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Volume 7, June

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Cosmetics, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 13 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Salicylate UV-Filters in Sunscreen Formulations Compromise the Preservative System Efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030063 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Contamination of personal-care products are a serious health concern and therefore, preservative solutions are necessary for the costumers’ safety. High sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen formulations are known to be difficult to preserve, due to their high ratio of organic phase containing the [...] Read more.
Contamination of personal-care products are a serious health concern and therefore, preservative solutions are necessary for the costumers’ safety. High sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen formulations are known to be difficult to preserve, due to their high ratio of organic phase containing the UV-filters. Salicylate esters such as octyl salicylate (OS) and homosalate (HS) are among the most common UV-filters currently used in the market, and can undergo hydrolysis by esterase molecules produced by contaminant microorganisms. The hydrolysis product, salicylic acid (SA) can be assimilated by certain bacteria that contain the chorismate pathway, in which its final product is pyochelin, an iron-chelating siderophore. Here, we show that OS and HS can compromise the preservative efficacy against two pathogenic important bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Challenge tests of formulations containing the UV-filters demonstrated that only bacteria with the chorismate pathway failed to be eradicated by the preservation system. mRNA expression levels of the bacterial pchD gene, which metabolizes SA to produce pyochelin, indicate a significant increase that was in correlation with increasing concentrations of both OS and HS. These data suggest that certain UV-filters can provide a source for bacterial resistance against common preservatives in sunscreen formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Calcium Carbonate Particles: A New Topical Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030062 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. Pickering emulsions are particularly useful in cosmetics, where the surfactants are unwanted, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, where transdermal and/or dermal drug delivery is difficult [...] Read more.
Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. Pickering emulsions are particularly useful in cosmetics, where the surfactants are unwanted, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, where transdermal and/or dermal drug delivery is difficult to achieve and controlled drug release is desired. Here, we studied calcium carbonate particles as stabilizers of Pickering emulsions for topical use. An optimized formulation was obtained using a Quality by Design approach. First, a screening experiment was performed to identify the formulation and process critical variables that affect the quality properties of the Pickering emulsion. The optimization of the production was then studied by establishing the design space. The final formulation was hereinafter investigated regarding the pH, rheological properties, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. The results showed the formulation had a pH compatible with human skin and a shear thinning behavior. Moreover, this formulation showed a strong network structure, with a suitable spreadability on the skin, allowing an easy application. The in vitro assays were performed to assess the potential cytotoxicity of the calcium carbonate-stabilized emulsion and the particles themselves, and the results revealed that the formulation did not significantly affect the cell viability. In conclusion, the use of calcium carbonate particles as a stabilizer ingredient contributed to achieve an eco-friendly Pickering emulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessCommunication
Inhibitory Effects of the Bioactive Thermorubin Isolated from the Fungus Thermoactinomyces Antibioticus on Melanogenesis
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030061 - 30 Jul 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to aberrant regulation of melanin synthesis and export. Current treatments include natural compounds like kojic acid and hydroquinone, which suffer from limitations due to adverse reactions. Thermorubin (TR) is a secondary metabolite derived from the fungus Thermoactinomyces antibioticus [...] Read more.
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to aberrant regulation of melanin synthesis and export. Current treatments include natural compounds like kojic acid and hydroquinone, which suffer from limitations due to adverse reactions. Thermorubin (TR) is a secondary metabolite derived from the fungus Thermoactinomyces antibioticus and has previously demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as antimicrobial activity. In the current study, we explored whether TR might be a used as a candidate for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders by studying its effects on melanin synthesis and melanin export in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes derived from darkly-pigmented (DP) skin. Non-toxic doses of TR were first identified in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. These doses were subsequently tested for their effects on both extracellular and intracellular melanin levels under conditions of basal and hormone-stimulated melanogenesis. Our results demonstrated that TR at 25 µM inhibited total melanin levels with selective inhibition of extracellular melanin in B16F10 cells under both basal and hormone-stimulated conditions. The mechanisms of inhibition did not include tyrosinase inhibition, either in cellular lysates or cell-free system. However, TR potently inhibited activity of α-glucosidase enzyme in vitro and exhibited antioxidant activity. Furthermore, our results with primary human melanocytes from DP skin showed that TR at 10 µM significantly suppressed dendricity along with an increase in accumulation of intracellular melanin. These findings point to a mechanism of action of TR as an exclusive inhibitor of melanosome export. Taken together, our preliminary results demonstrate that TR might offer a novel ingredient as a skin depigmenting agent for inclusion in cosmetic formulations. Further studies delineating molecular mechanisms of hypopigmentation of TR and testing in human skin tissue-equivalents are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis Inhibition by Indigenous African Plants: A Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030060 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 297
Abstract
The indiscriminate use of non-regulated skin lighteners among African populations has raised health concerns due to the negative effects associated with skin lightener toxicity. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the cosmetic development of plants and their metabolites as alternatives [...] Read more.
