Special Issue "Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education"

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 9339

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Jacinto Jardim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Social Sciences and Management, Universidade Aberta, 1250-100 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: entrepreneurship education; program; teaching methods; effectiveness; soft skills
Dr. Maria José Sousa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to submit your research to this Special Issue of Education Sciences, titled Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education. To respond in a creative and effective way to the unexpected challenges of the global world and the digital age, the number of initiatives to train and educate people to be more entrepreneurial has multiplied exponentially on an international level. However, there is a lack of evidence to prove the educational and social impact of what has been accomplished in different teaching contexts. This Special Issue aims to advance scientific research in the field of entrepreneurship education (EE) and to share innovative and validated programs, practices, methods, politics, and projects, developed in the context of higher education and basic education. Original research articles and reviews are welcome. Areas of research relating to EE may include (but are not limited to) the following: entrepreneurial skills, entrepreneurial culture, entrepreneurial schools, teaching methods, EE programs, EE effectiveness, EE in curricula, EE in educative communities, EE in the local entrepreneurial ecosystem, trends in EE, global citizenship, research in EE, and innovative projects to overcome professional and social problems.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Jacinto Jardim
Dr. Maria José Sousa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Education Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • entrepreneurship education
  • entrepreneurial skills
  • entrepreneurial culture
  • entrepreneurial schools
  • teaching methods
  • programs
  • effectiveness
  • curricula
  • global citizenship

