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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 23 (December-1 2022) – 223 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Grapevines are one of the most economically important crops worldwide. Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), caused by pathogenic fungi, are limiting factors for the production of wine grapes. The search for effective protectants against GTDs remains a challenge to plant pathologists. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the virulence factors that assist fungi in invading and colonizing grapevines. Among them, fungal phytotoxic metabolites (PMs) may be linked to the development of disease symptoms. This review provides an illustrative overview of the biological and chemical characterization of PMs produced by fungi involved in GTDs. Moreover, challenges and opportunities on how these studies may result in more sustainable and specific control of GTDs in vineyards will also be explored. View this paper
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15 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Bioactive Components in New Resistant Hungarian Tomato Hybrids
by Barbara Schmidt-Szantner, Mária Berki, Éva Lengyel-Kónya, Péter Milotay, Ágnes Molnár-Mondovics, Hussein G. Daood and Rita Tömösközi-Farkas
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3408; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233408 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic impact on the content of some characteristic secondary metabolites in tomato fruits. The study was conducted to screen 14 different tomato genotypes for antioxidant capacity and quality attributes (polyphenols, tocopherols, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic impact on the content of some characteristic secondary metabolites in tomato fruits. The study was conducted to screen 14 different tomato genotypes for antioxidant capacity and quality attributes (polyphenols, tocopherols, carotenoids, vitamin C) to select the genetic lines with high biological value, multiple disease resistance, and high yield capacity for further usage in crop improvement programs. Significant differences were found among the different hybrids and cultivation seasons for the phytochemical content of the fruits. The varieties developed by breeding to increase their resistance were found to differ significantly. During a 3-year cultivation experiment, the level of lycopene in freshly harvested fruits ranged between 10.38 and 63.23 mg.kg−1 fwt for outdoor-cultivated Naik114 and Naik352, respectively. As for β-carotene, its content varied between 0.49 mg.kg−1 for Unorosso and 11.66 mg.kg−1 for Cherrola F1. The highest level of vitamin C (702.59 mg.kg−1) was recorded for Cherrola F1, while the lowest level (1.36.86 mg.kg−1) was determined in fruits of Unorosso. Neither polyphenol nor vitamin C showed positive correlation with antioxidant activity. In the three cultivation seasons, the highest concentration of polyphenols (579.19–804.12 mg.kg−1 fwt) was determined in fruits of outdoor-cultivated Cherolla F1 variety. The α- and γ-tocopherol content varied between 2.56 and 18.99 mg.kg−1, and 0.28 and 9.35 mg.kg−1, respectively, in fresh tomato fruit. Among the newly bred resistant varieties, the ZKI114 variety was proved to have outstanding features concerning the amounts of the bioactive components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvements/Innovations Related to Fruit Varieties)
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23 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
Phytochemicals and Their Correlation with Molecular Data in Micromeria and Clinopodium (Lamiaceae) Taxa
by Dario Kremer, Valerija Dunkić, Ivan Radosavljević, Faruk Bogunić, Daniella Ivanova, Dalibor Ballian, Danijela Stešević, Vlado Matevski, Vladimir Ranđelović, Eleni Eleftheriadou, Zlatko Šatović and Zlatko Liber
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3407; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233407 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
A study of the phytochemical and molecular characteristics of ten Micromeria and six Clinopodium taxa (family Lamiaceae) distributed in the Balkan Peninsula was carried out. The phytochemicals detected in essential oils by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and molecular data amplified fragment length polymorphism [...] Read more.
A study of the phytochemical and molecular characteristics of ten Micromeria and six Clinopodium taxa (family Lamiaceae) distributed in the Balkan Peninsula was carried out. The phytochemicals detected in essential oils by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and molecular data amplified fragment length polymorphism were used to study the taxonomic relationships among the taxa and the correlations between phytochemical and molecular data. STRUCTURE analysis revealed three genetic groups, while Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure grouped the studied taxa into 11 clusters nested in the groups obtained by STRUCTURE. Principal components analysis performed with the 21 most represented compounds in the essential oils yielded results that were partly consistent with those obtained by STRUCTURE and neighbour-joining analyses. However, their geographic distributions did not support the genetic grouping of the studied taxa and populations. The Mantel test showed a significant correlation between the phytochemical and genetic data (r = 0.421, p < 0.001). Genetic distance explained 17.8% of the phytochemical distance between populations. The current taxonomic position of several of the studied taxa is yet to be satisfactorily resolved, and further studies are needed. Such future research should include nuclear and plastid DNA sequences from a larger sample of populations and individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemistry of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants)
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15 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Morphoanatomical, Physiological, and Biochemical Indicators in Lactuca sativa L. Germination and Growth in Response to Fluoride
by Arthur Almeida Rodrigues, Douglas Almeida Rodrigues, Juliana de Fátima Sales, Sebastião Carvalho Vasconcelos Filho, Alan Carlos Costa, Cássia Lino Rodrigues, Adinan Alves da Silva, Marisa Domingos and Caroline Müller
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233406 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Fluoride is one of the main phytotoxic environmental pollutants, and high concentrations (10–30 mg L−1) are commonly detected in surface and groundwater. Little, however, is known about the effects of this pollutant on crops that require irrigation during their development, which, [...] Read more.
Fluoride is one of the main phytotoxic environmental pollutants, and high concentrations (10–30 mg L−1) are commonly detected in surface and groundwater. Little, however, is known about the effects of this pollutant on crops that require irrigation during their development, which, in addition to phytotoxicity, may cause negative human health effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of potassium fluoride (KF) on the germination of lettuce seeds and identify the physiological and anatomical markers of this pollutant’s action on plants exposed to it during growth. Initially, lettuce seeds were sown in gerboxes and soaked in solutions containing 0 mg L−1, 10 mg L−1, 20 mg L−1, and 30 mg L−1 KF. Plants grown in a greenhouse were treated daily with KF irrigation at the same KF concentrations for 40 days. KF exposure reduced the germination rate and germination speed index of lettuce seeds at 20 mg L−1 and 30 mg L−1, resulting in compromised root development at the highest KF concentration. Lettuce plants displayed a slight photosynthesis reduction and a significant photochemical efficiency decrease after exposures to all KF concentrations. Lower chlorophyll contents and nitrogen balance indices were observed in plants exposed to 30 mg L−1 KF. On the other hand, increases in phenolic compounds and malondialdehyde were noted with increasing KF concentrations. Lettuce plants can, therefore, accumulate fluoride in leaves when irrigated with KF-rich water. The investigated physiological and biochemical variables were proven to be adequate fluoride action biomarkers in lettuce plants and may become an important tool in the study of olericulture contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seed Physiology)
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12 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
The Use of Mycoendophyte-Based Bioformulations to Control Apple Diseases: Toward an Organic Apple Production System in the Aurès (Algeria)
by Oussama A. Bensaci, Toufik Aliat, Rafik Berdja, Anna V. Popkova, Dmitry E. Kucher, Regina R. Gurina and Nazih Y. Rebouh
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233405 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of bioformulations based on endophytic fungi to control apple scab and Valsa canker disease in two orchards in the Aurès region (Algeria). In both orchards, the results showed that the treatment of senescent apple leaves [...] Read more.
