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Cosmetics, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Novel Lipidized Derivatives of the Bioflavonoid Hesperidin: Dermatological, Cosmetic and Chemopreventive Applications
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Hesperidin is one of the most important natural flavonoids, known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and anti-hypertensive properties. Despite its various biological activities, hesperidin is rarely used in the dermo-cosmetic field because of its poor solubility in both water and oil phases that [...] Read more.
Hesperidin is one of the most important natural flavonoids, known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and anti-hypertensive properties. Despite its various biological activities, hesperidin is rarely used in the dermo-cosmetic field because of its poor solubility in both water and oil phases that makes difficult formulation, distribution and bioavailability through the skin layers. Moreover, hesperidin is still underestimated in skin care products, and literature data on its stability into a topical formulation are not yet available. In this paper we report the synthesis of five different derivatives of hesperidin and their evaluation in terms of antioxidant, antifungal, antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects on human leukemic K562 cells. Preliminary antiproliferative effects were considered since hyper-proliferation is involved in several cutaneous problems particularly in the case of photo-exposition and environmental pollution. Esp4 and Esp5 were found to be more active in inhibiting K562 cell growth than parent hesperidin. Esp3 exhibited different biological properties, i.e., antioxidant activity in the absence of antiproliferative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Callus Extract from Pyrus pyrifolia and Investigation of Its Effects on Skin Regeneration
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
In the present study, an aqueous extract was prepared using calli from the in vitro-derived leaves of Pyrus pyrifolia cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium containing picloram for a plant growth regulator. The major biological components in the callus extract were identified as [...] Read more.
In the present study, an aqueous extract was prepared using calli from the in vitro-derived leaves of Pyrus pyrifolia cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium containing picloram for a plant growth regulator. The major biological components in the callus extract were identified as uridine (1), adenosine (2), and guanosine (3). In terms of the antioxidant activity, at 300 µg/mL, the extract exhibited free radical scavenging activity of 76.9% ± 2.88% in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, comparable to that of 44 µg/mL ascorbic acid (82.5% ± 3.63%). In addition, the IC50 values for inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation from collagen and elastin were 602 ± 2.72 and 3037 ± 102.5 µg/mL, respectively. The extract significantly promoted keratinocyte and fibroblast cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, fibroblasts treated with 1.36 µg/mL extract exhibited a 1.60-fold increase in procollagen type I C-peptide level compared to controls. The in vitro wound recovery rates of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were also 75% and 38% greater, respectively, than those of serum-free controls at 9 and 36 h after extract treatment (1.36 µg/mL). Additionally, the extract flux across the human epidermis increased by 1598% after its incorporation into elastic nanoliposomes (NLs). Therefore, elastic NLs loaded with Pyrus pyrifolia callus extract have potential use as skin rejuvenators and antiaging ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Innovative Skin Compatible Films to Release Polysaccharides for Biobased Beauty Masks
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
The preparation and selection of biobased materials compatible with skin is essential for producing innovative and highly eco-friendly beauty masks. The use of a commercial elastomeric poly(hydroxyalkanoate) and starch was fundamental to select materials for bioplastic films with the necessary resistance in wet [...] Read more.
The preparation and selection of biobased materials compatible with skin is essential for producing innovative and highly eco-friendly beauty masks. The use of a commercial elastomeric poly(hydroxyalkanoate) and starch was fundamental to select materials for bioplastic films with the necessary resistance in wet conditions, skin compatibility and capacity for a fast release of polysaccharides and similar active and functional molecules. Micrometric calcium carbonate was also used to control the stickiness of film during moulding. Starch release in water was investigated by gravimetric and infrared analyses. The compatibility with skin was investigated via two different in vitro tests based on human keratinocytes and human mesenchymal stromal cells. The materials were highly cytocompatible with skin, enabled immune modulation by keratinocytes and starch release in water up to 49% by weight in 30 min. These outcomes are a good starting point for boosting the production of biobased and biodegradable beauty masks, thus decreasing the impact onto environment of cosmetic products that are currently still mainly produced using petrol-based substrates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enzyme-Catalysed Conversion of Atranol and Derivatives into Dimeric Hydrosoluble Materials: Application to the Preparation of a Low-Atranol Oakmoss Absolute
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
Oakmoss absolute, a solvent extract from Evernia prunastri, is a valuable fragrance ingredient widely used in fine fragrance for almost two centuries. Some minor components of oakmoss absolute, such as atranol and chloroatranol, are attested contact allergens and their presence in fragrance [...] Read more.
