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Economies, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 24 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Discussing the Role of Universities in Fostering Regional Entrepreneurial Ecosystems
Economies 2019, 7(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040119 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
Over the past two decades, various policies have been implemented on an international and national level to support regional competitiveness, in which Universities are often called on to play a crucial role. Taking into account their contribution to the combined performance of education, [...] Read more.
Over the past two decades, various policies have been implemented on an international and national level to support regional competitiveness, in which Universities are often called on to play a crucial role. Taking into account their contribution to the combined performance of education, the advanced research and the networking of knowledge, Universities are recognized as knowledge-intensive institutions and environments that foster human capital development, innovation and entrepreneurship. According to the current practice, Universities include in their mission not only a generalized transfer of know-how, but also the promotion of business thinking and entrepreneurial culture, the establishment of institutions, actions as well as the creation of venture capital, thus contributing further to the promotion of regional entrepreneurial ecosystems. By examining the entrepreneurship development in teaching and learning through the various actions of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Units of the Greek Universities between 2011 and 2015, the present article aims at assessing the contribution of the Greek Universities to the fostering of regional entrepreneurial ecosystems, making a comparative evaluation of them and strengthening the role of the Greek Universities in regional entrepreneurial ecosystems. Firstly, the theoretical approaches of regional entrepreneurial ecosystems as well as the role of Universities in Regional Development are examined and analyzed. Secondly, it is attempted to record the role of the Greek Universities through the collection and processing of innovation information and actions, utilizing, as a case study, the structures of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Units. Thirdly, taking into account the results of the research, proposals for the national and regional policy are made. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conjugation of the Belt and Road Initiative and Eurasian Economic Union: Problems and Development Prospects
Economies 2019, 7(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040118 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
The study addresses the problems arising in association with the conjugation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and the Belt and Road initiative. The hypothesis is that the conjugation is economically effective, and this is proven by the statistical analysis of trade and [...] Read more.
The study addresses the problems arising in association with the conjugation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and the Belt and Road initiative. The hypothesis is that the conjugation is economically effective, and this is proven by the statistical analysis of trade and investment dynamics and buttressed by empirical observations. Based on this, the recommendations for the EAEU are given. The paper dismantles the problems arising in the sphere of security and peacekeeping and proposes a number of steps for ensuring peace and stable development in the region, implementing the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) mechanism. The article highlights the main plans of the China–EAEU partnership and puts forward alternative cooperation strategies for the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The authors develop the most attractive plan for the EAEU and propose the best strategy for its implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and Socioeconomic Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Why Child Allowances Fail to Solve the Pension Problem of Aging Societies
Economies 2019, 7(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040117 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2455
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to investigate how child allowances affect population growth and pension benefits of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension systems in small open and closed economies. We apply an overlapping-generations (OLG) model in its canonical form, where we consider endogenous fertility [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to investigate how child allowances affect population growth and pension benefits of pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension systems in small open and closed economies. We apply an overlapping-generations (OLG) model in its canonical form, where we consider endogenous fertility and growth generated by human capital accumulation. From the analysis, we conclude that in a small open economy, child allowances increase the number of children, yet decrease pension benefits over the long run. If we consider a closed economy, the effect of child allowances on fertility is ambiguous and remains negative on pension benefits over the long run. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Disclosure of Non-Current Tangible Assets Information in Local Government Financial Statements: The Case of Lithuania
Economies 2019, 7(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040116 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 2622
Abstract
The aim of the research is to examine and evaluate the accounting information disclosure quality of the non-current tangible assets in the financial statements of the municipalities of Lithuania and identify municipality characteristics having an impact on the accounting information disclosure quality. Although [...] Read more.
