Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Languages, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Gender-Biased Items in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
Viewed by 154 | PDF Full-text (2016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated possible gender bias on a vocabulary test, using a method suggested by Andrich and Hagquist to detect “real” differential item functioning (DIF). A total of 443 adult ESL learners completed all 228 items of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-IV). [...] Read more.
This study investigated possible gender bias on a vocabulary test, using a method suggested by Andrich and Hagquist to detect “real” differential item functioning (DIF). A total of 443 adult ESL learners completed all 228 items of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-IV). The 310 female and 133 male participants were assumed to be of equal competence, corresponding to levels B1 and B2 on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Male participants outscored female participants, possibly due to the multiple-choice format and to the fact that most gender-biased questions favored men rather than women. Finally, our analysis process yielded only seven items out of 228 as showing gender DIF, which is much lower than the numbers reported in the literature for ESL tests. This low figure suggests that the high number of gender-related DIF items reported in previous research might be attributed to the use of DIF detecting methods that do not take into account artificial DIF stemming from the cross-contamination of test items. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The History of the Spanish Preposition Mediante. Beyond the Theory of Grammaticalization
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
Viewed by 170 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The most generally accepted diachrony of mediante assumes a grammaticalization path that started in an absolute clause, which first evolved into a preposition, and later into conjunction. However, data reveals that its development is not connected to an evolution in terms of grammaticalization. [...] Read more.
The most generally accepted diachrony of mediante assumes a grammaticalization path that started in an absolute clause, which first evolved into a preposition, and later into conjunction. However, data reveals that its development is not connected to an evolution in terms of grammaticalization. Indeed, mediante was introduced in Spanish in the fourteenth century as a consequence of syntactic borrowing from Medieval Latin. More specifically, this borrowing entered Old Spanish through Aragonese and Catalan (languages spoken in the east of the Iberian Peninsula). Since its first examples, mediante has acted as a preposition, and its form, connected to present participles, would give texts a cultured and Latinising air that was well-suited to the rhetorical guidelines of the European Renaissance and pre-Renaissance. Thus, this paper shows that the writer and rhetorical rules have become a key factor in the evolution of grammar. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Maintaining Quality Online: Piloting an Online Language Course for Immigrants in Finland
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
Viewed by 217 | PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Finland’s educational system has aroused the interest of educational researchers worldwide. Teaching and learning with information and communication technologies (ICT) is one of the major methodologies in the present Finnish educational discourse. Feedback and assessment are questions of course design in online learning. [...] Read more.
Finland’s educational system has aroused the interest of educational researchers worldwide. Teaching and learning with information and communication technologies (ICT) is one of the major methodologies in the present Finnish educational discourse. Feedback and assessment are questions of course design in online learning. This paper discusses and illustrates how to plan an online course for a higher education preparatory program in Finland by using digital methods with a focus on maintaining quality in the processes of feedback and evaluation. This paper also introduces and reflects recently published quality criteria that are recommended to be used in the design of online courses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOBILLE 2019)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Patience, Matthew: Acquisition of the Tap-Trill Contrast by L1 Mandarin–L2 English–L3 Spanish Speakers. Languages 3 (2018): 42
Received: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
Viewed by 254 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Editorial Office of Languages wants to make the following correction to the paper (Patience 2018): [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Addressing the Challenge of Verbal Irony: Getting Serious about Sarcasm Training
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
Viewed by 304 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In verbal irony, the speaker’s intended meaning can be counterfactual to the literal meaning of their words. This form of figurative language can help speakers achieve a number of communicative aims, but also presents an interpretive challenge for some listeners. There is debate [...] Read more.
In verbal irony, the speaker’s intended meaning can be counterfactual to the literal meaning of their words. This form of figurative language can help speakers achieve a number of communicative aims, but also presents an interpretive challenge for some listeners. There is debate about the skills that support the acquisition of irony comprehension in typical development, and about why verbal irony presents a challenge for many individuals, including children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and second-language learners. Researchers have explored teaching verbal irony in a very small number of training studies in disparate fields. We bring together and review this limited research. We argue that a focus on training studies in future research could address a number of theoretical questions about irony comprehension and could help refine interventions for individuals who struggle with this form of social language. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Levels of Reality
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
Viewed by 208 | PDF Full-text (3182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two fundamental aspects of conceptual and linguistic structure are examined in relation to one another: organization into strata, each a baseline giving rise to the next by elaboration; and the conceptions of reality implicated at successive levels of English clause structure. [...] Read more.
