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Metabolites, Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 108 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Breastfeeding has positive impacts on reducing obesity risk, which is likely due to the N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) of breast milk. In this study, metagenomic and targeted metabolomic analyses were performed to illustrate the association between breast milk Neu5Ac and infant growth with two independent Chinese breast milk cohorts. The results showed that breast milk Neu5Ac altered infant gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism, and correlated with infant growth. Taurodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfate and taurochenodeoxycholic acid 3-sulfate were correlated with high breast milk Neu5Ac and low obesity risk in infants. Parabacteroides might be linked to bile acid metabolism and act as a mediator between Neu5Ac and infant growth. Overall, our data showed the gut microbiota-dependent crosstalk between breast milk Neu5Ac and infant growth. View this paper
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13 pages, 1235 KiB  
Review
The Pleiotropic Effects of Fumarate: From Mitochondrial Respiration to Epigenetic Rewiring and DNA Repair Mechanisms
by Sebastiano Giallongo, Francesco Costa, Lucia Longhitano, Cesarina Giallongo, Jessica Ferrigno, Emanuela Tropea, Nunzio Vicario, Giovanni Li Volti, Rosalba Parenti, Ignazio Barbagallo, Vincenzo Bramanti and Daniele Tibullo
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070880 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Tumor onset and its progression are strictly linked to its metabolic rewiring on the basis of the Warburg effect. In this context, fumarate emerged as a putative oncometabolite mediating cancer progression. Fumarate accumulation is usually driven by fumarate hydratase (FH) loss of function, [...] Read more.
Tumor onset and its progression are strictly linked to its metabolic rewiring on the basis of the Warburg effect. In this context, fumarate emerged as a putative oncometabolite mediating cancer progression. Fumarate accumulation is usually driven by fumarate hydratase (FH) loss of function, the enzyme responsible for the reversible conversion of fumarate into malate. Fumarate accumulation acts as a double edge sword: on one hand it takes part in the metabolic rewiring of cancer cells, while on the other it also plays a crucial role in chromatin architecture reorganization. The latter is achieved by competing with a-ketoglutarate-dependent enzymes, eventually altering the cellular methylome profile, which in turn leads to its transcriptome modeling. Furthermore, in recent years, it has emerged that FH has an ability to recruit DNA double strand breaks. The accumulation of fumarate into damaged sites might also determine the DNA repair pathway in charge for the seizure of the lesion, eventually affecting the mutational state of the cells. In this work, we aimed to review the current knowledge on the role of fumarate as an oncometabolite orchestrating the cellular epigenetic landscape and DNA repair machinery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Metabolism)
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23 pages, 3600 KiB  
Article
Integrated NMR and MS Analysis of the Plasma Metabolome Reveals Major Changes in One-Carbon, Lipid, and Amino Acid Metabolism in Severe and Fatal Cases of COVID-19
by Marcos C. Gama-Almeida, Gabriela D. A. Pinto, Lívia Teixeira, Eugenio D. Hottz, Paula Ivens, Hygor Ribeiro, Rafael Garrett, Alexandre G. Torres, Talita I. A. Carneiro, Bianca de O. Barbalho, Christian Ludwig, Claudio J. Struchiner, Iranaia Assunção-Miranda, Ana Paula C. Valente, Fernando A. Bozza, Patrícia T. Bozza, Gilson C. dos Santos, Jr. and Tatiana El-Bacha
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070879 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
Brazil has the second-highest COVID-19 death rate worldwide, and Rio de Janeiro is among the states with the highest rate in the country. Although vaccine coverage has been achieved, it is anticipated that COVID-19 will transition into an endemic disease. It is concerning [...] Read more.
Brazil has the second-highest COVID-19 death rate worldwide, and Rio de Janeiro is among the states with the highest rate in the country. Although vaccine coverage has been achieved, it is anticipated that COVID-19 will transition into an endemic disease. It is concerning that the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical evolution from mild to severe disease, as well as the mechanisms leading to long COVID-19, are not yet fully understood. NMR and MS-based metabolomics were used to identify metabolites associated with COVID-19 pathophysiology and disease outcome. Severe COVID-19 cases (n = 35) were enrolled in two reference centers in Rio de Janeiro within 72 h of ICU admission, alongside 12 non-infected control subjects. COVID-19 patients were grouped into survivors (n = 18) and non-survivors (n = 17). Choline-related metabolites, serine, glycine, and betaine, were reduced in severe COVID-19, indicating dysregulation in methyl donors. Non-survivors had higher levels of creatine/creatinine, 4-hydroxyproline, gluconic acid, and N-acetylserine, indicating liver and kidney dysfunction. Several changes were greater in women; thus, patients’ sex should be considered in pandemic surveillance to achieve better disease stratification and improve outcomes. These metabolic alterations may be useful to monitor organ (dys) function and to understand the pathophysiology of acute and possibly post-acute COVID-19 syndromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Metabolism)
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13 pages, 2031 KiB  
Opinion
Novel In Vitro Assay of the Effects of Kampo Medicines against Intra/Extracellular Advanced Glycation End-Products in Oral, Esophageal, and Gastric Epithelial Cells
by Takanobu Takata and Yoshiharu Motoo
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070878 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Kampo medicines are Japanese traditional medicines developed from Chinese traditional medicines. The action mechanisms of the numerous known compounds have been studied for approximately 100 years; however, many remain unclear. While components are normally affected through digestion, absorption, and metabolism, in vitro oral, [...] Read more.
Kampo medicines are Japanese traditional medicines developed from Chinese traditional medicines. The action mechanisms of the numerous known compounds have been studied for approximately 100 years; however, many remain unclear. While components are normally affected through digestion, absorption, and metabolism, in vitro oral, esophageal, and gastric epithelial cell models avoid these influences and, thus, represent superior assay systems for Kampo medicines. We focused on two areas of the strong performance of this assay system: intracellular and extracellular advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs are generated from glucose, fructose, and their metabolites, and promote lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes and cancer. While current technology cannot analyze whole intracellular AGEs in cells in some organs, some AGEs can be generated for 1–2 days, and the turnover time of oral and gastric epithelial cells is 7–14 days. Therefore, we hypothesized that we could detect these rapidly generated intracellular AGEs in such cells. Extracellular AEGs (e.g., dietary or in the saliva) bind to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the surface of the epithelial cells and can induce cytotoxicity such as inflammation. The analysis of Kampo medicine effects against intra/extracellular AGEs in vitro is a novel model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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12 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Seasonal Variation in Fatty Acid and Mineral Concentrations of Pecorino Romano PDO Cheese: Imputation of Missing Values for Enhanced Classification and Metabolic Profile Reconstruction
by Leonardo Sibono, Massimiliano Grosso, Stefania Tronci, Massimiliano Errico, Margherita Addis, Monica Vacca, Cristina Manis and Pierluigi Caboni
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070877 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Seasonal variation in fatty acids and minerals concentrations was investigated through the analysis of Pecorino Romano cheese samples collected in January, April, and June. A fraction of samples contained missing values in their fatty acid profiles. Probabilistic principal component analysis, coupled with Linear [...] Read more.