The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of bioformulations based on endophytic fungi to control apple scab and Valsa canker disease in two orchards in the Aurès region (Algeria). In both orchards, the results showed that the treatment of senescent apple leaves by invert emulsions containing Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Chaetomium globosum harmed the ascogenesis of winter forms of Venturia inaequalis by reducing the number of ascospore-ejecting asci, the number of morphologically mature asci, and a considerable increase in the immature asci number. This antifungal activity was more essential in soil-incorporated leaves, showing the importance of the combination of treatments with cultural practices to efficiently control the apple scab disease. Furthermore, the disease incidence decreased by 52.63% and 50.68% in R’haouat and Bouhmama orchards, respectively. Moreover, the treatment of Valsa ceratosperma cankers with a biogel containing the endophytic yeast Metschnikowia sp. led to wound healing varying from 43.52% and 87.97% after 120 days but remained more considerable than conventional treatment with Folicur (tebuconazol). The current results open real opportunities concerning the implementation of eco-friendly and potent apple protection systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi in Biological Control)
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24 pages, 573 KiB  
Review
Plant-Associated Bacteria as Sources for the Development of Bioherbicides
by Wei Fang, Fang Liu, Zhaoyuan Wu, Zhigang Zhang and Kaimei Wang
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3404; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233404 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Weeds cause significant yield losses in crop production and influence the health of animals and humans, with some exotic weeds even leading to ecological crises. Weed control mainly relies on the application of chemical herbicides, but their adverse influences on the environment and [...] Read more.
Weeds cause significant yield losses in crop production and influence the health of animals and humans, with some exotic weeds even leading to ecological crises. Weed control mainly relies on the application of chemical herbicides, but their adverse influences on the environment and food safety are a significant concern. Much effort has been put into using microbes as bioherbicides for weed control. As plant-associated bacteria (PAB), they are widely present in the rhizophere, inside crops or weeds, or as pathogens of weeds. Many species of PAB inhibit the seed germination and growth of weeds through the production of phytotoxic metabolites, auxins, hydrogen cyanide, etc. The performance of PAB herbicides is influenced by environmental factors, formulation type, surfactants, additives, application methods, and cropping measures, etc. These factors might explain the inconsistencies between field performance and in vitro screening results, but this remains to be clarified. Successful bioherbicides must be specific to the target weeds or the coinciding weeds. Detailed studies, regarding factors such as the formulation, application techniques, and combination with cultivation measures, should be carried out to maximize the performance of PAB-based bioherbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioherbicide Development for Weed Control)
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7 pages, 1285 KiB  
Communication
Exploring the Rice Cultivars in Large-Scale Chinese Local Gazetteers: A Computational Approach
by Yuehua Li and Hui Li
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3403; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233403 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Chinese local gazetteers have long been widely used by scholars to investigate the local products, culture, economy, and much more. Confronted with large-scale digitized resources nowadays, researchers can explore historical texts in a novel way. In this paper, we propose a computational approach [...] Read more.
Chinese local gazetteers have long been widely used by scholars to investigate the local products, culture, economy, and much more. Confronted with large-scale digitized resources nowadays, researchers can explore historical texts in a novel way. In this paper, we propose a computational approach in order to perform large-scale quantitative analysis of plant knowledge embedded in Chinese local gazetteers. We select the typical rice cultivars by their occurrences in the records, interpret their common features, and leverage the data clustering algorithm to investigate the inner connections among cultivars. We conduct a case study on a dataset of records of rice cultivars over 8 centuries in Jiangsu Province, China. We find that although planting early-season rice in Jiangsu province was the common practice, the local rice farmers cared more about the color, quality, and uses of cultivars than their sowing time. In addition, not all the rice varieties mentioned frequently in records are local plants. Plants imported from other provinces or countries were also highly recorded because of their good quality and special characteristics. Our study offers a practical guide and reference to history study as well as useful clues for modern agriculture. Full article
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16 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
An Updated Checklist of the Genus Capparis L. (Capparaceae) in Vietnam, including a New Species from Hon Tre Island
by Silvio Fici, Leonid V. Averyanov and Danh Thuong Sy
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3402; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233402 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556 | Correction
Abstract
The Indochinese Peninsula is a main center of speciation of Capparis, but the taxonomic treatment of the genus is still critical in this area. With regard to Vietnam, a discordant number of species was recorded by different authors during the last century, [...] Read more.
The Indochinese Peninsula is a main center of speciation of Capparis, but the taxonomic treatment of the genus is still critical in this area. With regard to Vietnam, a discordant number of species was recorded by different authors during the last century, whereas various new species have been recently described. An updated checklist of the intrageneric taxa occurring in the country is here presented, including a new species from the island of Hon Tre, Khanh Hoa Province. The genus comprises in Vietnam 37 species, 9 subspecies and 3 varieties, all belonging to Capparis sect. Monostichocalyx. The study area, with 10 endemic species, is confirmed as one of the hotspots of the genus. Three lectotypes are also selected. The new species here described and illustrated, C. oxycarpa, is related to C. pranensis, differing in the few-flowered subumbels, narrower sepals, smaller petals, longer filaments and smaller, apiculate fruit; its affinities with related taxa and conservation status are discussed, and data on its ecology and phenology are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Systematics and Taxonomy)
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27 pages, 16091 KiB  
Article
The TaGSK1, TaSRG, TaPTF1, and TaP5CS Gene Transcripts Confirm Salinity Tolerance by Increasing Proline Production in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
by Murat Aycan, Marouane Baslam, Toshiaki Mitsui and Mustafa Yildiz
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3401; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233401 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that reduces yield and threatens food security in the world’s arid and semi-arid regions. The development of salt-tolerant genotypes is critical for mitigating yield losses, and this journey begins with the identification of sensitive and tolerant plants. [...] Read more.