Two fundamental aspects of conceptual and linguistic structure are examined in relation to one another: organization into strata, each a baseline giving rise to the next by elaboration; and the conceptions of reality implicated at successive levels of English clause structure. A clause profiles an occurrence (event or state) and grounds it by assessing its epistemic status (location vis-à-vis reality). Three levels are distinguished in which different notions of reality correlate with particular structural features. In baseline clauses, grounded by “tense,” the profiled occurrence belongs to baseline reality (the established history of occurrences). Basic clauses incorporate perspective (passive, progressive, and perfect), and since grounding includes the grammaticized modals, as well as negation, basic reality is more elaborate. A basic clause expresses a proposition, comprising the grounded structure and the epistemic status specified by basic grounding. At higher strata, propositions are themselves subject to epistemic assessment, in which conceptualizers negotiate their validity; propositions accepted as valid constitute propositional reality. Propositions are assessed through interactive grounding, in the form of questioning and polarity focusing, and by complementation, in which the matrix clause indicates the status of the complement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HDLS 13: Challenges to Common Beliefs in Linguistic Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sound Symbolism Facilitates Long-Term Retention of the Semantic Representation of Novel Verbs in Three-Year-Olds
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
Viewed by 492 | PDF Full-text (1460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous research has shown that sound symbolism facilitates action label learning when the test trial used to assess learning immediately followed the training trial in which the (novel) verb was taught. The current study investigated whether sound symbolism benefits verb learning in the [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that sound symbolism facilitates action label learning when the test trial used to assess learning immediately followed the training trial in which the (novel) verb was taught. The current study investigated whether sound symbolism benefits verb learning in the long term. Forty-nine children were taught either sound-symbolically matching or mismatching pairs made up of a novel verb and an action video. The following day, the children were asked whether a verb can be used for a scene shown in a video. They were tested with four videos for each word they had been taught. The four videos differed as to whether they contained the same or different actions and actors as in the training video: (1) same-action, same-actor; (2) same-action, different-actor; (3) different-action, same-actor; and (4) different-action, different-actor. The results showed that sound symbolism significantly improved the childrens’ ability to encode the semantic representation of the novel verb and correctly generalise it to a new event the following day. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that children were generalising to the “same-action, different-actor” video because they did not recognize the actor change due to the memory decay. Nineteen children were presented with the stimulus videos that had also been shown to children in the sound symbolic match condition in Experiment 1, but this time the videos were not labeled. In the test session the following day, the experimenter tested the children’s recognition memory for the videos. The results indicated that the children could detect the actor change from the original training video a day later. The results of the main experiment and the control experiment support the idea that a motivated (iconic) link between form and meaning facilitates the symbolic development in children. The current study, along with recent related studies, provided further evidence for an iconic advantage in symbol development in the domain of verb learning. A motivated form-meaning relationship can help children learn new words and store them long term in the mental lexicon. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Development of the Articles in Castilian: A Functional Approach
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
Viewed by 208 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of the definite and indefinite articles in Castilian may be regarded as an instance of capitalization or adfunctionalization, following partial exaptation of the Latin demonstrative ille, which involves progressive widening without significant loss of function, the rendering of overt distinctions [...] Read more.
The development of the definite and indefinite articles in Castilian may be regarded as an instance of capitalization or adfunctionalization, following partial exaptation of the Latin demonstrative ille, which involves progressive widening without significant loss of function, the rendering of overt distinctions which were previously covert through the contrast between definite article, indefinite article and the “zero” determiner, the creation of new expressive possibilities and the facilitating of further distinctions in the grammatical system in combination with other determiners (usage with possessives, demonstratives and tal is examined). Full article
Languages EISSN 2226-471X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top