framework of constructive alignment. The researchers conducted an experimental study in the education sector to compare two different teaching models—traditional and following constructive alignment—and used statistical tools to analyse differences in students’ learning effectiveness. The course “Management Information System” (MIS) was specifically chosen to investigate how constructive alignment initiatives used in the course influenced students’ learning effectiveness. Two groups of students were selected as the control group and the experimental group, respectively. In the experimental group, the intended learning outcomes, teaching and learning activities, and assessment tasks were always aligned by the instructor. The learning effectiveness of the two groups was evaluated by the Course Experience Questionnaire Survey and academic grades. After this study, it was found that significant improvement—in terms of students’ learning experience scores and academic grades—was seen in the experimental group compared with the control group. This study has further verified that implementing a constructive alignment template can significantly improve students’ learning effectiveness in scientific courses, hence providing theoretical and practical references for teaching and learning in scientific courses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Higher Education Quality Assurance)
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Article
How do Facilitating Conditions Influence Student-to-Student Interaction within an Online Learning Platform? A New Typology of the Serial Mediation Model
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050337 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
This study investigates factors affecting university student-to-student interaction within online learning platforms. A new model was proposed based on the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The single-stage cluster-sampling method was employed, and 113 university students in Hong Kong were [...] Read more.
This study investigates factors affecting university student-to-student interaction within online learning platforms. A new model was proposed based on the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The single-stage cluster-sampling method was employed, and 113 university students in Hong Kong were respondents. It was found that Information Quality, Social Influence, and Facilitating Conditions affect students’ intention to interact with each other. A quasi-full mediation model was established of the mechanism from Facilitating Conditions to students’ interaction behavior. The direct effect of Facilitating Conditions on students’ interaction and the effect of System Quality on the intention of student interaction were not significant. A fast network, computing facilities, and mobile-friendly software are possible candidates of the virtual environment conditions affecting the intention of student-interaction behavior within online learning platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Learning Environments on Student Outcomes)
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Article
Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the Field
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050336 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
Having identified the need to conduct research on the intersection between entrepreneurship education (EE) and public policies, we carried out a systematic literature review on decision-making processes regarding the implementation of education for entrepreneurship programs in schools and the introduction of this topic [...] Read more.
Having identified the need to conduct research on the intersection between entrepreneurship education (EE) and public policies, we carried out a systematic literature review on decision-making processes regarding the implementation of education for entrepreneurship programs in schools and the introduction of this topic in the policy-making process. This SLR followed every process inherent to its well-established protocol. The research undertaken confirmed that the understanding of decision processes associated with the implementation of EE programs is not only a “missing link” in the discussions about the way in which countries manage situations related to EE, but also a gap in academic knowledge. Indeed, the SLR process included only nine articles in the final review (obtained through a methodology based on an algorithm)—which is a clear sign that further scientific research around this specific topic is needed. The articles included in the final review suggest that: (i) entrepreneurship is fundamental to the progress and evolution of countries and their regions, (ii) there is evidence that EE is central to a more entrepreneurial youth, and (iii) the successful implementation of recommendations from regulatory institutions is based on political commitment and implementation capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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