Oakmoss absolute, a solvent extract from Evernia prunastri, is a valuable fragrance ingredient widely used in fine fragrance for almost two centuries. Some minor components of oakmoss absolute, such as atranol and chloroatranol, are attested contact allergens and their presence in fragrance and cosmetic products should be as low as possible. In this context, we have developed an enzyme-based protocol upon which these undesirable molecules are converted in a hydrosoluble dimeric material, and thus easily separated from the absolute by liquid–liquid extraction. Analytical and sensory analyses were performed to confirm the specificity of the process, the absence of alteration of the olfactory quality of the absolute, and the final titles of atranol and chloroatranol, which eventually were observed in the ppm range. This highly sustainable process is a viable alternative to conventional time-, energy-, and manpower-consuming techniques to produce very low-atranol oakmoss absolute. Full article
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Open AccessReview Seaweeds as Source of Bioactive Substances and Skin Care Therapy—Cosmeceuticals, Algotheraphy, and Thalassotherapy
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
Riverine, estuarine, and coastal populations have always used algae in the development of home remedies that were then used to treat diverse health problems. The empirical knowledge of various generations originated these applications, and their mechanism of action is, in most cases, unknown, [...] Read more.
Riverine, estuarine, and coastal populations have always used algae in the development of home remedies that were then used to treat diverse health problems. The empirical knowledge of various generations originated these applications, and their mechanism of action is, in most cases, unknown, that is, few more scientific studies would have been described beyond simple collection and ethnographic recording. Nevertheless, recent investigations, carried out with the purpose of analyzing the components and causes that alter the functioning and the balance of our organism, are already giving their first results. Water, and especially sea water is considered as essential to life on our planet. It sings all the substances necessary and conducive to the development of the living being (minerals, catalysts, vitamins, amino acids, etc.). Oceans cover over 70% of Earth, being home to up to 90% of the organisms in the planet. Many rich resources and unique environments are provided by the ocean. Additionally, bioactive compounds that multiple marine organisms have a great potential to produce can be used as nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. Both primary and secondary metabolites are produced by algae. The first ones are directly implicated in development, normal growth, or reproduction conditions to perform physiological functions. Stress conditions, like temperature changes, salinity, environmental pollutants, or UV radiation exposure cause the performance of secondary metabolites. In algae, proteins, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acids are primary metabolites and phenolic compounds, pigments, vitamins, sterols, and other bioactive agents, all produced in algae tissues, are secondary metabolites. These algal active constituents have direct relevance in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Transepidermal Penetration of a Carnosine Complex in Gel Formulation by 3D Skin Models
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Carnosine has several physiological roles, from intracellular pH buffering to antioxidant activities, which all depend on bioavailability. This study was conducted in a human skin 3D model and focuses on the effects of the topical delivery of carnosine, from a dermo-cosmetic gel, through [...] Read more.
