Previous Article in Journal
Recent Trends of Sunscreen Cosmetic: An Update Review
Open AccessArticle

Assessments of Facial Muscle Thickness by Ultrasound in Younger Adults: Absolute and Relative Reliability

1
Department of Health, Exercise Science, & Recreation Management, Kevser Ermin Applied Physiology Laboratory, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
2
Faculty of Physical Education and Dance, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040065
Received: 8 October 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
The absolute reliability (i.e., standard error of measurement and minimal difference) of a measurement is important to consider when assessing training effects. However, the absolute reliability for ultrasound measured facial muscle thickness had not been investigated. In order to examine the absolute and relative reliability of measuring facial muscles, 98 healthy, young, and middle-aged adults (18–40 years) had ultrasound measurements taken twice, separated by an average of three days. Six facial muscles were selected to determine the reliability of facial muscle thickness. The relative reliability (ICC3,1) ranged from 0.425 for the orbicularis oris (inferior) to 0.943 for the frontalis muscle. The absolute reliability (minimal difference) ranged from 0.25 mm for the orbicularis oculi to 1.82 mm for the masseter. The percentage minimal difference was 22%, 25%, 26%, 29%, 21%, and 10% for the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris (superior), orbicularis oris (inferior), depressor anguli oris, and masseter, respectively. Our results indicated that the relative reliability was similar to that observed previously. The absolute reliability indicated that the measurement error associated with measuring muscle thickness of the face may be greater than that of the trunk/limb muscles. This may be related to the difficulty of accurately determining the borders of each muscle. View Full-Text
Keywords: reproducibility; facial muscle thickness; ultrasonography reproducibility; facial muscle thickness; ultrasonography
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abe, T.; Spitz, R.W.; Wong, V.; Viana, R.B.; Yamada, Y.; Bell, Z.W.; Chatakondi, R.N.; Loenneke, J.P. Assessments of Facial Muscle Thickness by Ultrasound in Younger Adults: Absolute and Relative Reliability. Cosmetics 2019, 6, 65.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop