Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the Field
“While significant work has been carried out on institutional policies and strategies towards entrepreneurship education not enough of the studies highlighted in this systematic review focused on the role of regional, national or supra-national education policy. Importantly, the link between wider national policies and institutional strategies did not appear to be particularly well developed in the empirical base”.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Review Planning: Scoping Study
2.1.1. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development of Countries and Regions
2.1.2. Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Education
2.1.3. Decision Processes at the Level of Public Policies
2.1.4. Establishment of Consultants’ Panel
2.2. Delimitation of Scientific Studies
2.2.1. Key Words and Research Chains
2.3. Selection and Evaluation
2.3.1. Exclusion Criteria
2.3.2. Inclusion Criteria
- Those that conducted an analysis of the relevant literature in the field and were based on a conceptual tool;
- Those that presented logical and well-structured conclusions that contributed to knowledge;
- Those that presented a clear definition of the variables and study methodologies and a clear interpretation of the results in the context of the literature and the theoretical models that already exist.
- Addressed in a direct way some of the issues of the present research;
- Made a clear contribution to knowledge;
- Presented in a clear way the adopted assumptions.
2.4. Analysis and Summary of the Results Obtained
2.4.1. Data Extraction
2.4.2. Applying the Exclusion Criteria
2.4.3. Applying the Inclusion Criteria
2.4.4. Applying Cross-Referencing
Articles Included in the Final Literature Review
4.1. Main Lessons from the Systematic Literature Review
4.2. Limitations and Possibilities
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Area||Decision Process||Decision Level||Education Policy||Entrepreneurship Education|
|Key Words||Decision process||European Union||Public private partnership education||Entrepreneur * education|
|Decision-mak *||European funds||New public management schools||Entrepreneur * competence|
|Agenda setting||Europe 20 * 20||Politics autonomy schools||Entrepreneur ecosystem *|
|Policy implementation||Europe 2007–2013||Education system||Entrepreneurship train *|
|Multiple Streams Framework||Municipali * ation||Education reform||Teacher training for entrepreneurship|
|Policy choice||Regional||Compulsory education|
|Substantiation||Research focus is understanding the decision-making processes||Different levels of policy implementation starting at transnational, national, regional, and local||Search for studies in the education area concerning secondary policies that can influence implementing entrepreneurship courses||EE-specific policy|
|Identifying Initials||Research Chain||Goal of the Research Chain|
|A 1||(“Decision Process” OR “Decision mak *”) and (“European Union” or “Portugal”) AND (“Education system” OR “Education Reform”) And “Compulsory Education”||Relevant studies aimed at decision-making processes in Europe or in Portugal in the area of compulsory education|
|A 2||(“Multiple Streams Framework” OR “Agenda Setting” OR “Policy implem *” OR “Policy choice”) AND (“European Funds”) AND (“Public private partnership” OR “New public managem *” OR “politics autonomy” OR “curricular change”) AND (“Compulsory Education”)||Relevant studies aimed at identifying policy processes related to applying European funds to change the management and autonomy of schools|
|A 3||(“Multiple Streams Framework”) And (“Municipal” OR “Regional” OR “Local”) AND (“European Funds”)||Relevant studies aimed at identifying the use of Kingdon’s framework applied to local or regional policy using European funds|
|A 4||(“Decision Process” OR “Decision mak *”) AND (“European Funds”) AND (“Entrepreneur * Education” OR “Entrepreneur * Competence” OR “Entrepreneur * Ecosystem” OR “Entrepreneurship train *” OR “Teacher training”)||Relevant studies related to decision-making processes for the use of European funds in the area of EE or underlying areas|
|A 5||(“Multiple Streams Framework”) AND (“Municipal” OR “Regional” OR “Local”) AND (“Compulsory Education”) AND (“Entrepreneur * Education”)||Relevant studies aimed at identifying the use of Kingdon’s framework applied to local or regional education policy in the area of EE|
|A 6||(“Multiple Streams Framework”) AND (“Municipal” OR “Regional” OR “Local”) AND (“European Fund” OR “Europe 20 * 20” OR “Europe 2007–2013”) AND (“Compulsory Education”) AND (“Entrepreneur * Education”)||Relevant studies aimed at identifying the use of Kingdon’s framework applied to local or regional education policy in the area of EE using European funds|
|A 7||“Entrepreneur * education” AND (“policy process” OR “policy implement *” OR “multiple streams”) AND (“primary education” OR “secondary education” Or “Professional Education”) AND (“Europe” OR “Portugal”)||Relevant studies aimed at identifying decision-making processes in compulsory education in Europe or Portugal|
|A 8||“decision process” AND (“Entrepreneur * education” OR “Entrepreneur * Ecosystem”)||Relevant studies that identify works about decision-making processes concerning entrepreneurial initiatives|
|Duplicated articles||Duplicated studies and articles cannot be considered in the revision as separate studies|