Salinity is an abiotic stress factor that reduces yield and threatens food security in the world’s arid and semi-arid regions. The development of salt-tolerant genotypes is critical for mitigating yield losses, and this journey begins with the identification of sensitive and tolerant plants. Numerous physiologic and molecular markers for detecting salt-tolerant wheat genotypes have been developed. One of them is proline, which has been used for a long time but has received little information about proline-related genes in wheat genotypes. In this study, proline content and the expression levels of proline-related genes (TaPTF1, TaDHN, TaSRG, TaSC, TaPIMP1, TaMIP, TaHKT1;4, TaGSK, TaP5CS, and TaMYB) were examined in sensitive, moderate, and tolerant genotypes under salt stress (0, 50, 150, and 250 mM NaCl) for 0, 12, and 24 h. Our results show that salt stress increased the proline content in all genotypes, but it was found higher in salt-tolerant genotypes than in moderate and sensitive genotypes. The salinity stress increased gene expression levels in salt-tolerant and moderate genotypes. While salt-stress exposure for 12 and 24 h had a substantial effect on gene expression in wheat, TaPTF1, TaPIMP1, TaMIP, TaHKT1;4, and TaMYB genes were considerably upregulated in 24 h. The salt-tolerant genotypes showed a higher positive interaction than a negative interaction. The TaPTF1, TaP5CS, TaGSK1, and TaSRG genes were found to be more selective than the other analyzed genes under salt-stress conditions. Despite each gene’s specific function, increasing proline biosynthesis functioned as a common mechanism for separating salt tolerance from sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crops and Environmental Stresses: Phenomes to Genomes)
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14 pages, 1320 KiB  
Review
Cell Membrane Features as Potential Breeding Targets to Improve Cold Germination Ability of Seeds
by Lakhvir Kaur Dhaliwal and Rosalyn B. Angeles-Shim
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3400; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233400 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Cold stress breeding that focuses on the improvement of chilling tolerance at the germination stage is constrained by the complexities of the trait which involves integrated cellular, biochemical, hormonal and molecular responses. Biological membrane serves as the first line of plant defense under [...] Read more.
Cold stress breeding that focuses on the improvement of chilling tolerance at the germination stage is constrained by the complexities of the trait which involves integrated cellular, biochemical, hormonal and molecular responses. Biological membrane serves as the first line of plant defense under stress. Membranes receive cold stress signals and transduce them into intracellular responses. Low temperature stress, in particular, primarily and effectively affects the structure, composition and properties of cell membranes, which ultimately disturbs cellular homeostasis. Under cold stress, maintenance of membrane integrity through the alteration of membrane lipid composition is of prime importance to cope with the stress. This review describes the critical role of cell membranes in cold stress responses as well as the physiological and biochemical manifestations of cold stress in plants. The potential of cell membrane properties as breeding targets in developing strategies to improve cold germination ability is discussed using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as a model. Full article
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20 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
Neutrophil Immunomodulatory Activity of Nerolidol, a Major Component of Essential Oils from Populus balsamifera Buds and Propolis
by Igor A. Schepetkin, Gulmira Özek, Temel Özek, Liliya N. Kirpotina, Polina I. Kokorina, Andrei I. Khlebnikov and Mark T. Quinn
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233399 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees. Black poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) buds are one of the primary sources of propolis. Despite their reported therapeutic properties, little is known about the innate immunomodulatory [...] Read more.
Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees. Black poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) buds are one of the primary sources of propolis. Despite their reported therapeutic properties, little is known about the innate immunomodulatory activity of essential oils from P. balsamifera and propolis. In the present studies, essential oils were isolated from the buds of P. balsamifera and propolis collected in Montana. The main components of the essential oil from P. balsamifera were E-nerolidol (64.0%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%), benzyl benzoate (3.7%), α-terpinyl acetate (2.7%), α-pinene (1.8%), o-methyl anisol (1.8%), salicylaldehyde (1.8%), and benzyl salicylate (1.6%). Likewise, the essential oil from propolis was enriched with E-nerolidol (14.4%), cabreuva oxide-VI (7.9%), α-bisabolol (7.1%), benzyl benzoate (6.1%), β-eudesmol (3.6%), T-cadinol (3.1%), 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (3.1%), α-eudesmol (3.0%), fokienol (2.2%), nerolidol oxide derivative (1.9%), decanal (1.8%), 3-butenyl benzene (1.5%), 1,4-dihydronaphthalene (1.5%), selina-4,11-diene (1.5%), α-cadinol (1.5%), linalool (1.4%), γ-cadinene (1.4%), 2-phenylethyl-2-methyl butyrate (1.4%), 2-methyl-2-butenol (1.3%), octanal (1.1%), benzylacetone (1.1%), and eremoligenol (1.1%). A comparison between P. balsamifera and propolis essential oils demonstrated that 22 compounds were found in both essential oil samples. Both were enriched in E-nerolidol and its derivatives, including cabreuva oxide VI and nerolidol oxides. P. balsamifera and propolis essential oils and pure nerolidol activated Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils. Since these treatments activated neutrophils, the essential oil samples were also evaluated for their ability to down-regulate the neutrophil responses to subsequent agonist activation. Indeed, treatment with P. balsamifera and propolis essential oils inhibited subsequent activation of these cells by the N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) agonist fMLF and the FPR2 agonist WKYMVM. Likewise, nerolidol inhibited human neutrophil activation induced by fMLF (IC50 = 4.0 μM) and WKYMVM (IC50 = 3.7 μM). Pretreatment with the essential oils and nerolidol also inhibited human neutrophil chemotaxis induced by fMLF, again suggesting that these treatments down-regulated human neutrophil responses to inflammatory chemoattractants. Finally, reverse pharmacophore mapping predicted several potential kinase targets for nerolidol. Thus, our studies have identified nerolidol as a potential anti-inflammatory modulator of human neutrophils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Medicinal Chemistry of Aromatic Plants)
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14 pages, 21402 KiB  
Article
Luffa cylindrica Intercropping with Semen cassiae—A Production Practice of Improving Land Use in Soil Contaminated with Arsenic
by Weizhen Chen, Yanan Yang, Dele Meng, Jidong Ying, Huiyin Huang and Huashou Li
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233398 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
In recent years, research on the safe utilization and green remediation of contaminated soil by intercropping has become common. In this study, the growth of an intercropping system of Luffa cylindricaSemen cassiae in soil contaminated with medium amounts of arsenic (As) [...] Read more.