The indiscriminate use of non-regulated skin lighteners among African populations has raised health concerns due to the negative effects associated with skin lightener toxicity. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the cosmetic development of plants and their metabolites as alternatives to available chemical-derived skin lightening formulations. Approximately 90% of Africa’s population depends on traditional medicine, and the continent’s biodiversity holds plant material with various biological activities, thus attracting considerable research interest. This study aimed to review existing evidence and document indigenous African plant species capable of inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase and melanogenesis for potential incorporation into skin lightening products. Literature search on melanin biosynthesis, skin lightening, and tyrosinase inhibitors resulted in the identification of 35 plant species were distributed among 31 genera and 21 families across 15 African countries and 9 South African provinces. All plants identified in this study showed competent tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory capabilities. These results indicate that African plants have the potential to serve as alternatives to current chemically-derived skin lighteners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Routine Skin Care on the Quality of Life
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030059 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Importance: Consumers purchase a wide variety of consumer products and come into contact with these products on a daily basis. Manufacturers invest deeply in developing new products or improving existing products, in order to produce a positive impact on the lives of consumers. [...] Read more.
Importance: Consumers purchase a wide variety of consumer products and come into contact with these products on a daily basis. Manufacturers invest deeply in developing new products or improving existing products, in order to produce a positive impact on the lives of consumers. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of over-the-counter skin care products on the quality of life (QoL) of female consumers. Design and Measures: A QoL instrument developed for consumer products (the Farage QoL with an added Skin Care Module) was used to assess the impact of a 28-day facial skin care regimen using commercially available products formulated to improve elasticity, firmness and hydration, and to correct age- and sun-related skin color. Responses were collected prior to study commencement, at completion of the product usage stage, and after a period of withdrawal of the product with reversion to a basic skin care regimen. Participants: Two main study groups from Australia included 89 new mothers, i.e., women with children 2 years and under (mean age ± SD was 34 ± 4.8), and a national representative sample of 91 women (45 ± 12). An additional test group from China consisted of 40 younger cosmetic users (25 ± 4.3). The Skin Care Module was not included in the instrument for the third group. Results: After 28-days of usage, both test groups in the main study showed significant improvement in three of five items in the Skin Care Module (improved feelings of empowerment, happiness and self-esteem). Improvements persisted after 2 weeks of product withdrawal. In the main QoL instrument, the New Mothers group showed significant improvement in the Well-Being domain, driven by improvements in the Self-Image and Self Competence subdomains. The National Representative group showed improvements in the Energy and Vitality domain, driven by improvements in the Personal Pleasure, Physical State and Routine Activity subdomains. The additional group in the China study showed results similar to the New Mothers group. Conclusions and Relevance: A quality and efficacious skin care regimen can have a positive impact on the QoL of consumers. Differences in responses of the test groups were likely related to differences in the mean age and differences in time available to look after themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Mercury Exposure and Health Problems of the Students Using Skin-Lightening Cosmetic Products in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030058 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Despite legal and safety issues, skin-lightening cosmetic products—including hazardous mercury-containing cosmetics—are in increasing demand in Indonesia. Perceptions of beauty may result in desires to have lighter skin tones, regardless of the safety of these cosmetics, which block the production of melanin and thus [...] Read more.
Despite legal and safety issues, skin-lightening cosmetic products—including hazardous mercury-containing cosmetics—are in increasing demand in Indonesia. Perceptions of beauty may result in desires to have lighter skin tones, regardless of the safety of these cosmetics, which block the production of melanin and thus lighten skin tone. This study investigated Hg exposure of students using skin-lightening cosmetics and assessed the health issues. A total of 105 female students were given a questionnaire regarding their use of cosmetics; a further 43 students formed a non-cosmetic-user control group. Their scalp hair and cosmetic products were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. The geometric-mean hair Hg concentration for the cosmetics-using students was 6.7 µg g−1—three times that of the control group (2.3 µg g−1). Of twenty-seven cosmetic samples were analyzed, twenty had Hg concentrations of 0.12–7834.4 µg g−1 (mean 554.6 µg g−1), and seven had no detectable Hg. The hair Hg concentrations exhibited a statistically significant correlation with cosmetic Hg concentration. The health assessments indicated only rigidity & ataxia and irregular eye movement were prevalent in the cosmetic-using students with less than 7% occurrences. Full article
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Open AccessReview
How to Use the Normalized Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation (HLDN) Concept for the Formulation of Equilibrated and Emulsified Surfactant-Oil-Water Systems for Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Products
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030057 - 14 Jul 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted [...] Read more.