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Entrepreneurship as a Neglected Pitfall in Future Finnish Teachers’ Readiness to Teach 21st Century Competencies and Financial Literacy: Expectancies, Values, and Capability
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12070463 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 483
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine entrepreneurship in the context of future Finnish teachers’ readiness to teach 21st century (broad-based) competencies. Teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching entrepreneurial skills and financial matters is vital for their pupils to actively participate and flourish in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine entrepreneurship in the context of future Finnish teachers’ readiness to teach 21st century (broad-based) competencies. Teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching entrepreneurial skills and financial matters is vital for their pupils to actively participate and flourish in future society. The study utilized survey data of future teachers’ expectancy-values in teaching seven broad-based competencies of the current national curriculum and their financial literacy. Future teachers expressed high interest in all competencies but reported the least self-efficacy and highest cost in teaching ICT as well as working life and entrepreneurship competencies. Teaching self-efficacy (TSE) in entrepreneurial competencies was predicted by subjective evaluations of financial capability and TSE in consumer skills. Teaching STEM subjects as well as male gender were related to better objective financial knowledge. We discuss the implications of observed financial capability, lack in self-efficacy, and high experienced cost of teaching these competencies. Support for future teachers’ readiness to teach working life skills, entrepreneurship, and financial literacy through phenomenon-based school subject collaboration, formal teacher training, and digital applications are emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
NUTS III as Decision-Making Vehicles for Diffusion and Implementation of Education for Entrepreneurship Programmes in the European Union: Some Lessons from the Portuguese Case
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12070436 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
The questions of how Entrepreneurship Education (EE) initiatives can be successfully spread and what political structures can help with their implementation during compulsory school remain open. We will add to the literature by proposing that the scale of the NUTS III and its [...] Read more.
The questions of how Entrepreneurship Education (EE) initiatives can be successfully spread and what political structures can help with their implementation during compulsory school remain open. We will add to the literature by proposing that the scale of the NUTS III and its governance model/characteristics are ideal for carrying out initiatives related to EE in the EU and, thus, developing local entrepreneurship ecosystems. We will do so based on the evidence gathered from the case study of the Intermunicipal Community of Viseu Dão-Lafões. To underpin our main argument, we will explain the successful case of how the Intermunicipal Community of Viseu Dão-Lafões (a NUTS III) managed to become an exception in the Portuguese scenario when it comes to the funding, administrative articulation, and implementation of EE programmes for youths in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the Field
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050336 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Having identified the need to conduct research on the intersection between entrepreneurship education (EE) and public policies, we carried out a systematic literature review on decision-making processes regarding the implementation of education for entrepreneurship programs in schools and the introduction of this topic [...] Read more.
Having identified the need to conduct research on the intersection between entrepreneurship education (EE) and public policies, we carried out a systematic literature review on decision-making processes regarding the implementation of education for entrepreneurship programs in schools and the introduction of this topic in the policy-making process. This SLR followed every process inherent to its well-established protocol. The research undertaken confirmed that the understanding of decision processes associated with the implementation of EE programs is not only a “missing link” in the discussions about the way in which countries manage situations related to EE, but also a gap in academic knowledge. Indeed, the SLR process included only nine articles in the final review (obtained through a methodology based on an algorithm)—which is a clear sign that further scientific research around this specific topic is needed. The articles included in the final review suggest that: (i) entrepreneurship is fundamental to the progress and evolution of countries and their regions, (ii) there is evidence that EE is central to a more entrepreneurial youth, and (iii) the successful implementation of recommendations from regulatory institutions is based on political commitment and implementation capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Discovering Entrepreneurship Competencies through Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030185 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 904
Abstract
The increase in student engagement in the learning process has driven educators to use more dynamic pedagogical methodologies. Several studies have shown evidence of increased interest in learning when real-world problems are integrated into the learning environment. This paper presents the competencies developed [...] Read more.
The increase in student engagement in the learning process has driven educators to use more dynamic pedagogical methodologies. Several studies have shown evidence of increased interest in learning when real-world problems are integrated into the learning environment. This paper presents the competencies developed by higher education students through application of the problem-based learning (PBL) methodology in higher education courses. The research begins with the identification of a set of competencies developed by higher education students in other studies developed and reported in the last five years and includes them in a survey to analyze the level of development of those competencies when problem-based learning is applied in university courses. To identify the competencies developed by applying the problem-based learning methodology, the research employed a document analysis and a survey of the students that participated in the experimental application. The research questions “What are the competencies developed by students in problem-based learning?” and “Are the competencies identified by the students sufficiently learned in universities?” guided the study. The competencies found by the students were identified through a questionnaire given as an online survey to 76 students. The key outcome of the research is the identification in the bachelor courses of the competencies perceived as essential by students participating in the application of PBL in terms of their advancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
Article
Determinants of the Entrepreneurial Influence on Academic Entrepreneurship—Lessons Learned from Higher Education Students in Portugal
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11120771 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 691
Abstract
Academic entrepreneurship is becoming increasingly important to the field of research as well as to policy makers due to its ability to contribute to the economic, technological, and social development of regions and countries. This research aims to evaluate the determinants that influence [...] Read more.
Academic entrepreneurship is becoming increasingly important to the field of research as well as to policy makers due to its ability to contribute to the economic, technological, and social development of regions and countries. This research aims to evaluate the determinants that influence the interest of Portuguese higher education students (HEI’s) to become entrepreneurs. The methodology used is quantitative and uses structural model equations. The results obtained demonstrate that the student’s perception of business skills, business growth skills, strategy, and successful business are key factors that students take into account in their entrepreneurial orientation. The research contributes to this theory by adding new knowledge to the literature on the perception of the HEI’s students to become entrepreneurs, specifically the students of Portuguese universities. In practical terms, the contributions offered within this research are based on suggestions for the third mission of universities, explicitly knowledge transfer to the community, business groups, and policy makers, as well as the creation of the essentials within university boundaries to promote entrepreneurship amongst its students. The research is original and innovative, as no research on this field with all the aggregated elements under study has been previously performed in Portugal. Furthermore, the obtained results can translate into ideas that potentially create jobs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
The Effect of University Missions on Entrepreneurial Initiative across Multiple Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: Evidence from Europe
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11120762 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
Entrepreneurial universities are a significant element of entrepreneurial ecosystems and aspire to foster entrepreneurial initiative through their “third mission”. However, while entrepreneurial ecosystems are scrutinized using a contextual approach to detect differences and similarities and how they affect entrepreneurship, little is known about [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurial universities are a significant element of entrepreneurial ecosystems and aspire to foster entrepreneurial initiative through their “third mission”. However, while entrepreneurial ecosystems are scrutinized using a contextual approach to detect differences and similarities and how they affect entrepreneurship, little is known about how entrepreneurial universities impact entrepreneurial initiatives in general, considering multiple environments. Drawing on entrepreneurial university and entrepreneurial ecosystem theories, a conceptual framework is proposed that aims to explain the effect of the entrepreneurial university on an entrepreneurial initiative through its three “missions”, using an entrepreneurial ecosystem taxonomy. Based on individual data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, this entrepreneurial initiative analyzed 18 European countries in 2017. The results do not generally support the importance of entrepreneurial universities to entrepreneurial initiative. The relevance of entrepreneurial universities increases in more fragile entrepreneurial ecosystems since individuals need support over multiple dimensions. Conversely, the entrepreneurial universities that are embedded in stronger entrepreneurial ecosystems lose relevance and negatively affect the entrepreneurial initiative. Therefore, the value of entrepreneurial universities is reduced when individuals receive greater support from other dimensions. The variations across both groups suggest that the concept of entrepreneurial universities is not a contemporaneous phenomenon; however, their effect is progressively revealed by the maturity of each university’s mission. This perspective substantially changes the understanding of entrepreneurial universities as a thwartwise strategy, suggesting that the universities’ impact is expanded as their missions gradually evolve. Overall, the study contributes to an understanding of the implications for universities that blindly follow entrepreneurship, neglecting the exogenous environment, namely, the entrepreneurial ecosystem and individual drive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Entrepreneurial Skills to Be Successful in the Global and Digital World: Proposal for a Frame of Reference for Entrepreneurial Education
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11070356 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
For most professionals to succeed in the current job market, they need some entrepreneurial skills (ES). This study aimed to describe and systematize these skills, considering the current globalization and digital transformation phenomena. The documental analysis and the critical reflection on the collected [...] Read more.
For most professionals to succeed in the current job market, they need some entrepreneurial skills (ES). This study aimed to describe and systematize these skills, considering the current globalization and digital transformation phenomena. The documental analysis and the critical reflection on the collected data allowed us to identify the socio-economic and socio-cultural reasons for the relevance of this problem. Consequently, to elaborate a frame of reference intended to be adequate to the needs of the professionals of the current global and digital era. The results pointed to a tripartite ES model—to be open to novelty, to create solutions to emerging problems, and to communicate effectively—which integrates the following skills: Creativity and innovation, the spirit of initiative, self-efficacy and resilience, strategic planning, and evaluation, resolution of problems and decision-making, transformational leadership, clear and visual communication, teamwork and networking, and digital communication. In the continuation of this study, an ES scale will be created and validated according to this model, which will make it possible to measure the degree of development of these competencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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Article
Entrepreneurial Intention before and during COVID-19—A Case Study on Portuguese University Students
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060273 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
The present research aims to compare the entrepreneurial intention of university students before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. For this purpose, some dimensions were analyzed, such as the availability of this target audience to undertake an activity at their own risk, the preference [...] Read more.
The present research aims to compare the entrepreneurial intention of university students before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. For this purpose, some dimensions were analyzed, such as the availability of this target audience to undertake an activity at their own risk, the preference for a future while employed by others, their perception of the values that society places on entrepreneurship, and the entrepreneurial abilities/skillsets. A comparative study of a quantitative nature was used, associating two samples composed of students of higher education in Portugal, the data were obtained before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis of the results permits us to conclude: (1) in the circumstances of macroeconomic changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, entrepreneurial activity does not decrease; (2) respondents are less interested in being employed by others and more attracted to being entrepreneurs; (3) there is a growing concordance with the values that society places on entrepreneurship; and (4) there is now a greater aptitude for entrepreneurial activity. The present research is original, as it compares data obtained in different contexts of economic and social stability. It contributes to theory and practice, in the sense that it points to conclusions in the opposite direction of other studies carried out in situations of disasters of another nature, and can serve as a reference for the development of strategies to promote entrepreneurship, within higher education institutions and official entities to publicize and promote new public policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)

