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Cosmetics, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 22 articles

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Article
Real-World Insights in Thailand on Usage Satisfaction and Perceived Efficacy of Dexpanthenol in Nappy Care
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030072 - 17 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1838
Abstract
The prevalence of nappy rash or napkin dermatitis in Thailand infants aged 1–24 months is 36.1%. Dexpanthenol-containing nappy creams are clinical validated and effective in treating napkin dermatitis. This study explores the real-world usage satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of a 5% Dexpanthenol-containing product [...] Read more.
The prevalence of nappy rash or napkin dermatitis in Thailand infants aged 1–24 months is 36.1%. Dexpanthenol-containing nappy creams are clinical validated and effective in treating napkin dermatitis. This study explores the real-world usage satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of a 5% Dexpanthenol-containing product as a preventive strategy for napkin dermatitis. Respondents were mothers with babies between 6–12 months of age, who purchased and used a 5% Dexpanthenol-containing product (Bepanthen® Ointment) in the past one month. An online study collected respondents’ satisfaction with the product and its benefits and properties. A total of 300 respondents (52% frequent users and 48% as-needed users) completed the study. Over 90% of respondents reported that their babies experienced less nappy-related discomfort, crying, fidgeting and sleep disruption after applying the nappy care product. Almost all respondents (96%) were satisfied with the product. Notably, frequent users of the product reported higher rates of satisfaction than as-needed users (62% vs. 43%; p < 0.05). This high level of satisfaction was associated with the moisturizing properties and long-lasting skin protection provided by the dexpanthenol-containing product. Our findings from a real-world setting further validate the use of dexpanthenol-containing products as a preventive strategy for napkin dermatitis in Thai infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Natural Flavones and Flavonols: Relationships among Antioxidant Activity, Glycation, and Metalloproteinase Inhibition
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030071 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in the development and progression of degenerative processes of body tissues, including skin. Natural antioxidant flavonoids could be beneficial in inhibiting AGEs’ formation and [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in the development and progression of degenerative processes of body tissues, including skin. Natural antioxidant flavonoids could be beneficial in inhibiting AGEs’ formation and MMPs’ expression. In this study, the antioxidant activity of flavones (luteolin, apigenin, and chrysin) and flavonols (mirycetin, quercetin, and kaempferol) was compared with their inhibitory effects on both metalloproteinases’ (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13) and AGEs’ formation. Comparisons were performed taking into account the hydroxyl group arrangement and the physico-chemical parameters the binding dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), partition coefficient (log P), and topological polar surface area (TPSA). Increasing the number of hydroxyl groups led to a proportional enhancement of antioxidant activity while an inverse relationship was observed plotting the antioxidant activity vs. BDE and IP values. All flavonoids acted as AGEs, MMP-1, and MMP-13 inhibitors, but they were less effective against MMP-2 and MMP-9. The inhibition of MMP-1 seemed to be related to the TPSA values while high TPSA and low log P values seemed important conditions for inhibiting MMP-13. Overall, our data suggest that an estimation of flavonoid activity could be anticipated based on their physico-chemical parameters. Full article
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Article
Novel Topical Application of a Postbiotic, LactoSporin®, in Mild to Moderate Acne: A Randomized, Comparative Clinical Study to Evaluate its Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030070 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder of pilosebaceous units. The therapy for mild-to-moderate acne includes topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide and retinoids. In this open-label, randomized monocentric study, we compared the efficacy of LactoSporin® 2% w/w cream with benzoyl peroxide [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder of pilosebaceous units. The therapy for mild-to-moderate acne includes topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide and retinoids. In this open-label, randomized monocentric study, we compared the efficacy of LactoSporin® 2% w/w cream with benzoyl peroxide in 64 male and female subjects with mild-to-moderate acne for three weeks. The efficacy parameters were evaluated based on the dermatologist visual assessment and instrumental measurements using Sebumeter® MPA580, Antera 3DTM and VISIA CR 2.2 and subject self-assessment questionnaires. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study period. In order to understand the mechanism of action and properties of LactoSporin, the pH stability, thermostability, antimicrobial activity and 5-alpha reductase activity were evaluated in vitro. A significant improvement was observed in the dermatological assessment of closed comedones (p < 0.0001), open comedones (p = 0.0069) and papules count (p < 0.0001) in comparison to the baseline in both LactoSporin and benzoyl peroxide groups. The antera analysis showed significant improvement in redness (p < 0.0001) and elevation (p < 0.0001) (small and medium) in both the treatment groups. The sebumeter analysis showed a significant decrease in sebaceous secretion (p < 0.0001) for LactoSporin, which resulted in reduced oiliness, pimples, acne spots and redness around the acne spot. The product was found to be safe without any irritancy. LactoSporin was stable at an acidic pH and temperature range of 70 to 90 °C, with antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria, including Cutibacterium acnes. It was also a potent inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase activity. Thus, it can be concluded that the efficacy of LactoSporin is equivalent to benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne lesions and better than benzoyl peroxide for reducing the sebaceous secretion and oily, greasy nature of the skin, implying its efficacy in other sebohorriec conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Collagenase and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Effects of Perilla Frutescens Pomace Extract and Its Efficacy in Topical Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030069 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
In previous studies, Perilla frutescens pomace was shown to contain bioactive phenolic compounds and good anti-oxidative activity. However, reports about collagenase activity and melanogenesis inhibitory effects of P. frutescens pomace are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of P. frutescens pomace [...] Read more.
In previous studies, Perilla frutescens pomace was shown to contain bioactive phenolic compounds and good anti-oxidative activity. However, reports about collagenase activity and melanogenesis inhibitory effects of P. frutescens pomace are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of P. frutescens pomace extract and incorporate the extract into a cosmetic formulation for evaluating its effects on collagenase and melanogenesis inhibition on human skin. The P. frutescens seeds after an oil pressing process were extracted with ethanol (70% v/v) in order to examine the remaining phytochemical compounds, the bioactivity in pomace perilla, and its efficacy as a skincare product. In this study, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of P. frutescens seed extract (PFSE) were determined using spectrophotometry. The free radical scavenging activity was determined with 2, 2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals. Additionally, the effects on collagenase activity, melanin content, and alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on the viability of cultured B16F10 melanoma cells were investigated. Skin irritation and efficacy of PFSE cream for skin elasticity and skin color were also clinically evaluated. The total phenolic content with gallic acid equivalents (GAE) value and total flavonoids content with catechin equivalents (CE) value were, respectively, 92.79 ± 1.19 and 56.02 ± 2.83 mg/g. Furthermore, PFSE significantly inhibited the collagenase activity (p < 0.001) at the concentration of 400 µg/mL (82 ± 3.23%). These results clearly demonstrated the anti-melanogenic effects on B16F10 cells without causing any cytotoxicity or death. Although there was a slight improvement in skin elasticity in the 4th week compared to the previous week, the 4th week melanin content of the skin significantly decreased from the beginning (p < 0.05) without any irritations. In conclusion, PFSE could be cosmetically considered as a key ingredient that effectively lessens the effects of skin aging and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. Full article
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Review
Trends in Surgical and Beauty Masks for a Cleaner Environment
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030068 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3448
Abstract
The surgical face mask (SFM) is a sheet medical device covering the mouth, nose and chin to protect the medical staff from the spread of respiratory droplets produced by the infective coughing or sneezing of hospitalized patients. On the other hand the beauty [...] Read more.