The aim of the research is to examine and evaluate the accounting information disclosure quality of the non-current tangible assets in the financial statements of the municipalities of Lithuania and identify municipality characteristics having an impact on the accounting information disclosure quality. Although the question of Lithuania public sector accounting information disclosure quality has been relevant since the Public Sector Accounting and Financial Reporting Reform in 2010, this research is the first of its kind in Lithuania. Based on the legal and regulatory requirements and related scientific literature, the research model of the accounting information disclosure quality in the financial statements has been created. Using the content analysis of consolidated annual financial statements of Lithuanian municipalities (years 2013–2016), the disclosure quality index has been calculated, as well as the accounting information disclosure quality of the tangible assets has been evaluated and compared. The results show that the quality of accounting information disclosure of Lithuanian municipalities in 2013 was low (revealed 37.87% of the mandatory information), while in subsequent years, the disclosure of mandatory information increased (to 45.50% in 2016) and the quality of information disclosure became average. Multiple panel regression analysis revealed that specific factors such as size of the municipality, municipality debt-paying capacity, municipality tangible assets, and municipality revenue, have a statistically significant impact on the accounting information disclosure quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Finance and Budgeting)
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Open AccessArticle
Public Spending, Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Asian Countries: A Panel GMM Approach
Economies 2019, 7(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040115 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
This paper offers an empirical examination of the relationship between government spending’s, income inequality, and economic growth by using the case of 19 Asian countries from 2002 to 2017. For this purpose, the paper uses robust difference-GMM estimation and panel granger causality test. [...] Read more.
This paper offers an empirical examination of the relationship between government spending’s, income inequality, and economic growth by using the case of 19 Asian countries from 2002 to 2017. For this purpose, the paper uses robust difference-GMM estimation and panel granger causality test. We found that gross domestic investment and regulatory quality are the main variables that contribute to these countries’ economic growth. While current government consumption reduces economic growth. Also, government expenditure on education and regulatory quality granger cause economic growth in these countries. However, the effect of government expenditure on education on economic growth is not significant. So, to increase their economic growth, this study recommends these countries’ governments to encourage gross domestic investment, maintain regulatory quality and reduce their current consumption. This study also concludes that income inequality has no impact on these countries’ economic growth for this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural transformation, poverty and income inequality)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Success of Application-Based Mobile Banking
Economies 2019, 7(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040114 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
The present study addresses the issue of mobile banking customer retention by developing and empirically testing a theoretical model that describes the way mobile banking success is achieved. The data collection process was conducted via a web-based questionnaire survey through which 402 usable [...] Read more.
The present study addresses the issue of mobile banking customer retention by developing and empirically testing a theoretical model that describes the way mobile banking success is achieved. The data collection process was conducted via a web-based questionnaire survey through which 402 usable responses from users of application-based mobile banking services were collected. The data collected were further analyzed via covariance-based structural equation modeling. Results indicate that application-based mobile banking success can be defined in terms of the favorable attitude toward and repeated use of mobile banking applications. Experienced advantage, user satisfaction, and post-use trust toward mobile banking applications are among the critical enablers of application-based mobile banking success. The findings of this research can enable academicians and practitioners, banks, and financial institutions, in particular, to devise the mechanism through which the success of application-based mobile banking services can be facilitated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Commodity Revenues, Agricultural Sector and the Magnitude of Deindustrialization: A Novel Multisector Perspective
Economies 2019, 7(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040113 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3259
Abstract
This study puts forward a model of a multisector economy and embeds it in a novel theoretical framework to address the relationship between commodity revenues and manufacturing output with a special focus on the role of the agricultural sector. The three-sector model lays [...] Read more.
This study puts forward a model of a multisector economy and embeds it in a novel theoretical framework to address the relationship between commodity revenues and manufacturing output with a special focus on the role of the agricultural sector. The three-sector model lays the groundwork for analyzing policy choices in more complex sectoral settings. Based on the theoretical analysis, the study identifies the weight of the individual economic sectors in the public revenue generation as a determinant of the magnitude of rent seeking epitomized in the crowding out effect of investments in manufacturing. We find that enclave agriculture contributes to the deindustrialization pressure in the face of natural resource windfalls. The central finding of the multisector analysis is the conclusion that not diversification per se but rather a diversification with the substantial domestic factor or market orientation has the capability to limit the magnitude of deindustrialization. For the empirical validation of the theoretical findings, the study employs fixed effects, fully modified OLS, dynamic common correlated effects estimators and dynamic fixed effects estimators for the dataset of 113 developing and transition economies for 1963–2014 period. The estimations reveal that natural resource revenues correspond with a higher level of the manufacturing sector output. In the economies with a low level of economic diversification, commodity bonanza leads however to the shrinkage of the manufacturing. In the commodity revenue dependent settings, nevertheless, agricultural sector exports have a negative impact on the performance of the manufacturing sector. These findings are in line with the predictions of the theoretical model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic News Releases and Financial Markets in South Africa
Economies 2019, 7(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040112 - 08 Nov 2019
Viewed by 2637
Abstract
We examine the impact of economic news releases on returns, volatility and jumps of the stock and foreign exchange markets of South Africa. We also assess the impact of macroeconomic determinants. The dataset range is fifteen years covering the period from January, 2000 [...] Read more.