In recent years, research on the safe utilization and green remediation of contaminated soil by intercropping has become common. In this study, the growth of an intercropping system of Luffa cylindricaSemen cassiae in soil contaminated with medium amounts of arsenic (As) was studied using field (91.60 mg kg−1) and pot (83.34 mg kg−1) experiments. The field experiments showed that intercropping significantly increased the yield per plant of L. cylindrica by 27.36%, while the yield per plant of S. cassiae decreased by 21.66%; however, this difference was not significant. Intercropping reduced the concentration of As in all organs of L. cylindrica but increased the concentration of As in all parts of S. cassiae. The accumulation of As per plant of L. cylindrica was reduced by 20.72%, while that in a single plant of S. cassiae was increased by 201.93%. In addition, the concentration of As in the fruit of these two crops in these two planting modes was low enough to meet the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB2762-2017). In addition, the land equivalent ratio and As metal removal equivalent ratio of the intercropping mode was 1.03 and 2.34, indicating that the intercropping mode had advantages in land use and As removal. In the pot experiment, the biomass and As concentration of L. cylindrica and S. cassiae were roughly consistent with those in the field experiment. During the sampling period, intercropping reduced the concentration of As in the rhizosphere soil solution of L. cylindrica by 3.1–23.77%, while it increased the concentration of As in the rhizosphere soil solution of S. cassiae by 13.30–59.40%. The changes in pH and redox potential were also closely related to the content of water-soluble As in the rhizosphere environment, which affects the absorption of As by plants. In general, the L. cylindricaS. cassiae intercropping system is a planting mode that can effectively treat soil that is moderately contaminated with As and remove it from the soil to an extent. Full article
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13 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxic Activities and Fingerprint Analysis of Triterpenes by HPTLC Technique for Distinguishing Ganoderma Species from Vietnam and other Asian Countries
by Tran Viet Hung, Phan Nguyen Truong Thang, Ha Minh Hien, Vu Thi Diep, Nguyen Thi Thu, Duong Minh Tan, Duy Toan Pham, Do Thi Ha and Duyen Thi My Huynh
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3397; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233397 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. (Ganodermataceae), commonly called Linhzhi, is traditionally employed in the treatment of human diseases, including hepatitis, liver disorders, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, bronchitis, and tumorigenic diseases. In this study, the fingerprint profiles of five different strains of G. lucidum originated from [...] Read more.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. (Ganodermataceae), commonly called Linhzhi, is traditionally employed in the treatment of human diseases, including hepatitis, liver disorders, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, bronchitis, and tumorigenic diseases. In this study, the fingerprint profiles of five different strains of G. lucidum originated from Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam, five samples of G. lucidum growing on Erythrophloeum fordii Oliv. in Vietnam, and five related Linhzhi species (Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma clossum, Ganoderma subresinosu, and Ganoderma sp.) were investigated for triterpene derivatives using high-pressure, thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The HPTLC fingerprint profiles demonstrated significant differences between G. lucidum and other related Linhzhi species in the presence of triterpene derivatives. Evaluation for the cytotoxicity of these samples against four cancer cell lines, including A549, MCF7, PC3, and HepG2, displayed various levels of cytotoxic effects, with IC50 values of: 15.6–46.3 µg/mL on the A549 cancer cell line, of 18.4–43.6 µg/mL on the MCF7 cancer cell line, of 10.0–32.1 µg/mL on the PC3 cancer cell line, and of 10.6–27.6 µg/mL on the HepG2 cancer cell line. Conclusively, these data contributed to the literature on the cytotoxic activities and fingerprint analysis of triterpenes by the HPTLC technique for distinguishing Ganoderma species from Vietnam and other Asian countries. Full article
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15 pages, 1691 KiB  
Article
Influence of Bacteria of the Genus Pseudomonas on Leguminous Plants and Their Joint Application for Bioremediation of Oil Contaminated Soils
by Elena Kuzina, Svetlana Mukhamatdyarova, Yuliyana Sharipova, Ainur Makhmutov, Larisa Belan and Tatyana Korshunova
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3396; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233396 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
The modern approach to the creation of biological products to stimulate plant growth is based on the study of specific inter-bacterial interactions. This study describes the impact that the introduction of strains of the genus Pseudomonas has on annual and perennial leguminous plants [...] Read more.
The modern approach to the creation of biological products to stimulate plant growth is based on the study of specific inter-bacterial interactions. This study describes the impact that the introduction of strains of the genus Pseudomonas has on annual and perennial leguminous plants and the ecosystem of the leguminous plant—the indigenous microbial community. The objects of research under the conditions of vegetation experiments were plants of field peas (Pisum sativum L.), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. varia (Martyn) Arcang.), and white sweet clover (Melilotus albus Medik.). For the treatment of plant seeds, a liquid culture of strains of growth-stimulating bacteria Pseudomonas koreensis IB-4, and P. laurentiana ANT 17 was used. The positive effect of the studied strains on the germination, growth and development of plants was established. There was no inhibitory effect of inoculants on rhizobia; on the contrary, an increase in nodule formation was observed. The possibility of recultivation of oil-contaminated soil using chickpea and alfalfa as phytomeliorants and growth-stimulating strains P. koreensis IB-4, P. laurentiana ANT 17 as inoculants was evaluated. It is proved that seed treatment improved the morphological parameters of plants, as well as the efficiency of oil destruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Soil Interactions)
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15 pages, 700 KiB  
Review
Cisplatin-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Effect of Herbal Medicines
by Yuchan Shin, Bonglee Kim and Woojin Kim
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3395; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233395 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3213
Abstract
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used to treat various types of cancers. However, its side effects, most commonly nausea and vomiting, limit its widespread use. Although various drugs, such as ondansetron and aprepitant, are used to alleviate these side effects, [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used to treat various types of cancers. However, its side effects, most commonly nausea and vomiting, limit its widespread use. Although various drugs, such as ondansetron and aprepitant, are used to alleviate these side effects, their efficacy is still debated. This review aims to summarize the results of 14 studies on the effects of seven single herbal extracts, one multiple herbal extract, and one ginger sub-component (i.e., [6]-gingerol) on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. The results of the included studies were subdivided into four categories: kaolin consumption, retching and vomiting, food intake, and weight loss. Most studies used rodents, whereas four studies used minks or pigeons. The doses of cisplatin used in the studies varied from 3 mg/kg to 7.5 mg/kg, and only a single injection was used. Nine studies analyzed the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines and assessed the involvement of neurotransmitters, cytokines, enzymes, and various hematological parameters. Although further research is needed, this review suggests herbal medicine as a viable treatment option for cisplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Toxicological Study of Medicinal Plants)
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14 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Analysis of Rhizosphere Soil of Bayberry-Decline-Disease Plants in China
by Gang Li, Jingjing Liu, Yu Tian, Han Chen and Haiying Ren
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3394; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233394 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
The rampant bayberry decline disease has been regarded as related to soil with the long-term plantation bayberry. These parameters, hydrogen, aluminum, other alkali cations, and plant-related nutrients, were measured from the soil around diseased tree roots 10, 20, and 30 years old. The [...] Read more.
The rampant bayberry decline disease has been regarded as related to soil with the long-term plantation bayberry. These parameters, hydrogen, aluminum, other alkali cations, and plant-related nutrients, were measured from the soil around diseased tree roots 10, 20, and 30 years old. The pH significantly declined in topsoil with increasing tree age and rose with increasing depth of the soil layer with an age of 10, 20, and 30 years. The concentration of exchangeable aluminum has risen significantly with the increase of the tree ages in the top soil layer and also in 0 to 40 cm soils layer with ten-year-old trees. In the top soil layer with a depth of 0 to 10 cm, the cation concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ has fallen significantly with the increase of tree ages. A higher concentration of exchangeable aluminum was observed in the soil with trees more seriously affected by the disease and was accompanied with lower concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. The correlation analysis showed that the soil pH is significantly positively related to the concentration of exchangeable Ca2+, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus and negatively to exchangeable aluminum. These findings provided a new insight to mitigate the disease by regulating the soil parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Disease Control in Crops)
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16 pages, 1087 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Various Population of Brassica tournefortii Growing Wild in Tunisia
by Hajer Tlili, Abdelkarim Ben Arfa, Abdelbasset Boubakri, Najjaa Hanen, Mohamed Neffati and Enrico Doria
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3393; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233393 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Brassica tournefortii Gouan, commonly known (Aslooz) in Tunisia, is an annual plant, native to the North Africa and Middle East. Brassica species are used as food, their young leaves can be cooked, providing nutrients and health-giving phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, polyphenols [...] Read more.