The surgical face mask (SFM) is a sheet medical device covering the mouth, nose and chin to protect the medical staff from the spread of respiratory droplets produced by the infective coughing or sneezing of hospitalized patients. On the other hand the beauty face mask (BFM) has been made by the same sheet but with a different aim—to protect the skin from pollution, acting as a hydrating and rejuvenation agent. Currently, both masks are made principally by non-biodegradable tissues, utilized to avoid the increasing great pollution invading our planet. Due to the diffusion of the current COVID-19 infection rate and the increasing consumption of skin care and beauty products, the waste of these masks, made principally by petrol-derived polymers, is creating further intolerable waste-invaded land and oceans. After an introduction to the aims, differences and market of the various masks, their productive means and ingredients are reported. These news are believed necessary to give the reader the working knowledge of these products, in the context of the bioeconomy, to better understand the innovative tissues proposed and realized by the biobased and biodegradable polymers. Thus, the possibility of producing biodegradable SFMs and BFMs, characterized for their effective antimicrobial and skin repairing activities or hydrating and antiaging activity, respectively. These innovative smart and biodegradable masks are requested from the majority of consumers oriented towards a future green environment. Giving this new sense of direction to their production and consumption, it will be possible to reduce the current waste, ranging worldwide at about 2 billion tons per year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Article
The Development of a Skin Image Analysis Tool by Using Machine Learning Algorithms
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030067 - 22 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2133
Abstract
We present our latest research work on the development of a skin image analysis tool by using machine-learning algorithms. Skin imaging is very import in skin research. Over the years, we have used and developed different types of skin imaging techniques. As the [...] Read more.
We present our latest research work on the development of a skin image analysis tool by using machine-learning algorithms. Skin imaging is very import in skin research. Over the years, we have used and developed different types of skin imaging techniques. As the number of skin images and the type of skin images increase, there is a need of a dedicated skin image analysis tool. In this paper, we report the development of such software tool by using the latest MATLAB App Designer. It is simple, user friendly and yet powerful. We intend to make it available on GitHub, so that others can benefit from the software. This is an ongoing project; we are reporting here what we have achieved so far, and more functions will be added to the software in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Laminarin Effects, a β-(1,3)-Glucan, on Skin Cell Inflammation and Oxidation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030066 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Laminarin, a β-(1,3)-glucan from the seaweed Laminaria digitata, is a polysaccharide which provides anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Its influence on both human dermal fibroblasts adult (HDFa) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) has not been established yet. Herein, laminarin effects were examined [...] Read more.
Laminarin, a β-(1,3)-glucan from the seaweed Laminaria digitata, is a polysaccharide which provides anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Its influence on both human dermal fibroblasts adult (HDFa) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) has not been established yet. Herein, laminarin effects were examined on skin cells’ mitochondrial and antioxidant activities. Cytokines, hyaluronic acid, and procollagen type I secretions and interaction mechanisms were explored after a maximum of 72 h treatment with laminarin. Our results demonstrated a decrease in mitochondrial activities with 72 h treatment with laminarin from 500 µg.mL−1 for NHEK cells and from 100 µg.mL−1 for HDFa cells without cytotoxicity. No variation of hyaluronic acid or type I procollagen was observed for all laminarin concentrations, while an antioxidant effect was found against reactive oxygen species (ROS) from 1 µg.mL−1 for HDFa cells in both H2O2 and UVA radiation conditions, and from 10 µg.mL−1 and 1 µg.mL−1 for NHEK cells in both H2O2 and UVA radiation conditions, respectively. Laminarin treatment modulated both cells surface glycosylation and cytokine secretions of skin cells. Overall, our data suggest a positive effect of β-(1,3)-glucan on skin cells on oxidative stress and inflammation induced by environmental factors. Of note, these effects are through the modulation of glycan and receptors interactions at the skin cells surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
An Uncontrolled Case Series Using a Botanically Derived, β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex in Two Androgenetic Alopecia-Affected Male Subjects
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030065 - 10 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Drug-based monotherapy provides limited clinical benefits in polygenic disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia. Possible benefits must be measured against non-trivial risks of negative side effects. Several well-controlled, peer-reviewed, basic science studies have demonstrated novel mechanisms of action and potential utility for natural-based phytochemicals [...] Read more.