We examine the impact of economic news releases on returns, volatility and jumps of the stock and foreign exchange markets of South Africa. We also assess the impact of macroeconomic determinants. The dataset range is fifteen years covering the period from January, 2000 to December, 2014. Results are robust to different sub-periods before and after the global financial crisis of 2008. Volatility is estimated with the use of the median realized variance estimator. Jumps are also detected. The impact of the announcements is assessed building using regression techniques. Returns, volatility and jumps of both stock and foreign exchange markets are significantly explained nationally by macroeconomic fundamentals and economic news releases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Development in Africa)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of the Catch-Up Mechanism on the Structural Transformation of Sub-Saharan Africa
Economies 2019, 7(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040111 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Structural transformation is one of the processes of productivity growth urgently needed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study uses the catch-up mechanism to analyze how international contacts and domestic absorptive capacity constraints are shaping the pattern of structural transformation in SSA. Using a [...] Read more.
Structural transformation is one of the processes of productivity growth urgently needed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study uses the catch-up mechanism to analyze how international contacts and domestic absorptive capacity constraints are shaping the pattern of structural transformation in SSA. Using a two-step Generalized Method of Moments on 2000–2015 data for 29 SSA countries, the paper finds that SSA is undergoing a non-classical structural transformation led by the service sector instead of manufacturing. Import penetration, a key variable of international contact, has negative coefficients for both the agricultural and manufacturing shares of gross domestic product (GDP) but is positively associated with both the services shares of employment and GDP. A test of Kaldor’s third law finds that if growth in employment outside manufacturing is in services, it can also increase economy-wide productivity. Hence, it is the international constraints, such as import penetration and foreign direct investment, that are making the structural transformation of SSA non-classical. Services that involve transfer of skills and technology, such as international tourism and information and communications technology services exports, provide opportunities for structural change and productivity growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Labor Market Characteristics on Women’s Poverty in Korea
Economies 2019, 7(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040110 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
Background: Poverty in Korea is not gender neutral. Both male headed and female headed households experience poverty in distinct ways. This research discusses poverty and how it has evolved in Korea from a gender perspective. Methods: It describes the characteristics of poverty among [...] Read more.
Background: Poverty in Korea is not gender neutral. Both male headed and female headed households experience poverty in distinct ways. This research discusses poverty and how it has evolved in Korea from a gender perspective. Methods: It describes the characteristics of poverty among the working population based on gender and other household attributes. It measures poverty relative to the mean and median incomes of the population in three ways: headcount, poverty gap, and poverty severity. The study uses the probit model to estimate the incidence of poverty and the Heckman sample selection model to analyze poverty’s gap and severity. Our empirical results are based on an unbalanced household level panel covering the period 2006–2016. Results: Our results indicate that multiple factors including issues related to the labor market and demographic characteristics contribute to women’s poverty. Within the working population, women are less likely to be poor than men because they share their partners’ incomes. However, single female workers with children are the poorest demographic group. Conclusion: “Part-time jobs” are a critical factor in determining women’s poverty status, while “work years” and “the quality of occupation” have a crucial impact on the incidence and severity of poverty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural transformation, poverty and income inequality)
Open AccessArticle
Sharing the Economy in Tourism and Sustainable City Development in the Light of Agenda 2030
Economies 2019, 7(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040109 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
The dynamic development of the sharing economy is clearly seen in particular, in the area of tourism in large cities. There is, therefore, an increasingly urgent need to study its impact on the functioning of cities, especially when they implement a sustainable development [...] Read more.
