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Assessments of Facial Muscle Thickness by Ultrasound in Younger Adults: Absolute and Relative Reliability

Department of Health, Exercise Science, & Recreation Management, Kevser Ermin Applied Physiology Laboratory, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
Faculty of Physical Education and Dance, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 65;
Received: 8 October 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
The absolute reliability (i.e., standard error of measurement and minimal difference) of a measurement is important to consider when assessing training effects. However, the absolute reliability for ultrasound measured facial muscle thickness had not been investigated. In order to examine the absolute and relative reliability of measuring facial muscles, 98 healthy, young, and middle-aged adults (18–40 years) had ultrasound measurements taken twice, separated by an average of three days. Six facial muscles were selected to determine the reliability of facial muscle thickness. The relative reliability (ICC3,1) ranged from 0.425 for the orbicularis oris (inferior) to 0.943 for the frontalis muscle. The absolute reliability (minimal difference) ranged from 0.25 mm for the orbicularis oculi to 1.82 mm for the masseter. The percentage minimal difference was 22%, 25%, 26%, 29%, 21%, and 10% for the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris (superior), orbicularis oris (inferior), depressor anguli oris, and masseter, respectively. Our results indicated that the relative reliability was similar to that observed previously. The absolute reliability indicated that the measurement error associated with measuring muscle thickness of the face may be greater than that of the trunk/limb muscles. This may be related to the difficulty of accurately determining the borders of each muscle. View Full-Text
Keywords: reproducibility; facial muscle thickness; ultrasonography reproducibility; facial muscle thickness; ultrasonography
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Abe, T.; Spitz, R.W.; Wong, V.; Viana, R.B.; Yamada, Y.; Bell, Z.W.; Chatakondi, R.N.; Loenneke, J.P. Assessments of Facial Muscle Thickness by Ultrasound in Younger Adults: Absolute and Relative Reliability. Cosmetics 2019, 6, 65.

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