Brassica tournefortii Gouan, commonly known (Aslooz) in Tunisia, is an annual plant, native to the North Africa and Middle East. Brassica species are used as food, their young leaves can be cooked, providing nutrients and health-giving phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, polyphenols and carotenoids. Phytochemical composition and bioactivity of Brassica tournefortii leaf extracts, collected from four different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia, are investigated in the present study. Results showed that location and climatic variations can alter the phytochemical composition of B. tournefortii. Interestingly, HPLC analysis enabled identifying lutein and beta-carotene at high concentrations, especially in extracts of B. tournefortii collected from Gabes (B2) (344 µg/g of lutein) and B. tournefortii collected from Zarzis (B3) (1364 µg/g of beta-carotene). In particular, the antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay showed that the extract of the plants collected from the growing region of Zarzis exhibits the highest antioxidant activities (0.99 mg/mL). All the Brassica tournefortii extracts showed a relevant antiproliferative activity, especially toward the Caco-2 cell line. These preliminary data resulted in being useful to correlate growth environmental conditions with different accumulation of metabolites in Brassica species still being poorly studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)
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13 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Contrasting Responses of Alien and Ancient Forest Indicator Plant Species to Fragmentation Process in the Temperate Lowland Forests
by Mirjana Šipek, Lado Kutnar, Aleksander Marinšek and Nina Šajna
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3392; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233392 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity. In a fragmented landscape, forest specialists are losing suitable forest habitats with specific site and microclimate conditions, which results in their local extinction. Conversely, the invasion of alien species is facilitated by open forest [...] Read more.
Fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity. In a fragmented landscape, forest specialists are losing suitable forest habitats with specific site and microclimate conditions, which results in their local extinction. Conversely, the invasion of alien species is facilitated by open forest areas and increased boundaries between forest fragments and adjacent land. We studied the effect of fragmentation in terms of fragment size impact on overall plant species richness and on selected ecologically important groups’ richness, composition, and diversity. We surveyed vegetation in the interior of 47 fragments of various sizes and one unfragmented reference forest. Our results reveal that the effect of fragmentation is complex and differs for studied plant groups. Decreasing fragment size negatively affects the overall plant richness and richness of native and ancient forest indicator plants as well as their diversity, while the effect is positive for alien plants. The highest proportion of ancient forest indicator plant species and the lowest proportion of alien plants in the unfragmented forest underline the great conservation value of forest fragments. At the same time, our results reveal that large and diverse forest ecosystems are susceptible to biological invasions as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Invasion)
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15 pages, 2394 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Influence of Biodiversity on Soil Respiration in a Temperate Forest
by Mengxu Zhang, Emma J. Sayer, Weidong Zhang, Ji Ye, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Zhanqing Hao, Shuai Fang, Zikun Mao, Jing Ren and Xugao Wang
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3391; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233391 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
Soil respiration in forests contributes to significant carbon dioxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems but it varies both spatially and seasonally. Both abiotic and biotic factors influence soil respiration but their relative contribution to spatial and seasonal variability remains poorly understood, which leads to [...] Read more.
Soil respiration in forests contributes to significant carbon dioxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems but it varies both spatially and seasonally. Both abiotic and biotic factors influence soil respiration but their relative contribution to spatial and seasonal variability remains poorly understood, which leads to uncertainty in models of global C cycling and predictions of future climate change. Here, we hypothesize that tree diversity, soil diversity, and soil properties contribute to local-scale variability of soil respiration but their relative importance changes in different seasons. To test our hypothesis, we conducted seasonal soil respiration measurements along a local-scale environmental gradient in a temperate forest in Northeast China, analyzed spatial variability of soil respiration and tested the relationships between soil respiration and a variety of abiotic and biotic factors including topography, soil chemical properties, and plant and soil diversity. We found that soil respiration varied substantially across the study site, with spatial coefficients of variation (CV) of 29.1%, 27.3% and 30.8% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively. Soil respiration was consistently lower at high soil water content, but the influence of other factors was seasonal. In spring, soil respiration increased with tree diversity and biomass but decreased with soil fungal diversity. In summer, soil respiration increased with soil temperature, whereas in autumn, soil respiration increased with tree diversity but decreased with increasing soil nutrient content. However, soil nutrient content indirectly enhanced soil respiration via its effect on tree diversity across seasons, and forest stand structure indirectly enhanced soil respiration via tree diversity in spring. Our results highlight that substantial differences in soil respiration at local scales was jointly explained by soil properties (soil water content and soil nutrients), tree diversity, and soil fungal diversity but the relative importance of these drivers varied seasonally in our temperate forest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maintenance and Function of Biodiversity in Forests)
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23 pages, 6733 KiB  
Article
Study on Flavonoids and Bioactivity Features of Pericarp of Citrus reticulata “Chachi” at Different Harvest Periods
by Shejian Liang, Jiongbin Zhang, Yufang Liu, Zhijia Wen, Xinxin Liu, Fengliang Dang, Tianxiao Xie, Jingxin Wang, Zhanqian Wang and Hong Wu
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233390 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Dry mature pericarp of Citrus reticulata “Chachi” (PCR), Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Chachiensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that displays characteristics of different usage at different harvest times in clinical use. The corresponding changes in the bioactive components in PCR from different harvest times [...] Read more.