Seasonal variation in fatty acids and minerals concentrations was investigated through the analysis of Pecorino Romano cheese samples collected in January, April, and June. A fraction of samples contained missing values in their fatty acid profiles. Probabilistic principal component analysis, coupled with Linear Discriminant Analysis, was employed to classify cheese samples on a production season basis while accounting for missing data and quantifying the missing fatty acid concentrations for the samples in which they were absent. The levels of rumenic acid, vaccenic acid, and omega-3 compounds were positively correlated with the spring season, while the length of the saturated fatty acids increased throughout the production seasons. Concerning the classification performances, the optimal number of principal components (i.e., 5) achieved an accuracy in cross-validation equal to 98%. Then, when the model was tasked with imputing the lacking fatty acid concentration values, the optimal number of principal components resulted in an R2 value in cross-validation of 99.53%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Metabolomics)
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13 pages, 1057 KiB  
Article
Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentration and Blood Pressure in Young Healthy Men and Women: A Replicated Crossover Study
by Samantha N. Rowland, Liam M. Heaney, Mariasole Da Boit and Stephen J. Bailey
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070876 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-derived metabolite and marker of gut dysbiosis, has been linked to hypertension. Blood pressure is proposed to be elevated in hormonal contraceptive users and males compared to age-matched eumenorrheic females, but the extent to which TMAO differs between these [...] Read more.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-derived metabolite and marker of gut dysbiosis, has been linked to hypertension. Blood pressure is proposed to be elevated in hormonal contraceptive users and males compared to age-matched eumenorrheic females, but the extent to which TMAO differs between these populations has yet to be investigated. Peripheral and central blood pressure were measured, with the latter determined via applanation tonometry, and plasma TMAO concentration was assessed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The following variables were assessed on two occasions in each of the following conditions: the early follicular phase (EFP) and mid-luteal phase (MLP) in eumenorrheic women (n = 13), and the pill-free interval (INACTIVE) and pill consumption days (ACTIVE) in women using oral contraceptive pills (n = 12), and in men (n = 22). Briefly, 17-β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations were quantified via ELISA in all females. There were no differences in TMAO concentration between EFP (2.9 ± 1.7 μmol/L) and MLP (3.2 ± 1.1 μmol/L), between INACTIVE (3.3 ± 2.9 μmol/L) and ACTIVE (2.3 ± 1.1 μmol/L) days, or between men (3.0 ± 1.8 μmol/L), eumenorrheic women (3.0 ± 1.3 μmol/L) and contraceptive users (2.8 ± 1.4 μmol/L). Blood pressure was consistent across the menstrual cycle and pill days, but brachial systolic blood pressure was higher in males than females. There were no differences in brachial diastolic blood pressure or central blood pressure between the sexes. Repeated measures of TMAO, blood pressure, 17-β-estradiol and progesterone were consistent in all populations. These findings suggest that the link between TMAO and blood pressure is limited in healthy young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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18 pages, 2618 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of the Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT29 in Hypoxia and Reoxygenation
by Juan Carlos Alarcon Barrera, Alejandro Ondo-Mendez, Martin Giera and Sarantos Kostidis
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070875 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1470
Abstract
The poor availability of oxygen and nutrients in malignant tumors drives the activation of various molecular responses and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. Hypoxic tumor regions often exhibit resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One approach to enhance cancer therapy is to indirectly increase [...] Read more.
The poor availability of oxygen and nutrients in malignant tumors drives the activation of various molecular responses and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. Hypoxic tumor regions often exhibit resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One approach to enhance cancer therapy is to indirectly increase tumor oxygen availability through targeted metabolic reprogramming. Thus, understanding the underlying metabolic changes occurring during hypoxia and reoxygenation is crucial for improving therapy efficacy. In this study, we utilized the HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line as a hypoxia–reoxygenation model to investigate central carbon and lipid metabolism. Through quantitative NMR spectroscopy and flow injection analysis – differential mobility spectroscopy—tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-DMS-MS/MS) analysis, we observed alterations in components of mitochondrial metabolism, redox status, specific lipid classes, and structural characteristics of lipids during hypoxia and up to 24 h of reoxygenation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the metabolic changes occurring during reoxygenation and provide the basis for functional studies aimed at metabolic pathways in cancer cells. Full article
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17 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Profiling in a Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model and Individuals with Diabetes: A Combined Mass Spectrometry and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
by João P. P. Vieira, Filip Ottosson, Amra Jujic, Vladimir Denisov, Martin Magnusson, Olle Melander and João M. N. Duarte
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070874 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques have been used extensively for metabolite profiling. Although combining these two analytical modalities has the potential of enhancing metabolite coverage, such studies are sparse. In this study we test the hypothesis that combining [...] Read more.
Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques have been used extensively for metabolite profiling. Although combining these two analytical modalities has the potential of enhancing metabolite coverage, such studies are sparse. In this study we test the hypothesis that combining the metabolic information obtained using liquid chromatography (LC) MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy improves the discrimination of metabolic disease development. We induced metabolic syndrome in male mice using a high-fat diet (HFD) exposure and performed LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy on plasma samples collected after 1 and 8 weeks of dietary intervention. In an orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) analysis, we observed that combining MS and NMR was stronger than each analytical method alone at determining effects of both HFD feeding and time-on-diet. We then tested our metabolomics approach on plasma from 56 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) cohort. All metabolic pathways impacted by HFD feeding in mice were confirmed to be affected by diabetes in the MDCS cohort, and most prominent HFD-induced metabolite concentration changes in mice were also associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in humans. The main drivers of metabolic disease discrimination emanating from the present study included plasma levels of xanthine, hippurate, 2-hydroxyisovalerate, S-adenosylhomocysteine and dimethylguanidino valeric acid. In conclusion, our combined NMR-MS approach provided a snapshot of metabolic imbalances in humans and a mouse model, which was improved over employment of each analytical method alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advances in Metabolomics)
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19 pages, 6514 KiB  
Article
Mucosal Metabolomic Signatures in Chronic Colitis: Novel Insights into the Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Nathan Calzadilla, Aisha Qazi, Anchal Sharma, Kai Mongan, Shane Comiskey, Jahnavi Manne, Alvin G. Youkhana, Sonam Khanna, Seema Saksena, Pradeep K. Dudeja, Waddah A. Alrefai and Ravinder K. Gill
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070873 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involve complex interactions among genetic factors, aberrant immune activation, and gut microbial dysbiosis. While metabolomic studies have focused on feces and serum, fewer investigations have examined the intestinal mucosa despite its crucial role in metabolite absorption and transport. The [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involve complex interactions among genetic factors, aberrant immune activation, and gut microbial dysbiosis. While metabolomic studies have focused on feces and serum, fewer investigations have examined the intestinal mucosa despite its crucial role in metabolite absorption and transport. The goals of this study were twofold: to test the hypothesis that gut microbial dysbiosis from chronic intestinal inflammation leads to mucosal metabolic alterations suitable for therapeutic targeting, and to address gaps in metabolomic studies of intestinal inflammation that have overlooked the mucosal metabolome. The chronic DSS colitis was induced for five weeks in 7–9-week-old wild-type C57BL/6J male mice followed by microbial profiling with targeted 16srRNA sequencing service. Mucosal metabolite measurements were performed by Metabolon (Morrisville, NC). The data were analyzed using the bioinformatic tools Pathview, MetOrigin, and Metaboanalyst. The novel findings demonstrated increases in several host- and microbe-derived purine, pyrimidine, endocannabinoid, and ceramide metabolites in colitis. Origin analysis revealed that microbial-related tryptophan metabolites kynurenine, anthranilate, 5-hydroxyindoleacetate, and C-glycosyltryptophan were significantly increased in colon mucosa during chronic inflammation and strongly correlated with disease activity. These findings offer new insights into the pathophysiology of IBD and provide novel potential targets for microbial-based therapeutics. Full article
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28 pages, 1279 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluating Metabolite-Based Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review
by Gloria Perazzoli, Olga M. García-Valdeavero, Mercedes Peña, Jose Prados, Consolación Melguizo and Cristina Jiménez-Luna
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070872 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers, with five-year survival rates around 10%. The only curative option remains complete surgical resection, but due to the delay in diagnosis, less than 20% of patients are eligible for surgery. Therefore, discovering diagnostic [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers, with five-year survival rates around 10%. The only curative option remains complete surgical resection, but due to the delay in diagnosis, less than 20% of patients are eligible for surgery. Therefore, discovering diagnostic biomarkers for early detection is crucial for improving clinical outcomes. Metabolomics has become a powerful technology for biomarker discovery, and several metabolomic-based panels have been proposed for PDAC diagnosis, but these advances have not yet been translated into the clinic. Therefore, this review focused on summarizing metabolites identified for the early diagnosis of PDAC in the last five years. Bibliographic searches were performed in the PubMed, Scopus and WOS databases, using the terms “Biomarkers, Tumor”, “Pancreatic Neoplasms”, “Early Diagnosis”, “Metabolomics” and “Lipidome” (January 2018–March 2023), and resulted in the selection of fourteen original studies that compared PDAC patients with subjects with other pancreatic diseases. These investigations showed amino acid and lipid metabolic pathways as the most commonly altered, reflecting their potential for biomarker research. Furthermore, other relevant metabolites such as glucose and lactate were detected in the pancreas tissue and body fluids from PDAC patients. Our results suggest that the use of metabolomics remains a robust approach to improve the early diagnosis of PDAC. However, these studies showed heterogeneity with respect to the metabolomics techniques used and further studies will be needed to validate the clinical utility of these biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Metabolomics 2023)
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23 pages, 6766 KiB  
Article
Anti-Obesity Effect of a Tea Mixture Nano-Formulation on Rats Occurs via the Upregulation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase/Sirtuin-1/Glucose Transporter Type 4 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Pathways
by Mohamed A. Salem, Nora M. Aborehab, Mai M. Abdelhafez, Sameh H. Ismail, Nadine W. Maurice, May A. Azzam, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R. Fernie, Maha M. Salama and Shahira M. Ezzat
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070871 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
White, green, and oolong teas are produced from the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) and are reported to have anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects. The current study aims to investigate the anti-obesity effects of a tea mixture nano-formulation by targeting the AMPK/Sirt-1/GLUT-4 [...] Read more.
White, green, and oolong teas are produced from the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) and are reported to have anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects. The current study aims to investigate the anti-obesity effects of a tea mixture nano-formulation by targeting the AMPK/Sirt-1/GLUT-4 axis in rats. In vitro lipase and α-amylase inhibition assays were used to determine the active sample, which was then incorporated into a nanoparticle formulation subjected to in vivo anti-obesity testing in rats by measuring the expression level of different genes implicated in adipogenesis and inflammation using qRT-PCR. Moreover, metabolomic analysis was performed for each tea extract using LC/ESI MS/MS coupled to chemometrics in an attempt to find a correlation between the constituents of the extracts and their biological activity. The in vitro pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibition assays demonstrated more effective activity in the tea mixture than the standards, orlistat and acarbose, respectively, and each tea alone. Thus, the herbal tea mixture and its nanoparticle formulation were evaluated for their in vivo anti-obesity activity. Intriguingly, the tea mixture significantly decreased the serum levels of glucose and triglycerides and increased the mRNA expression of GLUT-4, P-AMPK, Sirt-1, and PPAR-γ, which induce lipolysis while also decreasing the mRNA expression of TNF-α and ADD1/SREBP-1c, thereby inhibiting the inflammation associated with obesity. Our study suggests that the tea mixture nano-formulation is a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of obesity and may also be beneficial in other metabolic disorders by targeting the AMPK/Sirt-1/Glut-4 pathway. Full article
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13 pages, 1868 KiB  
Article
Rapid Detection of Volatile Organic Metabolites in Urine by High-Pressure Photoionization Mass Spectrometry for Breast Cancer Screening: A Pilot Study
by Ming Yang, Jichun Jiang, Lei Hua, Dandan Jiang, Yadong Wang, Depeng Li, Ruoyu Wang, Xiaohui Zhang and Haiyang Li
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070870 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Despite surpassing lung cancer as the most frequently diagnosed cancer, female breast cancer (BC) still lacks rapid detection methods for screening that can be implemented on a large scale in practical clinical settings. However, urine is a readily available biofluid obtained non-invasively and [...] Read more.