The dynamic development of the sharing economy is clearly seen in particular, in the area of tourism in large cities. There is, therefore, an increasingly urgent need to study its impact on the functioning of cities, especially when they implement a sustainable development policy. Therefore, the need to study its impact on cities’ performances is more and more urgent, particularly, when they implement a sustainable development policy. This study discussed the influence of a sharing economy in tourism on city sustainability from the perspective of the Agenda 2030 goals. The main objective of the paper was achieved, thanks to in-depth analysis of the content of secondary sources. Results of the analysis were subjected to the synthesis process, using the tabular method. In Agenda 2030, when diagnosing the importance of this issue, one of 17 goals, i.e., goal 11, and 10 tasks within it, were devoted to the sustainable development of cities. The results of this study showed that sharing economy in tourism has an impact on the implementation of seven of them, but the direction of the impact is diversified. The domination of positive sharing economy (SE) effects was observed in the following areas: providing access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all (Target 11.2) and upgrading slums (Target 11.1), while the negative effects were noticed particularly clearly in implementing Targets 11.6 (reducing the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities) and 11.7 (providing universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and Socioeconomic Development)
Open AccessArticle
The Output Gap and Youth Unemployment: An Analysis Based on Okun’s Law
Economies 2019, 7(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040108 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
The impact of economic fluctuations on the total unemployment rate is widely studied, however, with respect to age- and gender-specific unemployment, this relationship is not so well examined. We apply the gap version of Okun’s law, aiming to estimate youth unemployment rate sensitivity [...] Read more.
The impact of economic fluctuations on the total unemployment rate is widely studied, however, with respect to age- and gender-specific unemployment, this relationship is not so well examined. We apply the gap version of Okun’s law, aiming to estimate youth unemployment rate sensitivity to output deviations from its potential level. Additionally, we aim to compare whether men or women have a higher equilibrium unemployment rate when output is at the potential level. Contrary to most studies on age- and gender-specific Okun’s coefficients, which assume that the effect of output on unemployment is homogenous, we allow a different effect to occur, depending on the output gap’s sign (positive/negative). The focus of the analysis is on 28 EU countries over the period of 2000–2018. The model is estimated by least squares dummy variable estimator (LSDV), using Prais–Winsten standard errors. We did not find evidence that higher equilibrium unemployment rates are more typical for men or for women. The estimates clearly show the equilibrium level of youth unemployment to be well above that of total unemployment, and this conclusion holds for both genders. We assess greater youth unemployment sensitivity to negative output shock, rather than to positive output shock, but when we take confidence intervals into consideration, this conclusion becomes less obvious. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Embedding Preference Uncertainty for Environmental Amenities in Climate Change Economic Assessments: A “Random” Step Forward
Economies 2019, 7(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040107 - 28 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2657
Abstract
While there is a considerable debate regarding the choice of proper discount rates for assessing climate change projects and policies, only a tiny body of literature emphasizes “what to discount”. Usually, climate change economic assessments rely on tools and methods that employ strong [...] Read more.
While there is a considerable debate regarding the choice of proper discount rates for assessing climate change projects and policies, only a tiny body of literature emphasizes “what to discount”. Usually, climate change economic assessments rely on tools and methods that employ strong simplifications, assuming, among others, given and fixed preferences about the values of man-made and environmental goods. Aiming to fill a gap in the literature, this paper leaves aside the issue of discounting and focuses on the nature and impact of preference uncertainty on the economic estimates of future climate change damages on ecosystem non-market goods and services. To this end, a general random walk-based stochastic model is proposed, combining a number of parameters, e.g., the growth of income, depletion of environmental assets, the elasticity of income and demand, and the change in preferences towards the environment. The illustrative application of the model shows that the value of environmental losses is significantly affected by the change in preferences. By doing so, the model allows the analyst to visualize future paths of preference evolutions and to bring future values of damaged environmental assets realistically to the fore. If these elements are neglected when estimating climate change-related future damages to environmental goods and services, the results may be too narrow from a policy perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Commodity Discoveries on Small Open Economies: Empirical Evidence from the Falkland Islands
Economies 2019, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040106 - 23 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2572
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of discovering oil on the performance of a small open economy, in this case the Falkland Islands. Using an event study approach and the return on one of the Falkland Islands’ main companies, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of discovering oil on the performance of a small open economy, in this case the Falkland Islands. Using an event study approach and the return on one of the Falkland Islands’ main companies, the results suggest that the discovery of oil has mostly had a positive effect on this company, which serves as a proxy for the Falkland Islands economy. In addition, using an EGARCH approach, there is evidence that the discovery of oil has reduced the volatility or risk of the company and therefore potentially the economy as a whole. However, when the oil price is added to the model, this tends to dominate the effect of the discovery. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The ARDL Method in the Energy-Growth Nexus Field; Best Implementation Strategies
Economies 2019, 7(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040105 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
A vast number of the energy-growth nexus researchers, as well as other “X-variable-growth nexus” studies, such as for example the tourism-growth nexus, the environment-growth nexus or the food-growth nexus have used the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) bounds test approach for cointegration testing. [...] Read more.