Dry mature pericarp of Citrus reticulata “Chachi” (PCR), Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Chachiensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that displays characteristics of different usage at different harvest times in clinical use. The corresponding changes in the bioactive components in PCR from different harvest times remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, broadly targeted metabolomics technology was used to compare the differences in bioactive components among pericarps of PCR, which are the raw material of PCR at different growth stages. In the results, 210 kinds of flavonoid metabolites were detected. The content of hesperidin in red PCR harvested in December was higher than that in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride (CRPV) and reddish PCR harvested from July to November. Furthermore, the content of nobiletin, tangeretin, and 3,3′,4′,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone in CRPV from July to September was higher than that in the PCR harvested at other times. In addition, the result of cluster analysis and PCA showed that CRPV harvested from July to September had an obvious grouping pattern with the reddish PCR and the red PCR harvested from October to December. Differential metabolites in six comparison groups (A1 vs. A6, A1 vs. A2, A2 vs. A3, A3 vs. A4, A4 vs. A5, A5 vs. A6) were 67, 48, 14, 51, 42, and 40, respectively. The common differential metabolite of four comparison groups was 3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavone (A1 vs. A2, A2 vs. A3, A3 vs. A4, A4 vs. A5). All the flavonoid differential metabolites screened were enriched in 16 metabolic pathways. Moreover, the results of the evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity indicated that CRPV in August was a suitable raw material for the production of antioxidants. Through molecular docking, the content of potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 components in the PCR in October was higher than that in the PCR in other periods. These results further proved that PCR at different harvest times was endowed with different efficacy and usage due to the difference in the accumulation of bioactive components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphogenesis and Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants)
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12 pages, 3412 KiB  
Article
MdWRKY120 Enhance Apple Susceptibility to Alternaria alternata
by Lifu Liu, Xiaoming Li, Wei Guo, Jiajun Shi, Wenjun Chen, Yingying Lei, Yue Ma and Hongyan Dai
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233389 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) is a common pathogen that greatly influences apples’ quantity and quality. However, chemical treatments produce increased health risks along with decreased food and environmental safety. Advancements in plant molecular biology, such as transgenic technology, have increased apple trees’ [...] Read more.
Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) is a common pathogen that greatly influences apples’ quantity and quality. However, chemical treatments produce increased health risks along with decreased food and environmental safety. Advancements in plant molecular biology, such as transgenic technology, have increased apple trees’ resistance to pathogens and have therefore attracted widespread attention. WRKY transcription factors are involved in abiotic and biotic stress regulation; however, their biological role in non-model plants such as apple, is still unknown. In this investigation, MdWRKY120 was isolated from the ‘GL-3′ apple to determine its function during Alternaria alternate infection. The MdWRKY120-GFP fusion protein was located in the nucleus. MdWRKY120 in yeast cells exhibited activating transcriptional activity, meaning it is a transcription activator. MdWRKY120 overexpression transgenic plants were more sensitive to A. alternata, while RNAi transgenic plants showed increased resistance to A. alternata. This investigation demonstrates that MdWRKY120 enhances the susceptibility of apples to A. alternata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Genetics of Disease Resistance in Fruits)
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14 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility of Novel Promising Citrus Rootstocks to White Root Rot
by Juan M. Arjona-López, Frederick G. Gmitter, Jr., Estefanía Romero-Rodríguez, Jude W. Grosser, Aurea Hervalejo, Carlos J. López-Herrera and Francisco J. Arenas-Arenas
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233388 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Mediterranean countries such as Spain, which is one of the main citrus-producing countries worldwide. Soil-borne pathogens, such as Rosellinia necatrix, are relevant limiting biotic factors in fruit trees, due to their tricky [...] Read more.
Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Mediterranean countries such as Spain, which is one of the main citrus-producing countries worldwide. Soil-borne pathogens, such as Rosellinia necatrix, are relevant limiting biotic factors in fruit trees, due to their tricky management. This fungus is a polyphagous plant pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing white root rot in woody crops, including citrus trees in Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of new plant material against R. necatrix infection. Therefore, plants of 12 different citrus rootstocks were inoculated with one R. necatrix isolate. During the assay, and periodically, above-ground symptoms and chlorophyll content were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, leaf area and plant biomass measures were obtained. Rootstocks B11R5T64 and B11R5T60 achieved the lowest disease incidence of symptoms and reduction of biomass, and were similar to their respective controls in chlorophyll content and leaf area. Carrizo citrange, CL-5146 and UFR-5 were the most affected rootstocks in symptoms and biomass reduction. This work provides information about R. necatrix-tolerant citrus rootstocks, which can constitute a new integrated, sustainable and effective long-term strategy to avoid white root rot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops)
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10 pages, 2083 KiB  
Article
Estrogenic Activity of 4-Hydroxy-Benzoic Acid from Acer tegmentosum via Estrogen Receptor α-Dependent Signaling Pathways
by Quynh Nhu Nguyen, Seoung Rak Lee, Baolo Kim, Joo-Hyun Hong, Yoon Seo Jang, Da Eun Lee, Changhyun Pang, Ki Sung Kang and Ki Hyun Kim
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3387; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233387 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Acer tegmentosum, a deciduous tree belonging to Aceraceae, has been used in traditional oriental medicine for treating hepatic disorders, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. We evaluated the estrogen-like effects of A. tegmentosum using an estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell [...] Read more.
Acer tegmentosum, a deciduous tree belonging to Aceraceae, has been used in traditional oriental medicine for treating hepatic disorders, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. We evaluated the estrogen-like effects of A. tegmentosum using an estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line, namely MCF-7, to identify potential phytoestrogens and found that an aqueous extract of A. tegmentosum promoted cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells. Five phenolic compounds (15) were separated and identified from the active fraction using bioassay-guided fractionation of crude A. tegmentosum extract and phytochemical analysis. The chemical structures of the compounds were characterized as vanillic acid (1), 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2), syringic acid (3), isoscopoletin (4), and (E)-ferulic acid (5) based on the analysis of their nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. All five compounds were evaluated using an E-screen assay for their estrogen-like effects on MCF-7 cells. Among the tested compounds, only 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2) promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, which was mitigated by the ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. The mechanism underlying the estrogen-like effect of 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2) was evaluated via western blotting analysis to determine the expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (AKT), and ERα. Our results demonstrated that 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2) induced the increase in the protein expression levels of p-ERK, p-AKT, p-PI3K, and p-Erα, concentration dependently. Collectively, these experimental results suggest that 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2) is responsible for the estrogen-like effects of A. tegmentosum and may potentially aid in the control of estrogenic effects during menopause. Full article
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27 pages, 8130 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Expression Analysis of R2R3-MYBs and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis-Related Genes during Seed Color Development of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