Despite surpassing lung cancer as the most frequently diagnosed cancer, female breast cancer (BC) still lacks rapid detection methods for screening that can be implemented on a large scale in practical clinical settings. However, urine is a readily available biofluid obtained non-invasively and contains numerous volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) that offer valuable metabolic information concerning the onset and progression of diseases. In this work, a rapid method for analysis of VOMs in urine by using high-pressure photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPPI-TOFMS) coupled with dynamic purge injection. A simple pretreatment process of urine samples by adding acid and salt was employed for efficient VOM sampling, and the numbers of metabolites increased and the detection sensitivity was improved after the acid (HCl) and salt (NaCl) addition. The established mass spectrometry detection method was applied to analyze a set of training samples collected from a local hospital, including 24 breast cancer patients and 27 healthy controls. Statistical analysis techniques such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and the Mann–Whitney U test were used, and nine VOMs were identified as differential metabolites. Finally, acrolein, 2-pentanone, and methyl allyl sulfide were selected to build a metabolite combination model for distinguishing breast cancer patients from the healthy group, and the achieved sensitivity and specificity were 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The results demonstrate that this technology has potential to become a rapid screening tool for breast cancer, with significant room for further development. Full article
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25 pages, 2858 KiB  
Article
Metabolomics-Based Investigation on the Metabolic Changes in Crassostrea gigas Experimentally Exposed to Galvanic Anodes
by Nathalie Imbert-Auvray, Denis Fichet, Pierre-Edouard Bodet, Pascaline Ory, René Sabot, Philippe Refait and Marianne Graber
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070869 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Cathodic protection is widely used to protect metal structures from corrosion in marine environments using sacrificial galvanic anodes. These anodes, either in Zinc, or preferentially nowadays in Al-Zn-In alloys, are expected to corrode instead of the metal structures. This leads to the release [...] Read more.
Cathodic protection is widely used to protect metal structures from corrosion in marine environments using sacrificial galvanic anodes. These anodes, either in Zinc, or preferentially nowadays in Al-Zn-In alloys, are expected to corrode instead of the metal structures. This leads to the release of dissolved species, Zn2+, Al3+, and In3+, and solid phases such as Al(OH)3. Few studies have been conducted on their effects on marine organisms, and they concluded that further investigations are needed. We therefore evaluated the effects of Zn and Al-Zn-In anodes on oysters stabulated in tanks, under controlled conditions defined through a comparison with those prevailing in a given commercial seaport used as reference. We analyzed the entire metabolome of gills with a non-targeted metabolomic approach HRMS. A modelling study of the chemical species, corresponding to the degradation products of the anodes, likely to be present near the exposed oysters, was also included. We identified 16 and two metabolites modulated by Zn- and Al-Zn-In-anodes, respectively, that were involved in energy metabolism, osmoregulation, oxidative stress, lipid, nucleotide nucleoside and amino acid metabolisms, defense and signaling pathways. The combination of chemical modelling and metabolomic approach, used here for the first time, enlightened the influence of Zn present in the Al-Zn-In anodes. Full article
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16 pages, 3362 KiB  
Article
The Dynamic Change in Aromatic Compounds and Their Relationship with CsAAAT Genes during the Post-Harvest Process of Oolong Tea
by Ziwei Zhou, Qingyang Wu, Hongting Rao, Liewei Cai, Shizhong Zheng and Yun Sun
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070868 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Formed by L-phenylalanine (L-phe) ammonia under the action of aromatic amino acid aminotransferases (AAATs), volatile benzenoids (VBs) and volatile phenylpropanoids (VPs) are essential aromatic components in oolong tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the key VB/VP components responsible for the aromatic quality of [...] Read more.
Formed by L-phenylalanine (L-phe) ammonia under the action of aromatic amino acid aminotransferases (AAATs), volatile benzenoids (VBs) and volatile phenylpropanoids (VPs) are essential aromatic components in oolong tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the key VB/VP components responsible for the aromatic quality of oolong tea need to be revealed, and the formation mechanism of VBs/VPs based on AAAT branches during the post-harvest process of oolong tea remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, raw oolong tea and manufacturing samples were used as the test materials, and targeted metabolomics combined with transcriptome analysis was also conducted. The results showed that thirteen types of VBs/VPs were identified, including nine types of VPs and four types of VBs. Based on the OAV calculation, in raw oolong tea, 2-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester and phenylethyl alcohol were identified as key components of the aromatic quality of oolong tea. As for the results from the selection of related genes, firstly, a total of sixteen candidate CsAAAT genes were selected and divided into two sub-families (CsAAAT1 and CsAAAT2); then, six key CsAAAT genes closely related to VB/VP formation were screened. The upregulation of the expression level of CsAAAT2-type genes may respond to light stress during solar-withering as well as the mechanical force of turnover. This study can help to understand the formation mechanism of aromatic compounds during oolong tea processing and provide a theoretical reference for future research on the formation of naturally floral and fruity aromas in oolong tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Food)
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21 pages, 1563 KiB  
Review
Mass Spectrometry Detects Sphingolipid Metabolites for Discovery of New Strategy for Cancer Therapy from the Aspect of Programmed Cell Death
by Ming Shi, Chao Tang, Jia-xing Wu, Bao-wei Ji, Bao-ming Gong, Xiao-hui Wu and Xue Wang
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070867 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
Sphingolipids, a type of bioactive lipid, play crucial roles within cells, serving as integral components of membranes and exhibiting strong signaling properties that have potential therapeutic implications in anti-cancer treatments. However, due to the diverse group of lipids and intricate mechanisms, sphingolipids still [...] Read more.
Sphingolipids, a type of bioactive lipid, play crucial roles within cells, serving as integral components of membranes and exhibiting strong signaling properties that have potential therapeutic implications in anti-cancer treatments. However, due to the diverse group of lipids and intricate mechanisms, sphingolipids still face challenges in enhancing the efficacy of different therapy approaches. In recent decades, mass spectrometry has made significant advancements in uncovering sphingolipid biomarkers and elucidating their impact on cancer development, progression, and resistance. Primary sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, exhibit contrasting roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival. The evasion of cell death is a characteristic hallmark of cancer cells, leading to treatment failure and a poor prognosis. The escape initiates with long-established apoptosis and extends to other programmed cell death (PCD) forms when patients experience chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or immunotherapy. Gradually, supportive evidence has uncovered the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying various forms of PCD leading to the development of innovative molecular, genetic, and pharmacological tools that specifically target sphingolipid signaling nodes. In this study, we provide a comprehensive overview of the sphingolipid biomarkers revealed through mass spectrometry in recent decades, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six main forms of PCD (apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and cuproptosis) in aspects of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and tumor response to treatments. We review the corresponding small-molecule compounds associated with these processes and their potential implications in cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Metabolism)
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13 pages, 3102 KiB  
Article
Variation in Terpenoid and Flavonoid Content in Different Samples of Salvia semiatrata Collected from Oaxaca, Mexico, and Its Effects on Antinociceptive Activity
by Nancy Ortiz-Mendoza, Rubén San Miguel-Chávez, Martha Juana Martínez-Gordillo, Francisco Alberto Basurto-Peña, Mariana Palma-Tenango and Eva Aguirre-Hernández
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070866 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Salvia semiatrata Zucc. (Lamiaceae) is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and is known for its analgesic properties. Terpenoids and phenolic compounds with antinociceptive potential have been characterised from this species. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in terpenoids and flavonoids [...] Read more.