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted in the energy balance concept labeled the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD) from optimum formulation. This semiempirical equation integrates in a simple linear relationship the effects of six to eight variables including surfactant head and tail, sometimes a cosurfactant, oil-phase nature, aqueous-phase salinity, temperature, and pressure. This is undoubtedly much more efficient than the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) which has been used since 1950. The new HLD is quite important because it allows researchers to model and somehow predict the phase behavior, the interfacial tension between oil and water phases, their solubilization in single-phase microemulsion, as well as the corresponding properties for various kinds of macroemulsions. However, the HLD correlation, which has been developed and used in petroleum applications, is sometimes difficult to apply accurately in real cases involving ionic–nonionic surfactant mixtures and natural polar oils, as it is the case in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This review shows the confusion resulting from the multiple definitions of HLD and of the surfactant parameter, and proposes a “normalized” Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation (HLDN) equation with a surfactant contribution parameter (SCP), to handle more exactly the effects of formulation variables on the phase behavior and the micro/macroemulsion properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Valorisation of Ribes nigrum L. Pomace, an Agri-Food By-Product to Design a New Cosmetic Active
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030056 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The ethical and ecological concerns of today’s consumers looking for both sustainable and efficient ingredients in finished products, put a lot of pressure on the cosmetic market actors who are being driven to profoundly modify the strategies adopted to innovate in terms of [...] Read more.
The ethical and ecological concerns of today’s consumers looking for both sustainable and efficient ingredients in finished products, put a lot of pressure on the cosmetic market actors who are being driven to profoundly modify the strategies adopted to innovate in terms of actives while notably being urged to switch from petroleum- to plant-based ingredients. To produce such natural cosmetic ingredients, agri-food by-products are advocated as raw material due to their reduced carbon footprint as they actively contribute to the worldwide improvement of waste management. The process to transform plant waste materials into such powerful and objectified “green” cosmetic actives in compliance with circular economy principles is a long-term integrated process. Such a development is thoroughly exemplified in the present paper through the description of the design of liquid anti-age ingredients based on Ribes nigrum L. extract. This was obtained by maceration of blackcurrant pomace. and the embodiment of this extract following its phytochemical analysis notably by HPLC-DAD-ELSD and its bioguided fractionation using in vitro bioassays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Resorcinol Derivatives and their Effects on Melanin Production
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030055 - 11 Jul 2020
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Several resorcinol derivatives were synthesized and their effects on the survival rate of B16 murine melanoma cells, melanin production, and tyrosinase activity were investigated with an aim to evaluate their skin whitening effect. Twelve resorcinol derivatives were synthesized by esterification with three functional [...] Read more.
Several resorcinol derivatives were synthesized and their effects on the survival rate of B16 murine melanoma cells, melanin production, and tyrosinase activity were investigated with an aim to evaluate their skin whitening effect. Twelve resorcinol derivatives were synthesized by esterification with three functional groups (L-ascorb-6-yl, ethyl, and glyceryl) linked via four alkyl chains of varying lengths (n = 2–5) at the 4-position. The structures of the 12 resorcinol derivatives were confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The derivatives were added to B16 murine melanoma cells and the melanin contents in the cells and culture medium were measured. To measure the tyrosinase activity, the substrate L-DOPA was added to a mushroom-derived tyrosinase solution, and the inhibition of the tyrosinase activity was determined. At 10 µM, the resorcinol derivatives did not affect the survival of the B16 murine melanoma cells, but the melanin content was reduced. At 1 µM, the derivatives significantly inhibited the tyrosinase activity in the mushroom-derived tyrosinase solution. A plot of the inhibitory effect on melanin production against the cLogP value for each resorcinol derivative indicated that the highest inhibition occurred at a cLogP value of approximately 2. Therefore, these resorcinol derivatives are expected to serve as effective skin whitening agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Evidence of a Molecular Detection Method to Analyze Bacterial DNA as a Quality Indicator in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030054 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Cosmetics are a category of widely consumed and distributed products, and their manufacture is always subject to specific guidelines. Quality Control (QC) tests provide information supporting the absence of injurious organisms and regarding the microbiological stability of cosmetics. The microbiological risk analysis is [...] Read more.