by Musa Kavas, Mohamed Farah Abdulla, Karam Mostafa, Zafer Seçgin, Bayram Ali Yerlikaya, Çiğdem Otur, Gökhan Gökdemir, Aslıhan Kurt Kızıldoğan, Jameel Mohammed Al-Khayri and Shri Mohan Jain
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3386; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233386 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Anthocyanins are responsible for the coloration of common bean seeds, and their accumulation is positively correlated with the expression level of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The MBW (MYB-bHLH-WD40) complex is thought to regulate the expression of these genes, and MYB proteins, which are a [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are responsible for the coloration of common bean seeds, and their accumulation is positively correlated with the expression level of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The MBW (MYB-bHLH-WD40) complex is thought to regulate the expression of these genes, and MYB proteins, which are a key factor in activating anthocyanin pathway genes, have been identified in several plants. This study demonstrated gene structures, chromosomal placements, gene duplications of R2R3-MYBs, miRNAs associated with R2R3-MYBs, and the interaction of these genes with other flavonoid regulatory genes. qRT-PCR was used to investigate the role of specific R2R3-MYBs and flavonoid genes in common bean seed color development. As a result of a comprehensive analysis with the help of in silico tools, we identified 160 R2R3-MYB genes in the common bean genome. We divided these genes into 16 classes on the basis of their intron-exon and motif structures. Except for three, the rest of the common bean R2R3-MYB members were distributed to all chromosomes with different densities, primarily located on chromosomes 3 and 8. We identified a total of 44 duplicated gene pairs dispersed across 11 chromosomes and evolved under purifying selection (Ka/Ks  <  1), 19 of which were derived from a whole-genome duplication. Our research uncovered 25 putative repressor PvMYB proteins that contain the EAR motif. Additionally, fifty different cis-regulatory elements regulated by light, stress, and hormone were identified. Within the genome of the common bean, we discovered a total of 36 microRNAs that target a total of 72 R2R3-MYB transcripts. The effect of 16 R2R3-MYB genes and 16 phenylpropanoid pathway genes, selected on the basis of their interaction in the protein-protein interaction map, playing role in the regulation of seed coat color development was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 5 different tissues at different developmental stages. The results revealed that these specific genes have different expression levels during different developmental periods, with higher levels in the pod filling and early pod stages than in the rest of the developmental periods. Furthermore, it was shown that PvTT8 (bHLH), PvTT2 (PvMYB42), PvMYB113, PvTTG1, and PvWD68 genes have effects on the regulation of seed coat color. The findings of this study, which is the first to use whole-genome analysis to identify and characterize the R2R3-MYB genes in common bean, may serve as a reference for future functional research in the legume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding and Cultivation Management of Legumes)
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37 pages, 8781 KiB  
Article
DNA Barcoding and Morphometry Reveal Further Cryptic Bio-Diversity within the Pin Nematode Genus Paratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae)
by Juan Emilio Palomares-Rius, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Ilenia Clavero-Camacho, José A. Carreira de la Fuente, Ana Rey, Benjamín Viñegla, Gracia Liébanas, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete and Pablo Castillo
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3385; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233385 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Paratylenchus species are obligate ectoparasitic nematodes on cultivated and wild herbaceous and woody plants occupying numerous soil categories. Several species may cause damage to several crops (viz. P. dianthus, P. enigmaticus, P. microdorus, P. hamatus and P. epacris [...] Read more.
Paratylenchus species are obligate ectoparasitic nematodes on cultivated and wild herbaceous and woody plants occupying numerous soil categories. Several species may cause damage to several crops (viz. P. dianthus, P. enigmaticus, P. microdorus, P. hamatus and P. epacris on carnation, lettuce, rose and walnut, respectively). This investigation proves and emphasizes the relevance of applying integrative taxonomy for the accurate detection of Paratylenchus species in mountainous wild environments in the Malaga province, Southern Spain. This research analyzed 45 soil samples of maritimus pine and one of green heather in southern Spain and identified fourteen Paratylenchus species, two of them are described herein as new species (P. paraaonli sp. nov., P. plesiostraeleni sp. nov.), six of them were first reports for Spain (P. canchicus, P. nainianus, P. neonanus, P. salubris, Paratylenchus sp. 2 SAS, and P. wuae), and six species (P. caravaquenus, P. microdorus, P. nanus, P. neoamblycephalus, P. sheri, and P. variabilis) have been already reported in Spain. Accordingly, these data increase the biodiversity of pin nematodes in Spain comprising a total of 47 species (33.1% out of 142 total species of this genus). Phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal and mitochondrial markers (D2-D3, ITS, and partial COI) resulted in a consistent position for the newly described Paratylenchus species in this study (P. plesiostraeleni sp. nov., P. paraaonli sp. nov.). Paratylenchus plesiostraeleni sp. nov. grouped in a separated subclade as unequivocal species from the P. straeleni-complex species (including P. straeleni and P. parastraeleni), and P. paraaonli sp. nov. clustered with P. vitecus, but clearly separate from this species. This study indicates that Paratylenchus species diversity in natural environments may be higher than expected, and this study may help in accurate identifications. Full article
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13 pages, 3675 KiB  
Article
Effects of Piper betle L. Extract and Allelochemical Eugenol on Rice and Associated Weeds Germination and Seedling Growth
by Chonnanit Choopayak, Kodchakorn Aranyakanon, Nuttamon Prompakdee, Pranee Nangngam, Anupan Kongbangkerd and Kumrop Ratanasut
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233384 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Natural herbicide is considered as a sustainable approach for weed management in agriculture. Here, allelopathic activities of Piper betle L. extract (BE) and known allelochemical eugenol (EU) were studied against rice and associated weeds in terms of germination and seedling growth. Five plant [...] Read more.
Natural herbicide is considered as a sustainable approach for weed management in agriculture. Here, allelopathic activities of Piper betle L. extract (BE) and known allelochemical eugenol (EU) were studied against rice and associated weeds in terms of germination and seedling growth. Five plant species including a rice crop (Oryza sativa L.); a dicot weed, false daisy (Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.); and three monocot weeds, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.), swollen fingergrass (Chloris barbata Sw.), and weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Roshev.) were studied. The paper-based results demonstrated that BE and EU had inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth. The IC50 values of BE and EU for seed germination were ranked from swollen fingergrass, to false daisy, barnyard grass, rice, and weedy rice, respectively. The ratio of root to shoot length of the seedlings indicated that the roots were more affected by the treatments than the shoots. In addition, the gel-based results showed the reduction of the rice seedling root system, especially on lateral root length and the numbers upon the treatments. Taken together, BE had an allelopathic activity similar to that of EU. Interestingly, the major paddy weed, barnyard grass, was more sensitive to BE than rice, underlining BE as a natural herbicide in rice agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biological Activity of Plant Extracts)
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20 pages, 4552 KiB  
Article
The Outline of Seed Silhouettes: A Morphological Approach to Silene (Caryophyllaceae)
by José Javier Martín-Gómez, José Luis Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Ángel Tocino, Bohuslav Janoušek, Ana Juan and Emilio Cervantes
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3383; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233383 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
Seed morphology is an important source of information for plant taxonomy. Nevertheless, the characters under study are diverse, and a simple, unified method is lacking in the literature. A new method for the classification of seeds of the genus Silene based on optical [...] Read more.