Carnosine has several physiological roles, from intracellular pH buffering to antioxidant activities, which all depend on bioavailability. This study was conducted in a human skin 3D model and focuses on the effects of the topical delivery of carnosine, from a dermo-cosmetic gel, through the stratum corneum in the presence of a magnesium ion as a complexing agent. To evaluate possible enhancement for small peptide delivery to the skin from simple cosmetic formulations, we discovered that complexation was able to improve the delivery of carnosine into human skin 3D models by application in gel formulation. The concentrations of carnosine released in the underlying media and those that remained in the reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) tissues after 24 and 48 h exposure were measured. Moreover, the influence of magnesium ions was also evaluated comparing the same formulation with and without the salt. The results obtained in this study support hypothesis that magnesium can influence the delivery of small peptides and that the gel formulation based on the carnosine-magnesium complex allows for superior delivery of carnosine in the lower skin layer at a concentration up to 60% more than carnosine alone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biocellulose Masks as Delivery Systems: A Novel Methodological Approach to Assure Quality and Safety
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) has become of great interest in recent years, as a delivery system in several areas of application, including food, drugs, and cosmetics, thanks to its exclusive advantages, such as high biocompatibility, water holding capacity, and good gas permeability. The novel [...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) has become of great interest in recent years, as a delivery system in several areas of application, including food, drugs, and cosmetics, thanks to its exclusive advantages, such as high biocompatibility, water holding capacity, and good gas permeability. The novel approach of the authors has led to a protocol for checking the quality and safety of bacterial cellulose matrices in the manufacture of cosmetic masks. Two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multiple light scattering (MLS), were used to verify different parameters affecting the quality of BC sheets, allowing cellulose masks to be checked over time. NIR spectroscopy allowed for discovering changes in the water content, depending on filling/packaging procedures, like flat-folding. Multiple light scattering was used to ascertain the stability of solutions in contact with masks. From a clinical standpoint, the cutaneous tolerability of biocellulose masks, and their effect on skin parameters, were evaluated through some specific “in vivo” tests. Also, a safety evaluation during application was conducted through different studies: a short-term one after single application, and a long-term one upon continued use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ES2 as a Novel Verbascoside-Derived Compound in the Treatment of Cutaneous Wound Healing
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Several pathologies are characterized by chronic wounds and often resistant to many of the common therapies, leading to chronic infections that can become even life-threatening for patients. For this reason, the identification of new products able to ameliorate the healing process is still [...] Read more.
Several pathologies are characterized by chronic wounds and often resistant to many of the common therapies, leading to chronic infections that can become even life-threatening for patients. For this reason, the identification of new products able to ameliorate the healing process is still an on-going research. Natural compounds have been used to improve skin conditions due to their dermo-cosmetic and therapeutic activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cell-migratory properties. Among these compounds, it has been recently demonstrated that Verbascoside, a phenyl propanoid glycoside widely used in the cosmetic field, can improve keratinocytes proliferation. Because of its high hydrophilic character, Verbascoside has a limited range of possible topical applications and the synthesis of ES2, a semi-synthetic derivative of Verbascoside was performed to bypass some of the drawback aspects of this molecule. In the present study, the wound healing properties of Verbascoside and ES2 were compared in both keratinocytes “in vitro” wound scratch and in wounded SKH1 mice. The results showed that both compounds were not cytotoxic and ES2 showed an efficient ability to promote the proliferation of human keratinocytes compared to Verbascoside. The findings were also confirmed in vivo but only at early time points (2/3 days). Taken together, these data suggest that the Verbascoside-derivative ES2 could be considered a novel and promising candidate for the topical treatment of wounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydration and Barrier Properties of Emulsions with the Addition of Keratin Hydrolysate
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Although keratin hydrolysates (KH) are added to skin care agents, detailed studies on the moisturising effects of KH are lacking. The aim of this study is to test whether adding KH into an ointment base (OB) heighten hydration of the skin and diminish [...] Read more.
Although keratin hydrolysates (KH) are added to skin care agents, detailed studies on the moisturising effects of KH are lacking. The aim of this study is to test whether adding KH into an ointment base (OB) heighten hydration of the skin and diminish transepidermal loss of water (TEWL). Formulations containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of KH (based on OB weight) were prepared. Hydration, TEWL and skin pH were measured; intervals of measurements were as follows: 1, 2, 3, 4, 24 and 48 h. Testing was carried out on 10 men. In terms of hydration, supplementing the OB with 2% KH is optimal, as an 11–19% increase occurs in hydration of stratum corneum (SC). All the formulations with added KH as tested caused TEWL to decline after application. Keratin hydrolysate makes for an excellent occlusive; adding it to OB results in a 30–50% reduction in TEWL after application. KH functions as a humectant as well, as it helps to bind water from the lower layers of the epidermis to the SC. Formulations with additions of 2–6% of KH were stable in structure and did not cause phase separation even after 6 months storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Barrier Function)
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Open AccessReview Nanoemulsions as a Form of Perfumery Products
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
Alcohol-based perfumes, e.g., eau de parfum, eau de toilette, eau de cologne or au fraiche, are the most common type of fragrance products available on the market. There are also alcohol-free fragrance products, mainly in the form of solid or oil perfume. From [...] Read more.