|Studies that focus on other topics about entrepreneurship. Special note to those that are related to entrepreneurial education but also to results of evaluation, curricula, and teaching methodologies, or those that are not directly associated with the program’s implementation||The focus of this research is the decision-making process related to implementing EE programs|
|Database||Number of Extracted References||TOTAL|
|Magazine/Journal||Number of Extracted References||TOTAL|
|The International Journal of Management Education||0||0||0||0||0||1||5||6|
|International Journal of Public Policy||3||6||2||2||2||1||1||17|
|European Economic Review||1||0||0||0||0||0||27||28|
|Journal of Business Venturing||0||0||0||0||0||0||45||45|
|Entrepreneurship & Regional Development—An International Journal||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||1|
|Scientific Journal||Summary of the Interactions|
|Review of Educational Research|
Sociology of Education
Journal of Experimental Education
|The support services of the online platforms of these 3 scientific journals were contacted and gave indications as to how to optimize the research. Even after applying these recommendations, they did not register/identify references for the chosen words.|
|The Journal of Experimental Education|
Journal of European Public Policy
|Using other titles marketed by the publisher of these scientific journals, it was found that their common search engine recognizes the Boolean search format that we use. This allowed us to conclude that, in fact, these two titles do not generate any results when using our search chains.|
|Journal of Entrepreneurship Business and Economics||The platform’s support services were contacted and gave indications as to how to optimize the search. Even after implementing these instructions, it was not possible to obtain results in our search chains. It should be noted that the alternative search platform suggested to us was not used, as it was under development.|
|Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship Development|
Theories of the Policy Process
|After several attempts to contact the support services, the only response obtained was that they were analyzing our situation, so we should wait for their feedback.|
|This scientific journal is published by Westview Press, which specializes in books, so its website only allows you to buy this type of work.|
|Review of Policy Research|
Journal of Economic Surveys
Entrepreneurship Research Journal
|As with previous platforms, we also contacted the respective support services; however, we did not obtain any feedback from them.|
|Duplicated Articles||Not Related to the Research Topic|
(Focusing on Subjects Other than EEP)
|Google Scholar||7||62 (16)||85|
|Scientific Journal||Duplicated Articles||Not Related to the Research Topic|
(Focusing on Subjects Other than EEP)
|The International Journal of Management Education||0||4 (0)||4|
|International Journal of Public Policy||1||16 (0)||17|
|European Economic Review||0||28 (0)||28|
|Journal of Business Venturing||0||21 (23)||44|
|Entrepreneurship & Regional Development—An International Journal||0||0 (1)||1|
|The Role of Entrepreneurship Education as a Predictor of University Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention||Ying Zhang, Geert Duysters, and Myriam Cloodt||2013||International Entrepreneurship Management Journal|
|Entrepreneurship Education Based on the Change Laboratory||Daniele Morselli, Massimiliano Costa, and Umberto Margiotta||2014||The International Journal of Management Education|
|Measuring Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy to Understand the Impact of Creative Activities for Learning Innovation||Shima Barakat, Monique Boddington, and Shai Vyakarnam||2014||The International Journal of Management Education|
|The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle: Mismeasurement or Real?||Thomas B. Astebro and Jing Chen||2012||Journal of Business Venturing|
|Self-Assessment of Croatian Elementary School Pupils on the Entrepreneurial Initiative||Dijana Vican and Daliborka Luketić||2013||Outside the direct scope of the investigation, given that the article is focused on understanding the assessment made by students of the quality of entrepreneurship programs, as well as their sociodemographic characterization.|
|A Comparison of Students Use of Effectuation and Causation Principles with That of Practitioners||Stefan W. Arteaga, Hans-Gunnar E. Grepperud, and Marie N. Hermansen||2013||Out of the direct scope of the research, since the data presented in the article are based on an attempt to understand students’ perspectives, compared with specialists in entrepreneurship, on the creation of businesses.|
|Entrepreneurship Education||Jonathan Bainée||2013||Although related to the identification of the best teaching practices in entrepreneurship, the article focuses on the evolution of training methodologies and the most innovative practices used at the time of publication, which is outside the direct scope of our research.|
|The Relationship Between Education and Entrepreneurship in Eu Member States||Camelia-Cristina Dragomir and Stelian Pânzaru||2015||The article includes the analysis of the curricular models of different member states of the European Union, and its study is focused on the analysis of potential relationships between education and the development of the entrepreneurial spirit. In this sense, the article is not directly related to the scope of our research.|