A vast number of the energy-growth nexus researchers, as well as other “X-variable-growth nexus” studies, such as for example the tourism-growth nexus, the environment-growth nexus or the food-growth nexus have used the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) bounds test approach for cointegration testing. Their research papers rarely include all the ARDL procedure steps in a detailed way and thus they leave other researchers confused with the series of steps that must be followed and the best implementation paradigms so that they not allow any obscure aspects. This paper is a comprehensive review that suggests the steps that need to be taken before the ARDL procedure takes place as well as the steps that should be taken afterward with respect to causality investigation and robust analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparing Sentiment- and Behavioral-Based Leading Indexes for Industrial Production: When Does Each Fail?
Economies 2019, 7(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040104 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2592
Abstract
We apply a relatively novel leading–lagging (LL) method to four leading and one lagging indexes for industrial production (IP) in Germany. We obtain three sets of results. First, we show that the sentiment-based ifo index performs best in predicting the general changes in [...] Read more.
We apply a relatively novel leading–lagging (LL) method to four leading and one lagging indexes for industrial production (IP) in Germany. We obtain three sets of results. First, we show that the sentiment-based ifo index performs best in predicting the general changes in IP (−0.596, range −1.0 to 1.0, −1.0 being best). The ZEW index is very close (−0.583). In third place comes, somewhat unexpectedly, the behavioral-based unemployment index (−0.564), and last comes order flow, OF (−0.186). Second, we applied the LL method to predefined recession and recovery time windows. The recessions were best predicted (−0.70), the recoveries worst (−0.32), and the overall prediction was intermediate (−0.48). Third, the method identifies time windows automatically, even for short time windows, where the leading indexes fail. All indexes scored low during time windows around 1997 and 2005. Both periods correspond to anomalous periods in the German economy. The 1997 period coincides with “the great moderation” in the US at the end of a minor depression in Germany. Around 2005, oil prices increased from $10 to $60 a barrel. There were few orders, and monetary supply was low. Our policy implications suggest that the ZEW index performs best (including recessions and recoveries), but unemployment and monetary supply should probably be given more weight in sentiment forecasting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Food Security and Technical Efficiency among Agricultural Households in Nigeria
Economies 2019, 7(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040103 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
The challenge of food security in Nigeria hinges on several factors of which poor technical efficiency is key. Using a stochastic frontier framework, we estimated the technical efficiency of agricultural households in Nigeria and tested for the significance of mean technical efficiency of [...] Read more.
The challenge of food security in Nigeria hinges on several factors of which poor technical efficiency is key. Using a stochastic frontier framework, we estimated the technical efficiency of agricultural households in Nigeria and tested for the significance of mean technical efficiency of food-secure and food-insecure agricultural households. We further assessed the determinants of agricultural households’ inefficiencies within the stochastic frontier model and adopted a standard probit model to assess the determinants of households’ food security status. The results of our analyses revealed that; on the overall, the agricultural households had a mean technical efficiency of 52%, suggesting that agricultural households have the tendency of improving their technical efficiency by 48% using the available resource more efficiently. We found that households that are food-secure are more technically efficient than food in-secure households and this was significant at one-percent. Our results provide useful insights into the role of land size and number of assets as determinants of agricultural households’ food security and technical efficiency status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Productivity and Efficiency Analysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prize Structure and Performance: Evidence from NASCAR
Economies 2019, 7(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040102 - 02 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2795
Abstract
The predictions that emerge from tournament theory have been tested in a number of sports-related settings. Since sporting events involving individuals (golf, tennis, running, auto racing) feature rank order tournaments with relatively large payoffs and easily observable outcomes, sports is a natural setting [...] Read more.