Alcohol-based perfumes, e.g., eau de parfum, eau de toilette, eau de cologne or au fraiche, are the most common type of fragrance products available on the market. There are also alcohol-free fragrance products, mainly in the form of solid or oil perfume. From the consumers’ point of view, such perfumery products are of interest; therefore, looking for new solutions is still interesting. Nanoemulsions are liquid, kinetically stable colloidal dispersions, consisting of an aqueous phase, an oil phase and a surfactant, with or without a co-surfactant. They are transparent, not greasy, easy to spray and spread. Additionally, they show capacity to protect fragrances from oxidation. The development of a water-based perfumes in the form of stable nanoemulsions containing fragrance compositions (in the range of 5–15%), stabilized by nonionic surfactants, allows to create safe products for a wider group of consumers, including children, adolescents and people with sensitive skin. In this article, an application of nanoemulsions as a potential form of perfumery products were described. Full article
Open AccessArticle Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Scent Profiles from Human Skin
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human skin contribute to an individual’s body odour. Understanding the modulation of human odour by a fragrance is of significant importance to the cosmetic sector in the design, development and evaluation of new products. The present research [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human skin contribute to an individual’s body odour. Understanding the modulation of human odour by a fragrance is of significant importance to the cosmetic sector in the design, development and evaluation of new products. The present research describes an in vivo approach for passive headspace sampling of skin volatile emissions in human participants. A wearable headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method has been employed to investigate baseline endogenous skin volatiles and the subsequent modulation of skin volatile profiles after application of a fragrance to skin. Coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) this method enables characterisation of scent profiles and fragrance longevity in vivo. A total of 51 compounds were identified in participants’ skin, including 19 endogenous and 32 fragrance-derived compounds. The temporal variation in volatile profiles at different times after fragrance application was investigated. Fragrance diffusion from skin varied between participants resulting in diversified scent profiles over time. This non-invasive approach could be employed during cosmetic product development for in vivo evaluation of fragrance profiles and for assessment of the retention of fragrance components in skin to reduce reliance on expert panels during product development. Full article
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Open AccessReview Endocrine Disruption by Mixtures in Topical Consumer Products
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Endocrine disruption has been gathering increasing attention in the past 25 years as a possible new threat for health and safety. Exposure to endocrine disruptor has been progressively linked with a growing number of increasing disease in the human population. The mechanics through [...] Read more.
Endocrine disruption has been gathering increasing attention in the past 25 years as a possible new threat for health and safety. Exposure to endocrine disruptor has been progressively linked with a growing number of increasing disease in the human population. The mechanics through which endocrine disruptors act are not yet completely clear, however a number of pathways have been identified. A key concern is the cumulative and synergic effects that endocrine disruptors could have when mixed in consumer products. We reviewed the available literature to identify known or potential endocrine disruptors, as well as endocrine active substances that could contribute to cumulative effects, in topical consumer products. The number of endocrine actives used daily in consumer products is staggering and even though most if not all are used in concentrations that are considered to be safe, we believe that the possibility of combined effects in mixtures and non-monotonic dose/response is enough to require further precautions. A combined in vitro approach based on existing, validated OECD test methods is suggested to screen consumer products and mixtures for potential interaction with estrogen and androgen hormone receptors, in order to identify products that could have cumulative effects or support their safety concerning direct endocrine disruption capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Aging Efficacy of Melatonin-Based Cream: Clinical and Instrumental Skin Evaluation
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Melatonin is a potent mitochondrial, cytoprotective and antioxidant molecule with potentially strong anti-aging properties. Topical melatonin has been shown to improve the clinical signs of skin aging. Melatosphere™ is a new lipid-based delivery system able to improve stability and skin penetration of melatonin [...] Read more.