Salvia semiatrata Zucc. (Lamiaceae) is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and is known for its analgesic properties. Terpenoids and phenolic compounds with antinociceptive potential have been characterised from this species. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in terpenoids and flavonoids in ethyl acetate extracts of S. semiatrata collected from ten different localities, as well as to evaluate the antinociceptive effect between plants with higher and lower contents of these secondary metabolites. Quantification of S. semiatrata compounds was performed via HPLC-DAD, whereas in vivo evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed via formalin test. The results showed that the most abundant groups of metabolites are oleanolic acid (89.60–59.20 µg/mg), quercetin (34.81–16.28 µg/mg), catechin (11.30–9.30 µg/mg), and 7-keto-neoclerodan-3,13-dien-18,19:15,16-diolide (7-keto) (8.01–4.76 µg/mg). Principal component and canonical correspondence analysis showed that the most contrasting localities in terms of compound content and climatic variables are Miahuatlán and Santiago Huauclilla. The differences in metabolite content between the two locations did not affect the antinociceptive effects evaluated at a dose of 300 mg/kg, p.o. In conclusion, the results indicate that S. semiatrata is effective in relieving pain, regardless of the site of collection, reinforcing its traditional use as analgesic. Full article
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22 pages, 4926 KiB  
Article
Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Altered Metabolic Pathways and Response to Doxorubicin in Drug-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
by Blake R. Rushing, Sabrina Molina and Susan Sumner
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070865 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate metabolic changes following the acquisition of resistance to doxorubicin in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231. Two drug-resistant cell lines, DOX-RES-50 and DOX-RES-100, were generated by treating MDA-MB-231 cells with doxorubicin for 24 h and allowing [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate metabolic changes following the acquisition of resistance to doxorubicin in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231. Two drug-resistant cell lines, DOX-RES-50 and DOX-RES-100, were generated by treating MDA-MB-231 cells with doxorubicin for 24 h and allowing them to recover for six weeks. Both drug-resistant cell lines demonstrated an increase in doxorubicin IC50 values, indicating acquired drug resistance. Metabolomics analysis showed clear separation between the parental MDA-MB-231 cell line and the drug-resistant cell lines. Pathway analysis revealed that arginine and proline metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and beta-alanine metabolism were significantly perturbed in the drug-resistant cell lines compared to the parental cell line. After matching signals to an in-house library of reference standards, significant decreases in short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines and significant increases in long-chain acylcarnitines, 5-oxoproline, and 7-ketodeoxycholic acid were observed in the resistant cell lines as compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. In addition to baseline metabolic differences, we also investigated differences in metabolic responses in resistant cell lines upon a second exposure at multiple concentrations. Results indicate that whereas the parental MDA-MB-231 cell line had many metabolites that responded to doxorubicin in a dose-dependent manner, the two resistant cell lines lost a dose-dependent response for the majority of these metabolites. The study’s findings provide insight into how metabolism is altered during the acquisition of resistance in TNBC cells and how the metabolic response to doxorubicin changes upon repeated treatment. This information can potentially identify novel targets to prevent or reverse multi-drug resistance in TNBC, and also demonstrate the usefulness of metabolomics technology in identifying new mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer and potential drug targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Metabolism)
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17 pages, 3331 KiB  
Article
The Integration of Metabolomics, Electronic Tongue, and Chromatic Difference Reveals the Correlations between the Critical Compounds and Flavor Characteristics of Two Grades of High-Quality Dianhong Congou Black Tea
by Shan Zhang, Xujiang Shan, Linchi Niu, Le Chen, Jinjin Wang, Qinghua Zhou, Haibo Yuan, Jia Li and Tian Wu
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070864 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Tea’s biochemical compounds and flavor quality vary depending on its grade ranking. Dianhong Congou black tea (DCT) is a unique tea category produced using the large-leaf tea varieties from Yunnan, China. To date, the flavor characteristics and critical components of two grades of [...] Read more.
Tea’s biochemical compounds and flavor quality vary depending on its grade ranking. Dianhong Congou black tea (DCT) is a unique tea category produced using the large-leaf tea varieties from Yunnan, China. To date, the flavor characteristics and critical components of two grades of high-quality DCT, single-bud-grade DCT (BDCT), and special-grade DCT (SDCT) manufactured mainly with single buds and buds with one leaf, respectively, are far from clear. Herein, comparisons of two grades were performed by the integration of human sensory evaluation, an electronic tongue, chromatic differences, the quantification of major components, and metabolomics. The BDCT possessed a brisk, umami taste and a brighter infusion color, while the SDCT presented a comprehensive taste and redder liquor color. Quantification analysis showed that the levels of total polyphenols, catechins, and theaflavins (TFs) were significantly higher in the BDCT. Fifty-six different key compounds were screened by metabolomics, including catechins, flavone/flavonol glycosides, amino acids, phenolic acids, etc. Correlation analysis revealed that the sensory features of the BDCT and SDCT were attributed to their higher contents of catechins, TFs, theogallin, digalloylglucose, and accumulations of thearubigins (TRs), flavone/flavonol glycosides, and soluble sugars, respectively. This report is the first to focus on the comprehensive evaluation of the biochemical compositions and sensory characteristics of two grades of high-quality DCT, advancing the understanding of DCT from a multi-dimensional perspective. Full article
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17 pages, 5286 KiB  
Article
Comparative Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Lawsone Methyl Ether and Lawsone in Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
by Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Ajmal Shah, Mustafa Kamal, Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Mehboob Ali and Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070863 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Our previous study uncovered potent inhibitory effects of two naphthoquinones from Impatiens balsamina, namely lawsone methyl ether (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, LME) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), against α-glucosidase. This gave us the insight to compare the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of LME and lawsone in high-fat/high-fructose-diet- [...] Read more.
Our previous study uncovered potent inhibitory effects of two naphthoquinones from Impatiens balsamina, namely lawsone methyl ether (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, LME) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), against α-glucosidase. This gave us the insight to compare the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of LME and lawsone in high-fat/high-fructose-diet- and nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 28 days. LME and lawsone at the doses of 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg, respectively, produced a substantial and dose-dependent reduction in the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, and food/water intake while boosting the insulin levels and body weights of diabetic rats. Additionally, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in diabetic rats were significantly normalized by LME and lawsone, without affecting the normal rats. LME at a dose of 45 mg/kg exhibited the most potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects, which were significantly comparable to glibenclamide but higher than those of lawsone. Furthermore, the toxicity evaluation indicated that both naphthoquinones were entirely safe for use in rodent models at doses ≤ 50 mg/kg. Therefore, the remarkable antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potentials of LME make it a promising option for future drug development. Full article
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13 pages, 3340 KiB  
Article
Characterization of trans-3-Methylglutaconyl CoA-Dependent Protein Acylation
by Elizabeth A. Jennings, Edward Cao, Irina Romenskaia and Robert O. Ryan
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070862 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
3-methylglutaconyl (3MGC) CoA hydratase (AUH) is the leucine catabolism pathway enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of trans-3MGC CoA to 3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA. In several inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), however, metabolic dysfunction can drive this reaction in the opposite direction (the [...] Read more.