The predictions that emerge from tournament theory have been tested in a number of sports-related settings. Since sporting events involving individuals (golf, tennis, running, auto racing) feature rank order tournaments with relatively large payoffs and easily observable outcomes, sports is a natural setting for such tests. In this paper, we test the predictions of tournament theory using a unique race-level data set from NASCAR. Most previous tests of tournament theory using NASCAR data used either season level data or race level data from a few seasons. Our empirical work uses race and driver level NASCAR data for 1114 races over the period 1975–2009. Our results support the predictions of tournament theory: the larger the spread in prizes paid in the race, measured by the standard deviation or interquartile range of prizes paid, the higher the average speed in the race. Our results account for the length of the track, number of entrants, number of caution flags, and unobservable year- and week-level heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Economics)
Open AccessArticle
Migration, Labor Mobility and Household Poverty in Nigeria: A Gender Analysis
Economies 2019, 7(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040101 - 02 Oct 2019
Viewed by 3002
Abstract
The increase in the geographical mobility of labour as a result of poverty, unemployment and unstable economic conditions, among other factors, especially among professionals, has been associated with a brain drain in Nigeria. Despite the high level of migration and subsequent remittances from [...] Read more.
The increase in the geographical mobility of labour as a result of poverty, unemployment and unstable economic conditions, among other factors, especially among professionals, has been associated with a brain drain in Nigeria. Despite the high level of migration and subsequent remittances from migrants, a large proportion of Nigerians still live in poverty. The increased participation of women in migration in the country also brings to the fore the existence of gender-specific migration experiences and how this has in turn affected their households. Based on gender, this study assesses the extent of labour mobility, its determinants and how it influences remittance inflows and household poverty using the logit regression model Propensity Score Matching and Linear Regression with Endogenous Treatment Effect Approach. Results reveal that while more males travelled for employment purposes, more females travelled due to marriage arrangements. More of the migrants that were working after migration had worked before migration and had the highest average amount of remittance sent to households. The study shows that labour mobility increases the amount of remittance sent to households. However, the increase was higher among male migrants than female migrants. More than half of the migrants had poor households; meanwhile, labour mobility was found to reduce the extent of poverty. The study recommended that policies that improve the welfare of labour and reduce the brain drain, unemployment and closures of enterprises in the country should be put in place. Also, effective policies and interventions that promote the use of remittances to achieve maximum reductions in poverty should be pursued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural transformation, poverty and income inequality)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influencing Factors on Choice Behavior Regarding Green Electronic Products: Based on the Green Perceived Value Model
Economies 2019, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040099 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Electronic/electrical waste (e-waste) has now become a global concern due to its negative impact on the environment and health. This negative effect of e-waste is increasing with the advancement in the electronics industry, especially in Pakistan, which is the leading e-waste disposal destination. [...] Read more.
Electronic/electrical waste (e-waste) has now become a global concern due to its negative impact on the environment and health. This negative effect of e-waste is increasing with the advancement in the electronics industry, especially in Pakistan, which is the leading e-waste disposal destination. Therefore, this study aims to find consumer choice behavior regarding green electronics in Pakistan. For this purpose, a multidimensional modified green perceived model (functional value quality, functional value price, social value identity, social value responsibility, emotional value, and conditional value) is used. Cross-sectional data is collected from 237 consumers through a self-administrative questionnaire. The results of variance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) (partial least squares (PLS)-SEM) suggested that functional value price, quality, social value identity, responsibility, emotional value, and conditional value positively and significantly influence the consumer choice behavior regarding green electronics. the possible reasons for the findings and the implications for managers and policymakers are discussed. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also suggested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Delinquency and Default in USA Student Debt as a Proportional Response to Unemployment and Average Debt per Borrower
Economies 2019, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040100 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 2832
Abstract
We research the response of the proportion of student borrowers with ninety or more days of delinquency or in default to variables such as unemployment and the average debt per borrower after the financial crisis of 2007–2008, in the United States, using panel [...] Read more.
We research the response of the proportion of student borrowers with ninety or more days of delinquency or in default to variables such as unemployment and the average debt per borrower after the financial crisis of 2007–2008, in the United States, using panel data of 50 states from 2008 to 2015. The proportion of borrowers with delinquency or default was modelled as a function of unemployment, the average debt per borrower, consumer sentiment, and financial stress, using a logit and probit binomial model. The specification tests support that no relevant variable was omitted. Unemployment and the average debt per borrower are statistically significant and contribute to increasing delinquency or default in the 50 states of the panel sample. The results also reveal a differential impact of unemployment among the four regions considered by the US Census Bureau. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transmission Channels of Central Bank Asset Purchases in the Irish Economy
Economies 2019, 7(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040098 - 23 Sep 2019
Viewed by 2980
Abstract
The European Central Bank (ECB) engaged in an expanded asset purchase programme (APP) from 2014 to 2018 to help achieve their primary objective of price stability. Total assets purchased over this period was over €2.5 trillion and new net purchases ended in December [...] Read more.