Drug-based monotherapy provides limited clinical benefits in polygenic disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia. Possible benefits must be measured against non-trivial risks of negative side effects. Several well-controlled, peer-reviewed, basic science studies have demonstrated novel mechanisms of action and potential utility for natural-based phytochemicals in the treatment of androgen-mediated disorders, including androgenetic alopecia. Yet, due to phytochemical instability, volatility, and incompatibility, the bridge from in vitro potential to clinical efficacy remains largely unmet. Recent advances in nanomaterial manipulation provide enhanced platforms, such as cyclodextrins, in which these phytochemicals may be enveloped and delivered without triggering the loss of intended function. Unexpected, positive results of an uncontrolled case series for a cyclodextrin-enabled, natural-based formula containing γ linolenic acid, β-Sitosterol, epigallocatechin gallate, and genistein, administered concomitantly via oral and topical form in two androgenetic alopecia-affected, male subjects over the course of 270 days were found. At baseline, significant baldness in the vertex scalp of both subjects was observed. Subsequent 90-day time points demonstrated marked hair thickening. On treatment day 270 (conclusion), scalp hair loss was no longer evident in either patient. Particularly in the setting of a disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia, nano-complexed, botanically-based compositions may offer beneficial adjunctives or alternatives to traditional drug-based/surgical medical treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Examining the Influence of Cosmetics on Jury Decisions
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030064 - 10 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Many studies have examined how defendant characteristics influence jury decisions, but none have investigated the effect of cosmetics. We therefore examined how cosmetics influence jury decisions for young and middle-aged female defendants. In Study 1, participants were more likely to assign guilty verdicts [...] Read more.
Many studies have examined how defendant characteristics influence jury decisions, but none have investigated the effect of cosmetics. We therefore examined how cosmetics influence jury decisions for young and middle-aged female defendants. In Study 1, participants were more likely to assign guilty verdicts to middle-aged defendants than young defendants and when presented with cosmetics, male participants gave young defendants longer sentences and middle-aged defendants shorter sentences. In Study 2, however, we did not replicate the age or the cosmetics effects on jury sentences, suggesting that comparisons between defendants may have influenced jury decisions in Study 1. Further work is thus still needed, but our two well-powered studies (N = 1127) provide a first exploration into the influence of cosmetics on jury decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Salicylate UV-Filters in Sunscreen Formulations Compromise the Preservative System Efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030063 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
Contamination of personal-care products are a serious health concern and therefore, preservative solutions are necessary for the costumers’ safety. High sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen formulations are known to be difficult to preserve, due to their high ratio of organic phase containing the [...] Read more.
Contamination of personal-care products are a serious health concern and therefore, preservative solutions are necessary for the costumers’ safety. High sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen formulations are known to be difficult to preserve, due to their high ratio of organic phase containing the UV-filters. Salicylate esters such as octyl salicylate (OS) and homosalate (HS) are among the most common UV-filters currently used in the market, and can undergo hydrolysis by esterase molecules produced by contaminant microorganisms. The hydrolysis product, salicylic acid (SA) can be assimilated by certain bacteria that contain the chorismate pathway, in which its final product is pyochelin, an iron-chelating siderophore. Here, we show that OS and HS can compromise the preservative efficacy against two pathogenic important bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Challenge tests of formulations containing the UV-filters demonstrated that only bacteria with the chorismate pathway failed to be eradicated by the preservation system. mRNA expression levels of the bacterial pchD gene, which metabolizes SA to produce pyochelin, indicate a significant increase that was in correlation with increasing concentrations of both OS and HS. These data suggest that certain UV-filters can provide a source for bacterial resistance against common preservatives in sunscreen formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Calcium Carbonate Particles: A New Topical Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030062 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. Pickering emulsions are particularly useful in cosmetics, where the surfactants are unwanted, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, where transdermal and/or dermal drug delivery is difficult [...] Read more.
Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. Pickering emulsions are particularly useful in cosmetics, where the surfactants are unwanted, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, where transdermal and/or dermal drug delivery is difficult to achieve and controlled drug release is desired. Here, we studied calcium carbonate particles as stabilizers of Pickering emulsions for topical use. An optimized formulation was obtained using a Quality by Design approach. First, a screening experiment was performed to identify the formulation and process critical variables that affect the quality properties of the Pickering emulsion. The optimization of the production was then studied by establishing the design space. The final formulation was hereinafter investigated regarding the pH, rheological properties, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. The results showed the formulation had a pH compatible with human skin and a shear thinning behavior. Moreover, this formulation showed a strong network structure, with a suitable spreadability on the skin, allowing an easy application. The in vitro assays were performed to assess the potential cytotoxicity of the calcium carbonate-stabilized emulsion and the particles themselves, and the results revealed that the formulation did not significantly affect the cell viability. In conclusion, the use of calcium carbonate particles as a stabilizer ingredient contributed to achieve an eco-friendly Pickering emulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Communication
Inhibitory Effects of the Bioactive Thermorubin Isolated from the Fungus Thermoactinomyces Antibioticus on Melanogenesis
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030061 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to aberrant regulation of melanin synthesis and export. Current treatments include natural compounds like kojic acid and hydroquinone, which suffer from limitations due to adverse reactions. Thermorubin (TR) is a secondary metabolite derived from the fungus Thermoactinomyces antibioticus [...] Read more.