3-methylglutaconyl (3MGC) CoA hydratase (AUH) is the leucine catabolism pathway enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of trans-3MGC CoA to 3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA. In several inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), however, metabolic dysfunction can drive this reaction in the opposite direction (the dehydration of HMG CoA). The recent discovery that trans-3MGC CoA is inherently unstable and prone to a series of non-enzymatic chemical reactions provides an explanation for 3MGC aciduria observed in these IEMs. Under physiological conditions, trans-3MGC CoA can isomerize to cis-3MGC CoA, which is structurally poised to undergo intramolecular cyclization with the loss of CoA, generating cis-3MGC anhydride. The anhydride is reactive and has two potential fates; (a) hydrolysis to yield cis-3MGC acid or (b) a reaction with lysine side-chain amino groups to 3MGCylate substrate proteins. An antibody elicited against a 3MGC hapten was employed to investigate protein acylation in incubations containing recombinant AUH, HMG CoA, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The data obtained show that, as AUH dehydrates HMG CoA to trans-3MGC CoA, BSA is acylated. Moreover, α-3MGC IgG immunoblot signal intensity correlates with AUH concentration, HMG CoA substrate concentration, and incubation time. Thus, protein 3MGCylation may contribute to the phenotypic features associated with IEMs that manifest 3MGC aciduria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
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15 pages, 3239 KiB  
Article
Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Mitochondrial Disturbances Are Attenuated by Metabolites of Melatonin in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes
by Chantal E. Holtkamp, Dawid Warmus, Klaudia Bonowicz, Maciej Gagat, Kinga Linowiecka, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Glubisz, Russel J. Reiter, Markus Böhm, Andrzej T. Slominski, Kerstin Steinbrink and Konrad Kleszczyński
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070861 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is recognized as an effective antioxidant produced by the pineal gland, brain and peripheral organs, which also has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-tumour capacities. Melatonin has been reported as a substance that counteracts ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-induced intracellular disturbances. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is recognized as an effective antioxidant produced by the pineal gland, brain and peripheral organs, which also has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-tumour capacities. Melatonin has been reported as a substance that counteracts ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-induced intracellular disturbances. Nevertheless, the mechanistic actions of related molecules including its kynurenic derivatives (N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynurenine (AFMK)), its indolic derivatives (6-hydroxymelatonin (6(OH)MEL) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT)) and its precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS) are only poorly understood. Herein, we treated human epidermal keratinocytes with UVB and assessed the protective effect of the studied substances in terms of the maintenance of mitochondrial function or their radical scavenging capacity. Our results show that UVB caused the significant elevation of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (mtΔΨ), a reduction in ATP synthesis, and the enhanced release of cytochrome c into cytosol, leading subsequently to UVB-mediated activation of the caspases and apoptosis (appearance of sub-G1 population). Our findings, combined with data reported so far, indicate the counteracting and beneficial actions of melatonin and its molecular derivatives against these deleterious changes within mitochondria. Therefore, they define a path to the development of novel strategies delaying mitochondrial aging and promoting the well-being of human skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Vitamin: Perspectives for Diseases and Health)
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16 pages, 1192 KiB  
Review
Metabolites of Life: Phosphate
by Janusz Wiesław Błaszczyk
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070860 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
The process of aging and escalating the failure of all body organs has become the center of interest in contemporary science and medicine. The leading role of phosphate-calcium tandem deficiency as a pacemaker of metabolic senescence has emerged recently. Most of the phosphates [...] Read more.
The process of aging and escalating the failure of all body organs has become the center of interest in contemporary science and medicine. The leading role of phosphate-calcium tandem deficiency as a pacemaker of metabolic senescence has emerged recently. Most of the phosphates in the human body are stored in the bones, which seem to play a pivotal role in all metabolic and energetic processes. Bone metabolism combines physical activity with adaptive changes in the internal environment of the body, which is necessary for its survival. Phosphate-calcium signaling is the primary mechanism for controlling homeostasis and its recovery after exercise-induced disorders. Phosphates play an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism both by regulating postprandial glucose storage in the muscles and in the liver, as well as the distribution and adaptation of energy metabolites to the needs of the brain and skeletal muscles. The bone-driven energy metabolism is of decisive importance for maintaining all vital functions of the body organs, including their proper functioning and integrated interplay. The phosphate-calcium tandem contributes to the development and proper functioning of the organism, whereas energy dysmetabolism is the main cause of aging and the final termination of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thematic Reviews)
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11 pages, 862 KiB  
Article
Differences in Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids between Alcoholic Fatty Liver-Induced Cirrhosis and Non-alcoholic (Metabolic-Associated) Fatty Liver-Induced Cirrhosis
by Xinlu Cao, Oksana Zolnikova, Roman Maslennikov, Maria Reshetova, Elena Poluektova, Arina Bogacheva, Maria Zharkova and Vladimir Ivashkin
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070859 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota in cirrhosis due to different variants of fatty liver disease (alcoholic vs. non-alcoholic [metabolic-associated] one [AFLD and MAFLD]). The present study included 24 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota in cirrhosis due to different variants of fatty liver disease (alcoholic vs. non-alcoholic [metabolic-associated] one [AFLD and MAFLD]). The present study included 24 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, 16 patients with MAFLD-related cirrhosis, and 20 healthy controls. The level and spectrum of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined via gas–liquid chromatography. All patients with cirrhosis showed a decrease in the total content of SCFAs (p < 0.001) and absolute content of acetate (p < 0.001), propionate (p < 0.001), butyrate (p < 0.001), and isovalerate (p < 0.001). In MAFLD cirrhosis, the metabolic activity of the microbiota was significantly altered compared to patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, as evidenced by a lower total SCFA content (p < 0.001) and absolute content of acetate (p < 0.001), propionate (p < 0.001), and butyrate (p < 0.001); a higher relative content of isovalerate (p < 0.001); and a higher IsoCn/Cn ratio (p < 0.001). Various clinical and laboratory parameters correlate differently with fecal SCFAs and their fractions in cirrhosis due to AFLD and MAFLD. SCFA-producing metabolic activity is reduced more in MAFLD cirrhosis than in alcoholic cirrhosis. According to the etiological factors of cirrhosis, disorders of this metabolic activity may be involved in different pathogenetic pathways. Full article
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20 pages, 3082 KiB  
Article
Effects of Heat-Moisture-Treated High-Amylose Rice Flour on Body Weight, Lipid Metabolism, and Gut Microbiome Composition in Obese Rats
by Sihui Ma, Sae Takasugi, Masayoshi Sugawara, Kenji Saito, Huijuan Jia and Hisanori Kato
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070858 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
The rising prevalence of lifestyle diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome, has increased the need for effective dietary interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat-moisture-treated high-amylose rice (HA-HMT) on body weight, lipid metabolism, and gut [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of lifestyle diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome, has increased the need for effective dietary interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat-moisture-treated high-amylose rice (HA-HMT) on body weight, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiome composition in a rat model of obesity. Starch digestibility—specifically, resistant starch—has been shown to provide various health benefits, including improved metabolic health and gut microbiome composition. We employed a sequential approach: firstly, utilizing diet-induced obesity rat models fed with HMT-processed and HMT-non-processed low- or high-amylose rice to investigate the potential of amylose content or HMT to alter phenotypic characteristics and lipid metabolism; and secondly, using the optimal rice flour identified in the previous step to explore the underlying mechanisms. Our findings indicate that heat-moisture treatment, rather than the level of the amylose content of the rice, contributes to the observed anti-obesity and cholesterol-lowering effects. We identified candidate genes contributing to the cholesterol-regulating potential and demonstrated that HMT rice flour could influence the gut microbiome, particularly the Ruminococcus taxa. This study provides valuable insights into the health benefits of HA-HMT rice and supports its potential as a functional food ingredient in the management of obesity and cholesterol-related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Obesity and Diabetes 2023)
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14 pages, 2600 KiB  
Article
Cycloartane Saponins from Astragalus glycyphyllos and Their In Vitro Neuroprotective, Antioxidant, and hMAO-B-Inhibiting Effects
by Ivan Stambolov, Aleksandar Shkondrov, Olaf Kunert, Franz Bucar, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina and Ilina Krasteva
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070857 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Astragalus glycyphyllos (Fabaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of many countries against hepatic and cardiac disorders. The plant contains mainly flavonoids and saponins. From a defatted methanol extract from its overground parts, a new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β [...] Read more.