Seed morphology is an important source of information for plant taxonomy. Nevertheless, the characters under study are diverse, and a simple, unified method is lacking in the literature. A new method for the classification of seeds of the genus Silene based on optical images and image analysis has recently been described on the basis of morphological measurements of the lateral seed views. According to the outline of their silhouettes, seeds from 52 species (49 of Silene and three related species) were classified in three groups: smooth, rugose and echinate, revealing remarkable differences between these groups. This methodology has been applied here to 51 new species, making a total of 100 species of Silene analyzed so far. According to our data, a new group was described, termed papillose. The results showed morphological differences between the four mentioned seed groups, with reduced values of circularity for dorsal and lateral seed views in the papillose and echinate groups and reduced values of solidity in the papillose seeds. The method was applied to the analysis of individual as well as to average seed silhouettes and some of the differences between groups were maintained in both cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
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22 pages, 2490 KiB  
Review
Phytotoxic Metabolites Produced by Fungi Involved in Grapevine Trunk Diseases: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities
by Pierluigi Reveglia, Regina Billones-Baaijens and Sandra Savocchia
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233382 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), caused by fungal pathogens, are a serious threat to vineyards worldwide, causing significant yield and economic loss. To date, curative methods are not available for GTDs, and the relationship between the pathogen and symptom expression is poorly understood. Several [...] Read more.
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), caused by fungal pathogens, are a serious threat to vineyards worldwide, causing significant yield and economic loss. To date, curative methods are not available for GTDs, and the relationship between the pathogen and symptom expression is poorly understood. Several plant pathologists, molecular biologists, and chemists have been investigating different aspects of the pathogenicity, biochemistry, and chemical ecology of the fungal species involved in GTDs. Many studies have been conducted to investigate virulence factors, including the chemical characterization of phytotoxic metabolites (PMs) that assist fungi in invading and colonizing crops such as grapevines. Moreover, multidisciplinary studies on their role in pathogenicity, symptom development, and plant-pathogen interactions have also been carried out. The aim of the present review is to provide an illustrative overview of the biological and chemical characterization of PMs produced by fungi involved in Eutypa dieback, Esca complex, and Botryosphaeria dieback. Moreover, multidisciplinary investigations on host-pathogen interactions, including those using cutting-edge Omics techniques, will also be reviewed and discussed. Finally, challenges and opportunities in the role of PMs for reliable field diagnosis and control of GTDs in vineyards will also be explored. Full article
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11 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Conservation Assessment and Chemistry of Boswellia ogadensis, a Critically Endangered Frankincense Tree
by Stephen Johnson, Abdinasir Abdikadir, Prabodh Satyal, Ambika Poudel and William N. Setzer
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3381; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233381 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Boswellia ogadensis is a critically endangered species of frankincense tree, restricted to a small area of the Shabelle river valley in southern Ethiopia. It has only been recorded from two botanical collecting trips, in 1972 and 2006, with no indication of the abundance, [...] Read more.
Boswellia ogadensis is a critically endangered species of frankincense tree, restricted to a small area of the Shabelle river valley in southern Ethiopia. It has only been recorded from two botanical collecting trips, in 1972 and 2006, with no indication of the abundance, threats, or population status of the trees, and it was listed on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species as “Critically Endangered” in 2018. More recent expeditions, in 2019 and 2021, were not able to locate the species, raising concerns about its continued survival. We carried out a field survey in June 2022 to re-locate the species, assess the threat level it is facing, and collect samples of resin for analysis. This survey revealed that B. ogadensis is present in more locations than previously recorded, and is more abundant than thought. While it is facing multiple threats, including grazing, cutting for firewood, and insect attacks, these threats vary geographically, and there are populations that appear to be healthy and regenerating well. While more research is needed, the current survey indicates that downlisting to “Endangered” status may be appropriate. Samples of resin were also collected and analyzed using gas chromatographic techniques, revealing that while the essential oil profile is similar to that of other Boswellia species (dominated by α-thujene, α-pinene, p-cymene, and terpenin-4-ol), there are chemical markers that can distinguish it from other sympatric Boswellia species, indicating the potential for this to be used as a tool to monitor whether B. ogadensis is being harvested alongside other more common Boswellia species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
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12 pages, 2212 KiB  
Article
Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of Brassica Yellows Virus Isolated from Strawberry and Establishment of TaqMan RT-qPCR
by Xiaoli Zhao, Chengyong He, Dehang Gao, Tengfei Xu, Xiaofeng Li, Junjie Liu, Shifang Li and Hongqing Wang
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3380; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233380 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
The natural host range for brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is generally limited to Cruciferae. However, we found that BrYV can naturally infect strawberry. The full-length genome sequences of BrYV-MB (accession No. MZ666129) and BrYV-HY (accession No. ON060762) identified in strawberry from Yantai and [...] Read more.
The natural host range for brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is generally limited to Cruciferae. However, we found that BrYV can naturally infect strawberry. The full-length genome sequences of BrYV-MB (accession No. MZ666129) and BrYV-HY (accession No. ON060762) identified in strawberry from Yantai and Beijing, China, were obtained by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) combined with the RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The complete genome sequences of BrYV-MB and BrYV-HY are 5666 nt and contain six open reading frames (ORFs). The two isolates have the highest nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of 99.0%. The infectious cDNA clone of BrYV-HY was constructed through homologous recombination and used to agroinfiltrate Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. The inoculated leaves of N. benthamiana showed necrotic symptoms after 4 days of inoculation (dpi), and the systematic leaves of A. thaliana exhibited purple symptoms at 14 dpi. To develop a rapid and high-sensitive method for the detection of BrYV, a TaqMan real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method (TaqMan RT-qPCR) was established. Under optimum reaction conditions, the sensitivity of the detection was as low as 100 fg and approximately 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR, so it can be used in large-scale testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions)
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Review
Paeonia × suffruticosa (Moutan Peony)—A Review of the Chemical Composition, Traditional and Professional Use in Medicine, Position in Cosmetics Industries, and Biotechnological Studies
by Halina Ekiert, Marta Klimek-Szczykutowicz and Agnieszka Szopa
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233379 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3135
Abstract
The aim of this review is to perform a systematic review of scientific papers and an in-depth analysis of the latest research related to Paeonia × suffruticosa Andrews as a valuable plant species, important in pharmacy and cosmetology. P. × suffruticosa bark root- [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to perform a systematic review of scientific papers and an in-depth analysis of the latest research related to Paeonia × suffruticosa Andrews as a valuable plant species, important in pharmacy and cosmetology. P. × suffruticosa bark root-Moutan cortex is a medicinal raw material formerly known from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) but less common in official European medicine. It was introduced for the first time in the European Pharmacopoeia Supplement 9.4 in 2018. In this work, the numerous possible applications of this raw material were depicted based on modern professional pharmacological studies documenting its very valuable medicinal values, including antioxidant, cytoprotective, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective activities. The scientific studies indicated that the profile of raw material activity is mainly due to paeonol, paeoniflorin and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose. Moreover, the significance of this plant (its different organs) in the production of cosmetics was underlined. P. × suffruticosa finds increasing application in cosmetology due to research on its chronic dermatitis, anti-aging and brightening effects. Furthermore, some biotechnological research has been described aimed at developing effective in vitro micropropagation protocols for P. × suffruticosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Ⅱ)
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