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to aberrant regulation of melanin synthesis and export. Current treatments include natural compounds like kojic acid and hydroquinone, which suffer from limitations due to adverse reactions. Thermorubin (TR) is a secondary metabolite derived from the fungus Thermoactinomyces antibioticus and has previously demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as antimicrobial activity. In the current study, we explored whether TR might be a used as a candidate for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders by studying its effects on melanin synthesis and melanin export in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes derived from darkly-pigmented (DP) skin. Non-toxic doses of TR were first identified in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. These doses were subsequently tested for their effects on both extracellular and intracellular melanin levels under conditions of basal and hormone-stimulated melanogenesis. Our results demonstrated that TR at 25 µM inhibited total melanin levels with selective inhibition of extracellular melanin in B16F10 cells under both basal and hormone-stimulated conditions. The mechanisms of inhibition did not include tyrosinase inhibition, either in cellular lysates or cell-free system. However, TR potently inhibited activity of α-glucosidase enzyme in vitro and exhibited antioxidant activity. Furthermore, our results with primary human melanocytes from DP skin showed that TR at 10 µM significantly suppressed dendricity along with an increase in accumulation of intracellular melanin. These findings point to a mechanism of action of TR as an exclusive inhibitor of melanosome export. Taken together, our preliminary results demonstrate that TR might offer a novel ingredient as a skin depigmenting agent for inclusion in cosmetic formulations. Further studies delineating molecular mechanisms of hypopigmentation of TR and testing in human skin tissue-equivalents are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Review
Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis Inhibition by Indigenous African Plants: A Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030060 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
The indiscriminate use of non-regulated skin lighteners among African populations has raised health concerns due to the negative effects associated with skin lightener toxicity. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the cosmetic development of plants and their metabolites as alternatives [...] Read more.
The indiscriminate use of non-regulated skin lighteners among African populations has raised health concerns due to the negative effects associated with skin lightener toxicity. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the cosmetic development of plants and their metabolites as alternatives to available chemical-derived skin lightening formulations. Approximately 90% of Africa’s population depends on traditional medicine, and the continent’s biodiversity holds plant material with various biological activities, thus attracting considerable research interest. This study aimed to review existing evidence and document indigenous African plant species capable of inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase and melanogenesis for potential incorporation into skin lightening products. Literature search on melanin biosynthesis, skin lightening, and tyrosinase inhibitors resulted in the identification of 35 plant species were distributed among 31 genera and 21 families across 15 African countries and 9 South African provinces. All plants identified in this study showed competent tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory capabilities. These results indicate that African plants have the potential to serve as alternatives to current chemically-derived skin lighteners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
The Impact of Routine Skin Care on the Quality of Life
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030059 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3785
Abstract
Importance: Consumers purchase a wide variety of consumer products and come into contact with these products on a daily basis. Manufacturers invest deeply in developing new products or improving existing products, in order to produce a positive impact on the lives of consumers. [...] Read more.