Astragalus glycyphyllos (Fabaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of many countries against hepatic and cardiac disorders. The plant contains mainly flavonoids and saponins. From a defatted methanol extract from its overground parts, a new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-24-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β,6α,16β,24(R),25-pentahydroxy-20R-cycloartane, together with the rare saponin astrachrysoside A, were isolated using various chromatography methods. The compounds were identified via extensive high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and NMR analyses. Both saponins were examined for their possible antioxidant and neuroprotective activity in three different in vitro models. Rat brain synaptosomes, mitochondria, and microsomes were isolated via centrifugation using Percoll gradient. They were treated with the compounds in three different concentrations alone, and in combination with 6-hydroxydopamine or tert-butyl hydroperoxide as toxic agents. It was found that the compounds had statistically significant dose-dependent in vitro protective activity on the sub-cellular fractions. The compounds exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity of human recombinant monoamine oxidase type B (hMAO-B), compared to selegiline. Full article
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12 pages, 797 KiB  
Article
Effects of RIPC on the Metabolomical Profile during Lower Limb Digital Subtraction Angiography: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Karl Kuusik, Teele Kasepalu, Mihkel Zilmer, Jaan Eha, Kaido Paapstel, Kalle Kilk, Aune Rehema and Jaak Kals
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070856 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has demonstrated protective effects in patients with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) undergoing digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). This study aimed to investigate the impact of RIPC on the metabolomical profile of LEAD patients undergoing [...] Read more.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has demonstrated protective effects in patients with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) undergoing digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). This study aimed to investigate the impact of RIPC on the metabolomical profile of LEAD patients undergoing these procedures and to elucidate its potential underlying mechanisms. A total of 100 LEAD patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the RIPC group (n = 46) or the sham group (n = 54). Blood samples were drawn before and 24 h after intervention. Targeted metabolomics analysis was performed using the AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, and changes in metabolite concentrations were compared between the groups. The RIPC group demonstrated significantly different dynamics in nine metabolites compared to the sham group, which generally showed a decrease in metabolite concentrations. The impacted metabolites included glutamate, taurine, the arginine-dimethyl-amide-to-arginine ratio, lysoPC a C24:0, lysoPC a C28:0, lysoPC a C26:1, PC aa C38:1, PC ae C30:2, and PC ae C44:3. RIPC exhibited a ‘stabilization’ effect, maintaining metabolite levels amidst ischemia-reperfusion injuries, suggesting its role in enhancing metabolic control. This may improve outcomes for LEAD patients. However, additional studies are needed to definitively establish causal relationships among these metabolic changes. Full article
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19 pages, 1958 KiB  
Review
Integrating Omics Data in Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling: A Methodological Perspective for Precision Medicine
by Partho Sen and Matej Orešič
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070855 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3867
Abstract
Recent advancements in omics technologies have generated a wealth of biological data. Integrating these data within mathematical models is essential to fully leverage their potential. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a robust framework for studying complex biological systems. GEMs have significantly contributed to [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in omics technologies have generated a wealth of biological data. Integrating these data within mathematical models is essential to fully leverage their potential. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a robust framework for studying complex biological systems. GEMs have significantly contributed to our understanding of human metabolism, including the intrinsic relationship between the gut microbiome and the host metabolism. In this review, we highlight the contributions of GEMs and discuss the critical challenges that must be overcome to ensure their reproducibility and enhance their prediction accuracy, particularly in the context of precision medicine. We also explore the role of machine learning in addressing these challenges within GEMs. The integration of omics data with GEMs has the potential to lead to new insights, and to advance our understanding of molecular mechanisms in human health and disease. Full article
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20 pages, 7285 KiB  
Article
Aqueous Extracts of Fermented Macrofungi Cultivated in Oilseed Cakes as a Carbon Source for Probiotic Bacteria and Potential Antibacterial Activity
by Joice Raísa Barbosa Cunha, Daiana Wischral, Rubén Darío Romero Peláez, Pérola De Oliveira Magalhães, Marina Borges Guimarães, Maria Aparecida de Jesus, Ceci Sales-Campos, Thais Demarchi Mendes, Eustáquio Souza Dias, Simone Mendonça and Félix Gonçalves de Siqueira
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070854 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Plant biomass colonized by macrofungi can contain molecules with bioactive properties with applications to human/animal health. This work aimed to verify antibacterial activities from aqueous extracts from oil seed cakes of Jatropha curcas (JSC) and cottonseed (CSC), fermented by macrofungi for probiotic bacteria [...] Read more.