Cosmetics are a category of widely consumed and distributed products, and their manufacture is always subject to specific guidelines. Quality Control (QC) tests provide information supporting the absence of injurious organisms and regarding the microbiological stability of cosmetics. The microbiological risk analysis is typically performed using the plate count method, which is a time-consuming and operator-dependent approach. Molecular technologies allow a deeper and more sensitive testing than traditional cultures. The demand for rapid and sensitive methods is recently increasing. The aim of our study was to compare different DNA extraction methods in order to detect and quantify bacterial load in cosmetics using a qPCR system. Known numbers of microorganisms were spiked into six different cosmetics to simulate contaminated samples. DNA was extracted with seven extraction kits and then quantified by real-time qPCR. Results revealed differences in terms of cell recovery, DNA yield, and quality. The bead-beating approaches were the most suitable in our molecular workflow and lead to good quality DNA for analysis by qPCR within four hours. Combined with mechanical extraction, qPCR may represent an efficient and easy method for microorganism identification in cosmetics, and can be automated. This approach also is also applicable for the detection of probiotics used as beneficial biological components in cosmetic products. The results of our molecular method provided preliminary evidences for the rapid identification of cells (10–100) and nucleic acids in complex preparations employed for human health, in compliance with regulatory limits. The suggested methodology is easy, fast, and sensitive. Its scalability allows serial microbiological evaluation at every manufacturing step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Fruit Extract and Skin Microbiota: A Focus on C. acnes Phylotypes in Acne Subjects
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030053 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Knowing that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is known to have antibacterial effects, this study investigated the skin microbiota with a focus on Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) phylotypes in subjects with acne, and determined microbiota changes after 28 days of treatment with berries Rhodomyrtus [...] Read more.
Knowing that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is known to have antibacterial effects, this study investigated the skin microbiota with a focus on Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) phylotypes in subjects with acne, and determined microbiota changes after 28 days of treatment with berries Rhodomyrtus tomentosa as an active ingredient (RT). Skin swabs from seventeen acne subjects were collected and the skin microbiome was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A culture-independent next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based SLST (single-locus sequence typing) approach was aimed at evaluating RT extract effects on C. acnes phylotype repartition. Clinical evaluations (lesion counts) were performed at baseline (D0) and after 28 days (D28) of twice-daily application of the RT active ingredient. We determined: (1) the skin microbiota at D0 was dominated by Actinobacteria followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; (2) at the genus level, Cutibacterium was the most abundant genus followed by Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium; (3) C. acnes was the major species in terms of mean abundance, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis); and (4) phylotype IA1 was most represented, with a predominance of SLST type A1, followed by phylotypes II, IB, IA2, IC, and III. After 28 days of RT extract treatment, phylotype repartition were modified with a decrease in abundance (approximately 4%) of phylotype IA1 and an increase in phylotype II and III. Cutibacterium granulosum (C. granulosum) abundance also decreased. Reduction of retentional and inflammatory lesions was also noted only after RT treatment; thus, RT extract acts as a microbiota-regulating agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Transcutaneous Delivery of Hyaluronic Acid Using an Easy-to-Prepare Reverse Micelle Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030052 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The skin loses its moisture with advancing age, causing cosmetic issues such as wrinkles. In addition, the loss of moisture leads to hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as UV light. Transcutaneous supplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is an effective and safe method of [...] Read more.
The skin loses its moisture with advancing age, causing cosmetic issues such as wrinkles. In addition, the loss of moisture leads to hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as UV light. Transcutaneous supplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is an effective and safe method of recovering the moisturizing function and elasticity of the skin. However, the transcutaneous delivery of HA remains challenging owing to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) layer. To penetrate the SC barrier, we used a reverse micelle formulation that does not require high energy consumption processes for preparation. We aimed to enhance the skin permeability of HA by incorporating glyceryl monooleate—a skin permeation enhancer—into the formulation. A fluorescently-labeled HA-loaded reverse micelle formulation showed significantly enhanced permeation across Yucatan micro pig skin. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy of the surface of the skin treated with the reverse micelle formulation showed blue shifts of the CH2 symmetric/asymmetric stretching peaks, indicating a reduction in the barrier function of the SC. Further study revealed that HA was released from the reverse micelles at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface between the SC and the living epidermis. The results demonstrated that our reverse micellar system is an easy-to-prepare formulation for the effective transcutaneous delivery of HA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Lake Zeiļu Clay Application Induced Changes in Human Skin Hydration, Elasticity, Transepidermal Water Loss and PH in Healthy Individuals
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030051 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water [...] Read more.
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH measurements after lake clay facial applications. Research included short-term tests (measurements 20 and 60 min after clay application) and long-term tests (application every 4th day for 3 weeks with measurements 20–24 h post-application). Control measurements and application tests to exclude contact allergy were made beforehand. No volunteer (n = 30) had positive allergic reaction. The matched-pairs design was applied: the right and left parts of forehead were used for the test and control groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test (significance level p = 0.001) was applied for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant pH changes demonstrated during the short-term measurements. The long-term measurements provided data that clay significantly improves skin hydration and elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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