Importance: Consumers purchase a wide variety of consumer products and come into contact with these products on a daily basis. Manufacturers invest deeply in developing new products or improving existing products, in order to produce a positive impact on the lives of consumers. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of over-the-counter skin care products on the quality of life (QoL) of female consumers. Design and Measures: A QoL instrument developed for consumer products (the Farage QoL with an added Skin Care Module) was used to assess the impact of a 28-day facial skin care regimen using commercially available products formulated to improve elasticity, firmness and hydration, and to correct age- and sun-related skin color. Responses were collected prior to study commencement, at completion of the product usage stage, and after a period of withdrawal of the product with reversion to a basic skin care regimen. Participants: Two main study groups from Australia included 89 new mothers, i.e., women with children 2 years and under (mean age ± SD was 34 ± 4.8), and a national representative sample of 91 women (45 ± 12). An additional test group from China consisted of 40 younger cosmetic users (25 ± 4.3). The Skin Care Module was not included in the instrument for the third group. Results: After 28-days of usage, both test groups in the main study showed significant improvement in three of five items in the Skin Care Module (improved feelings of empowerment, happiness and self-esteem). Improvements persisted after 2 weeks of product withdrawal. In the main QoL instrument, the New Mothers group showed significant improvement in the Well-Being domain, driven by improvements in the Self-Image and Self Competence subdomains. The National Representative group showed improvements in the Energy and Vitality domain, driven by improvements in the Personal Pleasure, Physical State and Routine Activity subdomains. The additional group in the China study showed results similar to the New Mothers group. Conclusions and Relevance: A quality and efficacious skin care regimen can have a positive impact on the QoL of consumers. Differences in responses of the test groups were likely related to differences in the mean age and differences in time available to look after themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Mercury Exposure and Health Problems of the Students Using Skin-Lightening Cosmetic Products in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030058 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 3000
Abstract
Despite legal and safety issues, skin-lightening cosmetic products—including hazardous mercury-containing cosmetics—are in increasing demand in Indonesia. Perceptions of beauty may result in desires to have lighter skin tones, regardless of the safety of these cosmetics, which block the production of melanin and thus [...] Read more.
Despite legal and safety issues, skin-lightening cosmetic products—including hazardous mercury-containing cosmetics—are in increasing demand in Indonesia. Perceptions of beauty may result in desires to have lighter skin tones, regardless of the safety of these cosmetics, which block the production of melanin and thus lighten skin tone. This study investigated Hg exposure of students using skin-lightening cosmetics and assessed the health issues. A total of 105 female students were given a questionnaire regarding their use of cosmetics; a further 43 students formed a non-cosmetic-user control group. Their scalp hair and cosmetic products were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. The geometric-mean hair Hg concentration for the cosmetics-using students was 6.7 µg g−1—three times that of the control group (2.3 µg g−1). Of twenty-seven cosmetic samples were analyzed, twenty had Hg concentrations of 0.12–7834.4 µg g−1 (mean 554.6 µg g−1), and seven had no detectable Hg. The hair Hg concentrations exhibited a statistically significant correlation with cosmetic Hg concentration. The health assessments indicated only rigidity & ataxia and irregular eye movement were prevalent in the cosmetic-using students with less than 7% occurrences. Full article
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Review
How to Use the Normalized Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation (HLDN) Concept for the Formulation of Equilibrated and Emulsified Surfactant-Oil-Water Systems for Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Products
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030057 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3713
Abstract
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted [...] Read more.
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted in the energy balance concept labeled the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD) from optimum formulation. This semiempirical equation integrates in a simple linear relationship the effects of six to eight variables including surfactant head and tail, sometimes a cosurfactant, oil-phase nature, aqueous-phase salinity, temperature, and pressure. This is undoubtedly much more efficient than the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) which has been used since 1950. The new HLD is quite important because it allows researchers to model and somehow predict the phase behavior, the interfacial tension between oil and water phases, their solubilization in single-phase microemulsion, as well as the corresponding properties for various kinds of macroemulsions. However, the HLD correlation, which has been developed and used in petroleum applications, is sometimes difficult to apply accurately in real cases involving ionic–nonionic surfactant mixtures and natural polar oils, as it is the case in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This review shows the confusion resulting from the multiple definitions of HLD and of the surfactant parameter, and proposes a “normalized” Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation (HLDN) equation with a surfactant contribution parameter (SCP), to handle more exactly the effects of formulation variables on the phase behavior and the micro/macroemulsion properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Valorisation of Ribes nigrum L. Pomace, an Agri-Food By-Product to Design a New Cosmetic Active
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030056 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
The ethical and ecological concerns of today’s consumers looking for both sustainable and efficient ingredients in finished products, put a lot of pressure on the cosmetic market actors who are being driven to profoundly modify the strategies adopted to innovate in terms of [...] Read more.
