A GoPro Look on How Children Aged 17–25 Months Assess and Manage Risk during Free Exploration in a Varied Natural Environment
1.1. Risk Taking in Children’s Play
1.2. Children’s Risk Assessment
1.3. Risky Play among Toddlers
1.4. Aim and Research Question
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. The Use of GoPro Cameras
2.3. Procedure of Data Collection
2.5. Methodical Weaknesses and Strengths
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Children’s Direct Risk Assessment and Risk Management
Boy 4 walks away from the other children. On his path there is a cliff where some tree branches are sticking out, forcing whoever passes to the very edge of the cliff. When boy 4 approaches the obstacle, he slows his pace and goes from long to very short steps as he carefully sneaks around the edge and over to the other side.Boy 2 picks up mud and pine needles in his hand and then throws them over the rocky surface. He repeats the procedure, looks around a bit and walks on to an edge (about 40 cm high). He then stops and sits on his butt before sliding down with his feet first on the rock. When at the bottom, he walks to another edge (about 2 m high), throws what he has in his hand, turns and walks up again. He chooses another way up, a little to the side of where he slid down, which is not as steep and consists of some soil and pine needles on top of the rock. He repeats this procedure many times. We can hear him make strenuous noises both when he slides down and when he gets up.
Girl 1 stands and observes the other children trying to climb up a cliff, then turns and looks at an adult who points at the right side of the cliff where the slope is gentle and indicates that she should choose that way up. Girl 1 seemingly ignores the adult’s advice and tries to climb straight up the cliff, where it is steep. She tries to get up, but it is too difficult. She then walks sideways along the edge of the cliff until she finds an easier way up. It is slippery, and she falls multiple times on the way. When reaching the top, she stands up straight and smiles at the adult, who returns the smile.
Girl 1 walks briskly on the slippery rocks when she arrives at a high cliff (about 1 m), she slows her pace and walks slowly out to the edge and points down. She stands and observes for a couple of seconds before she turns and finds another way down.
3.2. Children’s Indirect Risk Assessment and Risk Management
Boy 2 walks up the path and meets an uphill slope that also slopes sideways, with slippery rock beneath his feet. He sees the two other boys further ahead slipping on the rock and falling several times. Boy 2 quickly looks to the side. He sees an area at the bottom of the sideways slope, where the surface consists of soil and grass, where he chooses to walk. When he passes his friends who have fallen, he stops. His friends come down to him, and they walk together next to the slippery rock.Boy 1 and Boy 3 climb the slippery rock with both uphill and sideways slopes while expressing sounds of exertion. The boys fall several times. At the same time, they see another friend walking on the ground at the bottom of the sideways slope. Both boys on the rocky surface then sit down and start sliding forward on their butts until they also come to the place with soil and grass, where they get up and continue their walk/run while humming and speaking.
3.3. Adults’ Risk Assessment and Risk Management for Children
Boy 4 walks on a path and stops when he sees some broken branches and sticks that are lying on the ground and blocking the way. He points to the obstacle and says “no, come” to a staff member. He gets closer and begins to feel and explore the branches a couple of seconds, while the adult stands close behind and urges him forward. Boy 4 is looking back at the adult for a couple of times while expressing himself verbally, before the adult lifts the boy over the obstacle.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Tangen, S.; Olsen, A.; Sandseter, E.B.H. A GoPro Look on How Children Aged 17–25 Months Assess and Manage Risk during Free Exploration in a Varied Natural Environment. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050361
Tangen S, Olsen A, Sandseter EBH. A GoPro Look on How Children Aged 17–25 Months Assess and Manage Risk during Free Exploration in a Varied Natural Environment. Education Sciences. 2022; 12(5):361. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050361Chicago/Turabian Style
Tangen, Steffen, Alexander Olsen, and Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter. 2022. "A GoPro Look on How Children Aged 17–25 Months Assess and Manage Risk during Free Exploration in a Varied Natural Environment" Education Sciences 12, no. 5: 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12050361