The European Central Bank (ECB) engaged in an expanded asset purchase programme (APP) from 2014 to 2018 to help achieve their primary objective of price stability. Total assets purchased over this period was over €2.5 trillion and new net purchases ended in December 2018. This paper identifies whether the ECB’s APP in Ireland operated through the portfolio rebalancing channel, the signalling channel or the lending channel. It presents a quantitative descriptive analysis of some key Irish data sets in the 2014–2018 period and uses time-series visualisation and trend analysis to identify trends and correlations. There are a number of preliminary findings. First, much downward pressure on sovereign debt yields and spreads had occurred before the APP began due to previous accommodative monetary policy and the signalling channel. Second, the corporate-sector purchase programme (CSPP) did impact on targeted bonds and may have had spill overs to non-targeted bonds. Third, the APP did not lead to much increased lending to the SME sector. Fourth, while households did engage in traditional portfolio rebalancing, Irish banks did not and were perhaps more motivated to meet their capital requirements and manage their level of reserves. This is a first step towards understanding the transmission channels of ECB policy in Ireland and more work needs to be done to detangle the transmission of the most recent APP from other factors and consider these findings in the context of theoretical models. Such work is important to help inform policy makers on enhancing the transmission mechanism to the Irish economy of the recently launched new ECB asset purchase programme from November 2019. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macroeconomics and Monetary Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Approaching Modern Monetary Theory with a Taylor Rule
Economies 2019, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040097 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2851
Abstract
Considering the goals of Modern Monetary Theorists, this article examines inflation stabilization and employment maximization through a Taylor Rule for fiscal policy, similar to John Taylor’s foundational examination of the behavior of the Federal Reserve. If it is the role of the federal [...] Read more.
Considering the goals of Modern Monetary Theorists, this article examines inflation stabilization and employment maximization through a Taylor Rule for fiscal policy, similar to John Taylor’s foundational examination of the behavior of the Federal Reserve. If it is the role of the federal government to aid in the maintenance of the dual mandate of the Federal Reserve, then their behavior should follow a similar policy of setting an intermediate target of deficits relative to the maximum employment (the “Federal Job Guarantee”) and the inflation target. The paper will compare the historical data with the rule. When the predictions of the Deficit Rule are compared to historical data from 1965, we find that fiscal policy aligns with what the Deficit Rule predicts with two exceptions: the stagflation of the 1970s and the current increases in budget deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macroeconomics and Monetary Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Determinants of Household Consumption Expenditure and Poverty in India
Economies 2019, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7040096 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3569
Abstract
This article examines the determinants of household income among urban and rural areas in India and evaluates households’ performance with different characteristics in terms of poverty. It uses four rounds of data from the consumer expenditure survey (50th, 1993/1994; 55th, 1999/2000; 61st, 2004/2005; [...] Read more.
This article examines the determinants of household income among urban and rural areas in India and evaluates households’ performance with different characteristics in terms of poverty. It uses four rounds of data from the consumer expenditure survey (50th, 1993/1994; 55th, 1999/2000; 61st, 2004/2005; and 66th, 2009/2010) by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in the empirical section. This study consists of two main parts. In the first, it looks at the impact of the characteristics of the head of the household (age, educational level, marital status, and gender) and household characteristics (main occupational type, household size, and social status) on monthly per capita expenditure through conditional mean least squares (LS) regressions and conditional quantile regressions. Households headed by those who are older, married, belonging to lower castes, and living in less-developed states are more likely to be in poverty. In the second part, the article explores stochastic dominance rankings relative to large classes of welfare functions/preferences between pairwise sub-groups identified by the survey year, gender, social status, and occupational type of the household heads. Our results show that ‘inferior groups’ such as ‘Backward classes’, agricultural labor in rural areas, and casual labor in urban areas are vulnerable and may be targeted for poverty alleviation strategies. The first part sheds light on key determinants of household expenditure, while the second provides a picture of poverty outcomes which helps identify potential target groups for poverty-alleviation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth, Global Poverty Reduction and Income Distribution)
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