The ethical and ecological concerns of today’s consumers looking for both sustainable and efficient ingredients in finished products, put a lot of pressure on the cosmetic market actors who are being driven to profoundly modify the strategies adopted to innovate in terms of actives while notably being urged to switch from petroleum- to plant-based ingredients. To produce such natural cosmetic ingredients, agri-food by-products are advocated as raw material due to their reduced carbon footprint as they actively contribute to the worldwide improvement of waste management. The process to transform plant waste materials into such powerful and objectified “green” cosmetic actives in compliance with circular economy principles is a long-term integrated process. Such a development is thoroughly exemplified in the present paper through the description of the design of liquid anti-age ingredients based on Ribes nigrum L. extract. This was obtained by maceration of blackcurrant pomace. and the embodiment of this extract following its phytochemical analysis notably by HPLC-DAD-ELSD and its bioguided fractionation using in vitro bioassays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Synthesis of Resorcinol Derivatives and their Effects on Melanin Production
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030055 - 11 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Several resorcinol derivatives were synthesized and their effects on the survival rate of B16 murine melanoma cells, melanin production, and tyrosinase activity were investigated with an aim to evaluate their skin whitening effect. Twelve resorcinol derivatives were synthesized by esterification with three functional [...] Read more.
Several resorcinol derivatives were synthesized and their effects on the survival rate of B16 murine melanoma cells, melanin production, and tyrosinase activity were investigated with an aim to evaluate their skin whitening effect. Twelve resorcinol derivatives were synthesized by esterification with three functional groups (L-ascorb-6-yl, ethyl, and glyceryl) linked via four alkyl chains of varying lengths (n = 2–5) at the 4-position. The structures of the 12 resorcinol derivatives were confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The derivatives were added to B16 murine melanoma cells and the melanin contents in the cells and culture medium were measured. To measure the tyrosinase activity, the substrate L-DOPA was added to a mushroom-derived tyrosinase solution, and the inhibition of the tyrosinase activity was determined. At 10 µM, the resorcinol derivatives did not affect the survival of the B16 murine melanoma cells, but the melanin content was reduced. At 1 µM, the derivatives significantly inhibited the tyrosinase activity in the mushroom-derived tyrosinase solution. A plot of the inhibitory effect on melanin production against the cLogP value for each resorcinol derivative indicated that the highest inhibition occurred at a cLogP value of approximately 2. Therefore, these resorcinol derivatives are expected to serve as effective skin whitening agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Preliminary Evidence of a Molecular Detection Method to Analyze Bacterial DNA as a Quality Indicator in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030054 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
Cosmetics are a category of widely consumed and distributed products, and their manufacture is always subject to specific guidelines. Quality Control (QC) tests provide information supporting the absence of injurious organisms and regarding the microbiological stability of cosmetics. The microbiological risk analysis is [...] Read more.
Cosmetics are a category of widely consumed and distributed products, and their manufacture is always subject to specific guidelines. Quality Control (QC) tests provide information supporting the absence of injurious organisms and regarding the microbiological stability of cosmetics. The microbiological risk analysis is typically performed using the plate count method, which is a time-consuming and operator-dependent approach. Molecular technologies allow a deeper and more sensitive testing than traditional cultures. The demand for rapid and sensitive methods is recently increasing. The aim of our study was to compare different DNA extraction methods in order to detect and quantify bacterial load in cosmetics using a qPCR system. Known numbers of microorganisms were spiked into six different cosmetics to simulate contaminated samples. DNA was extracted with seven extraction kits and then quantified by real-time qPCR. Results revealed differences in terms of cell recovery, DNA yield, and quality. The bead-beating approaches were the most suitable in our molecular workflow and lead to good quality DNA for analysis by qPCR within four hours. Combined with mechanical extraction, qPCR may represent an efficient and easy method for microorganism identification in cosmetics, and can be automated. This approach also is also applicable for the detection of probiotics used as beneficial biological components in cosmetic products. The results of our molecular method provided preliminary evidences for the rapid identification of cells (10–100) and nucleic acids in complex preparations employed for human health, in compliance with regulatory limits. The suggested methodology is easy, fast, and sensitive. Its scalability allows serial microbiological evaluation at every manufacturing step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Fruit Extract and Skin Microbiota: A Focus on C. acnes Phylotypes in Acne Subjects
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030053 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
Knowing that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is known to have antibacterial effects, this study investigated the skin microbiota with a focus on Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) phylotypes in subjects with acne, and determined microbiota changes after 28 days of treatment with berries Rhodomyrtus [...] Read more.