Plant biomass colonized by macrofungi can contain molecules with bioactive properties with applications to human/animal health. This work aimed to verify antibacterial activities from aqueous extracts from oil seed cakes of Jatropha curcas (JSC) and cottonseed (CSC), fermented by macrofungi for probiotic bacteria cultivation. Coriolopsis sp., Tyromyces sp., Panus lecomtei, and Pleurotus pulmonarius were cultivated in solid and submerged media. The aqueous extract of unfermented JSC was more efficient than glucose for the growth of all probiotic bacteria. Extracts from four macrofungi fermented in CSC favored Lactobacillus acidophilus growth. In solid fermentation, macrofungi extracts cultivated in JSC favored Bifidobacterium lactis growth. All fungi extracts showed more significant growth than carbohydrates among the four probiotic bacteria evaluated. Regarding antimicrobial activities, no fungal extract or bacterial supernatant showed a more significant inhibition halo for enteropathogenic bacteria than ampicillin (control). Extracts from P. lecomtei and Coriolopsis sp. in CSC showed inhibition halos for Salmonella enterica. Supernatants from L. acidophilus, B. lactis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in more significant inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than the control, which indicates possible antimicrobial activity. Unfermented JSC supernatant showed better results for bacterial growth, while supernatants and aqueous extracts from CSC fermentation can be used for probiotic bacteria culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Metabolism)
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14 pages, 1693 KiB  
Article
Baseline Serum Biomarkers Predict Response to a Weight Loss Intervention in Older Adults with Obesity: A Pilot Study
by David H. Lynch, Blake R. Rushing, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan McRitchie, Dakota J. Batchek, Curtis L. Petersen, Danae C. Gross, Susan C. J. Sumner and John A. Batsis
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070853 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Caloric restriction and aerobic and resistance exercise are safe and effective lifestyle interventions for achieving weight loss in the obese older population (>65 years) and may improve physical function and quality of life. However, individual responses are heterogeneous. Our goal was to explore [...] Read more.
Caloric restriction and aerobic and resistance exercise are safe and effective lifestyle interventions for achieving weight loss in the obese older population (>65 years) and may improve physical function and quality of life. However, individual responses are heterogeneous. Our goal was to explore the use of untargeted metabolomics to identify metabolic phenotypes associated with achieving weight loss after a multi-component weight loss intervention. Forty-two older adults with obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30 kg/m2) participated in a six-month telehealth-based weight loss intervention. Each received weekly dietitian visits and twice-weekly physical therapist-led group strength training classes with a prescription for aerobic exercise. We categorized responders’ weight loss using a 5% loss of initial body weight as a cutoff. Baseline serum samples were analyzed to determine the variable importance to the projection (VIP) of signals that differentiated the responder status of metabolic profiles. Pathway enrichment analysis was conducted in Metaboanalyst. Baseline data did not differ significantly. Weight loss was 7.2 ± 2.5 kg for the 22 responders, and 2.0 ± 2.0 kg for the 20 non-responders. Mummichog pathway enrichment analysis revealed that perturbations were most significant for caffeine and caffeine-related metabolism (p = 0.00028). Caffeine and related metabolites, which were all increased in responders, included 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (VIP = 2.0, p = 0.033, fold change (FC) = 1.9), theophylline (VIP = 2.0, p = 0.024, FC = 1.8), paraxanthine (VIP = 2.0, p = 0.028, FC = 1.8), 1-methylxanthine (VIP = 1.9, p = 0.023, FC = 2.2), 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil (VIP = 2.2, p = 0.025, FC = 2.2), 1,3-dimethyl uric acid (VIP = 2.1, p = 0.023, FC = 2.3), and 1,7-dimethyl uric acid (VIP = 2.0, p = 0.035, FC = 2.2). Increased levels of phytochemicals and microbiome-related metabolites were also found in responders compared to non-responders. In this pilot weight loss intervention, older adults with obesity and evidence of significant enrichment for caffeine metabolism were more likely to achieve ≥5% weight loss. Further studies are needed to examine these associations in prospective cohorts and larger randomized trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Obesity and Its Metabolic Complications)
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10 pages, 799 KiB  
Article
Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss (Euphorbiaceae)
by Hui Zhu, Xiangxiang Ren, Yanbo Huang, Tao Su and Lei Yang
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070852 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss was used for hemostasis, analgesia, and muscular regeneration in traditional Chinese medicine. To study the chemical constituents of E. stracheyi, the ethyl acetate part of the methanol extract of the whole plant was separated by silica gel, sephadex LH-20 [...] Read more.
Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss was used for hemostasis, analgesia, and muscular regeneration in traditional Chinese medicine. To study the chemical constituents of E. stracheyi, the ethyl acetate part of the methanol extract of the whole plant was separated by silica gel, sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. The isolation led to the characterization of a new lathyrane type diterpenoid, euphostrachenol A (1), as well as eleven known compounds (211), including a lathyrane, three ingenane-type and two abietane-type diterpenoids, two ionones, and two flavonoids. The structures of these compounds were established using 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallographic experiments. The MTT method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of five cancer cell lines (Leukemia HL-60, lung cancer A-549, liver cancer SMMC-7721, breast cancer MCF-7, and colon cancer SW480) on the isolated compounds. However, only compound 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 10.28 to 29.70 μM, while the others were inactive. Our chemical investigation also confirmed the absence of jatrophane-type diterpenoids in the species, which may be related to its special habitat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Secondary Metabolites by Multi-Omics Methods)
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Article
Metabolomics and Self-Reported Depression, Anxiety, and Phobic Symptoms in the VA Normative Aging Study
by Nicole Prince, Meryl Stav, Margaret Cote, Su H. Chu, Chirag M. Vyas, Olivia I. Okereke, Natalia Palacios, Augusto A Litonjua, Pantel Vokonas, David Sparrow, Avron Spiro III, Jessica A. Lasky-Su and Rachel S. Kelly
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070851 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Traditional approaches to understanding metabolomics in mental illness have focused on investigating a single disorder or comparisons between diagnoses, but a growing body of evidence suggests substantial mechanistic overlap in mental disorders that could be reflected by the metabolome. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Traditional approaches to understanding metabolomics in mental illness have focused on investigating a single disorder or comparisons between diagnoses, but a growing body of evidence suggests substantial mechanistic overlap in mental disorders that could be reflected by the metabolome. In this study, we investigated associations between global plasma metabolites and abnormal scores on the depression, anxiety, and phobic anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) among 405 older males who participated in the Normative Aging Study (NAS). Our analysis revealed overlapping and distinct metabolites associated with each mental health dimension subscale and four metabolites belonging to xenobiotic, carbohydrate, and amino acid classes that were consistently associated across all three symptom dimension subscales. Furthermore, three of these four metabolites demonstrated a higher degree of alteration in men who reported poor scores in all three dimensions compared to men with poor scores in only one, suggesting the potential for shared underlying biology but a differing degree of perturbation when depression and anxiety symptoms co-occur. Our findings implicate pathways of interest relevant to the overlap of mental health conditions in aging veterans and could represent clinically translatable targets underlying poor mental health in this high-risk population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis: Role of Metabolism)
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