Review

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Review
Towards a Global Entrepreneurial Culture: A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Entrepreneurship Education Programs
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080398 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
The number of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) has increased exponentially over the past two decades. However, a systematic review has not yet been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of EEPs and their presence in the current global world. The main objective of [...] Read more.
The number of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) has increased exponentially over the past two decades. However, a systematic review has not yet been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of EEPs and their presence in the current global world. The main objective of this study was to provide a systematic synthesis of EEP, exploring their characteristics and effectiveness. The search was carried out in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and ERIC. Twenty-nine articles were included, with programs developed mainly in European (n = 15), Asian (n = 6), and American (n = 5) countries. The programs were primarily aimed at higher education students (n = 17), addressing business plans and the development of entrepreneurial skills. However, greater attention is paid to entrepreneurial skills in both primary and secondary education. The development of the programs under analysis varied between one week and two years. The studies showed the effectiveness of most of these programs in promoting entrepreneurial skills at all levels of education. In turn, there was no verified increase in the intention to start a business since this intention is determined by predisposition, namely socio-cultural and family aspects. This systematic review of the EEP points to the need for this type of program to be preferentially developed in the early school years, since it is at that time that predispositions are created for the development of entrepreneurial skills and intentions. This condition is corroborated by the global geography of the EEP, which demonstrates that, where there is currently an entrepreneurial culture, countries have made a long educational journey, with strategic options from the perspective of educational policies defending entrepreneurship among the younger generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education)
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