Knowing that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is known to have antibacterial effects, this study investigated the skin microbiota with a focus on Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) phylotypes in subjects with acne, and determined microbiota changes after 28 days of treatment with berries Rhodomyrtus tomentosa as an active ingredient (RT). Skin swabs from seventeen acne subjects were collected and the skin microbiome was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A culture-independent next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based SLST (single-locus sequence typing) approach was aimed at evaluating RT extract effects on C. acnes phylotype repartition. Clinical evaluations (lesion counts) were performed at baseline (D0) and after 28 days (D28) of twice-daily application of the RT active ingredient. We determined: (1) the skin microbiota at D0 was dominated by Actinobacteria followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; (2) at the genus level, Cutibacterium was the most abundant genus followed by Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium; (3) C. acnes was the major species in terms of mean abundance, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis); and (4) phylotype IA1 was most represented, with a predominance of SLST type A1, followed by phylotypes II, IB, IA2, IC, and III. After 28 days of RT extract treatment, phylotype repartition were modified with a decrease in abundance (approximately 4%) of phylotype IA1 and an increase in phylotype II and III. Cutibacterium granulosum (C. granulosum) abundance also decreased. Reduction of retentional and inflammatory lesions was also noted only after RT treatment; thus, RT extract acts as a microbiota-regulating agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Effective Transcutaneous Delivery of Hyaluronic Acid Using an Easy-to-Prepare Reverse Micelle Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030052 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
The skin loses its moisture with advancing age, causing cosmetic issues such as wrinkles. In addition, the loss of moisture leads to hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as UV light. Transcutaneous supplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is an effective and safe method of [...] Read more.
The skin loses its moisture with advancing age, causing cosmetic issues such as wrinkles. In addition, the loss of moisture leads to hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as UV light. Transcutaneous supplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is an effective and safe method of recovering the moisturizing function and elasticity of the skin. However, the transcutaneous delivery of HA remains challenging owing to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) layer. To penetrate the SC barrier, we used a reverse micelle formulation that does not require high energy consumption processes for preparation. We aimed to enhance the skin permeability of HA by incorporating glyceryl monooleate—a skin permeation enhancer—into the formulation. A fluorescently-labeled HA-loaded reverse micelle formulation showed significantly enhanced permeation across Yucatan micro pig skin. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy of the surface of the skin treated with the reverse micelle formulation showed blue shifts of the CH2 symmetric/asymmetric stretching peaks, indicating a reduction in the barrier function of the SC. Further study revealed that HA was released from the reverse micelles at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface between the SC and the living epidermis. The results demonstrated that our reverse micellar system is an easy-to-prepare formulation for the effective transcutaneous delivery of HA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Article
Lake Zeiļu Clay Application Induced Changes in Human Skin Hydration, Elasticity, Transepidermal Water Loss and PH in Healthy Individuals
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030051 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water [...] Read more.
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH measurements after lake clay facial applications. Research included short-term tests (measurements 20 and 60 min after clay application) and long-term tests (application every 4th day for 3 weeks with measurements 20–24 h post-application). Control measurements and application tests to exclude contact allergy were made beforehand. No volunteer (n = 30) had positive allergic reaction. The matched-pairs design was applied: the right and left parts of forehead were used for the test and control groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test (significance level p = 0.001) was applied for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant pH changes demonstrated during the short-term measurements. The long-term measurements provided data that clay significantly improves skin hydration and elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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