|Aspects of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Education in Romania||Iosif Moldovan||2015||Outside of the direct scope of this research, since the article is essentially focused on evaluating the perceptions of Romanian entrepreneurs regarding the factors that contribute to the success of entrepreneurship education in Romania.|
|Research on the Quality Evaluation System of Entrepreneurship Education Based on Efficiency||Xiansheng Liu||2015||Outside of the direct scope of this research, since the article is essentially focused on understanding the criteria that should shape the university evaluation system of education for entrepreneurship.|
|A Chance to Improve the Relationship Between Universities and Business in the Knowledge Society||Diaconu Mihaela and Zaharia Milena Rodica||2009||Outside of the direct scope of this research, since the article is essentially focused on understanding the role and organizational structure that universities and other institutions must have in the entrepreneurial ecosystem.|
|Entrepreneurial Intention of Students and Unemployed Persons in Romania: A Case Study on the South-East Region and the South-West-Oltenia Region||Laura Patache and Paula Cornelia Mitran||2014||The article is essentially focused on analyzing the results of an entrepreneurship education project from the point of view of its participants, which is outside the direct scope of our research.|
|The Role of Entrepreneurship Education as a Predictor of University Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention||Ying Zhang, Geert Duysters, and Myriam Cloodt||2013||The investigation presented in the article is based on an attempt to establish relationships between entrepreneurship education and the intention to create businesses. It is not aligned with the direct focus of our research.|
|Entrepreneurship Education Based on the Change Laboratory||Daniele Morselli, Massimiliano Costa, and Umberto Margiotta||2014||The article analyzes the results of an EE project, namely the most impactful events and methodologies from the point of view of the participants, which is not the direct focus of our research.|
|Measuring Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy to Understand the Impact of Creative Activities for Learning Innovation||Shima Barakat, Monique Boddington, and Shai Vyakarnam||2014||Outside of our scope, since the article is essentially focused on analyzing the details of the implementation of a platform for conducting surveys in the area of education for entrepreneurship.|
|The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle: Mismeasurement or Real?||Thomas B. Astebro and Jing Chen||2012||The article is totally focused on understanding why individuals become entrepreneurs when they earn less, on average, compared to those who are employed by others. It is aligned with the scope of our research.|
|Key Competences in Europe: Interpretation, Policy Formulation and Implementation||Gábor Halász and Alain Michel||2011||European Journal of Education|
|The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools||Jaana Seikkula-Leino||2011||Journal of Curriculum Studies|
|Youth Entrepreneurship in South East Europe: Some Policy Recommendations||Mirela Xheneti||2007||Small Business Research Centre, Kingston University|
|The Analysis of Certified Teachers/Trainers of Entrepreneurship in Croatia||Zrinka Gregov, Vesna Cvitanović, and Vladimir Žanić||2011||Entrepreneurship and Macroeconomic Management|
|A Policy Study of Entrepreneurship and Enterprise in Education||Ron Mahieu||2006||Umeå School of Business—Umeå University|
|The Importance of Entrepreneurial Learning on the Example of the South East European Center for Entrepreneurial Learning in Croatia||Sanja Maleković, Sanja Tišma, and Ivana Keser||2016||The European Journal of Applied Economics|
|Entrepreneurship Education and Its Outcomes||Brian Rigley and Ramona Rönnqvist||2010||Umeå School of Business-Umeå University|
|Entrepreneurship Education in Schools: Empirical Evidence on the Teacher’s Role||Elena Riskovaara and Timo Pihkala||2014||The Journal of Educational Research|
|The Impact of an Entrepreneurship Education Program on Entrepreneurial Competencies and Intention||Jose Sanchez||2013||Journal of Small Business Management|
|Key Competences in Europe: Interpretation, Policy Formulation and Implementation||Gábor Halász and Alain Michel||2011||European Journal of Education|
|The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools||Jaana Seikkula-Leino||2011||Journal of Curriculum Studies|
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Banha, F.; Coelho, L.S.; Flores, A. Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the Field. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 336. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050336
Banha F, Coelho LS, Flores A. Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the Field. Education Sciences. 2022; 12(5):336. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050336Chicago/Turabian Style
Banha, Francisco, Luís Serra Coelho, and Adão Flores. 2022. "Entrepreneurship Education: A Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the Field" Education Sciences 12, no. 5: 336. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050336