Melatonin is a potent mitochondrial, cytoprotective and antioxidant molecule with potentially strong anti-aging properties. Topical melatonin has been shown to improve the clinical signs of skin aging. Melatosphere™ is a new lipid-based delivery system able to improve stability and skin penetration of melatonin when used in topical formulations. No clinical studies, using objective instrumental data, are available so far regarding the positive effect of Melatosphere™ in improving wrinkles in women with mild to moderate skin aging. In an open prospective, evaluator-blinded trial, we evaluate the effects on skin texture of two months of treatment with a Melatosphere™-based cream. Fifteen women aged >45 years with mild to moderate facial skin aging (Glogau score 2–4) participated in the trial, after providing their informed consent. An ANTERA 3D computer-assisted skin analysis evaluation for the assessment of coarse and fine wrinkles of the periorbital area and melanin content was performed at baseline and after two months of treatment. An evaluator-blinded Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) of skin elastosis, roughness, level of dyschromia, skin dryness and the presence of actinic damage was also performed at the same time points using a four-grade score from 0 (no sign) to 3 (severe sign). At baseline, the mean (SD) IGA score was 8.2 (1.0). After two months, the IGA score significantly decreased to 4.2 (1.4) (49% reduction) (p = 0.0007). ANTERA 3D evaluations showed a significant reduction in the coarse and fine wrinkle volume in the target area of −31% and −18%, respectively. Melanin content was reduced significantly by −17%. Topical melatonin carried in Melatosphere™ improves, in the short term, signs of skin aging evaluated clinically and using the ANTERA 3D device in women with mild to moderate skin aging. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Formulating O/W Emulsions with Plant-Based Actives: A Stability Challenge for an Effective Product
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Quality, safety, and efficacy concerns added to instability, poor absorption, and the dispersion of actives are common problems while formulating plant-based cosmetics. Furthermore, a correct balance between the stability of the emulsion, the sensory profile, and the high efficacy has to be considered [...] Read more.
Quality, safety, and efficacy concerns added to instability, poor absorption, and the dispersion of actives are common problems while formulating plant-based cosmetics. Furthermore, a correct balance between the stability of the emulsion, the sensory profile, and the high efficacy has to be considered to formulate an effective product. In this paper, we demonstrate that rheology is a methodological tool that can be used while designing a new product. In particular, we developed an O/W emulsion which is easy to spread on irritated skin, and that can soothe the redness and discomfort caused by the exposure to both physical and chemical irritating agents. The green active mixture consists of three natural raw materials: Bosexil®, Zanthalene®, and Xilogel®. Each ingredient has a well-demonstrated efficacy in terms of soothing, anti-itching, and moisturizing properties respectively. Starting from the selection of a new green emulsifying system, through the analysis of the rheological properties, we obtained a stable and easy-to-apply o/w emulsion. The efficacy of the optimized product was assessed in vitro on intact and injured skin using the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Epidermis (RHE) as a biological model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
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Open AccessReview Agro-Industrial By-Products and Their Bioactive Compounds—An Ally against Oxidative Stress and Skin Aging
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
The increased consumer awareness towards hazards related with sun exposure has given a boost in the cosmetics industry and particularly the sun care market. Human skin is continually being threatened by the UV irradiation present in sunlight and acute UV exposure leads to [...] Read more.
The increased consumer awareness towards hazards related with sun exposure has given a boost in the cosmetics industry and particularly the sun care market. Human skin is continually being threatened by the UV irradiation present in sunlight and acute UV exposure leads to skin photoaging. Cosmetic and/or dermatological applications include several bioactive compounds that contribute to the regulation of epidermal homeostasis by providing protection against solar radiation and improving the antioxidant activity of epidermis. Plant extracts are sources of active ingredients with intense therapeutic properties, and the topical application or oral intake of these compounds could ameliorate skin condition. Nowadays, there is a growing demand for the application of the bioactive agents contained in agro-industrial byproducts in sun care products, since many of them have shown promising properties as skin photoprotectants. However, well-conducted clinical studies are required to prove their safety and efficacy before they could be regularly used. Environmentally friendly extraction and sustainable techniques are therefore under examination for recovering such compounds from agro-industrial byproducts and converting them into innovative high-value natural ingredients used in cosmetic formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
Open AccessArticle Hidden Metals in Several Brands of Lipstick and Face Powder Present on Polish Market
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Cosmetics still retain their brilliant effect, but public concern about their toxicity has become a hot issue. Trace amounts of toxic heavy metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. We therefore assessed the levels [...] Read more.
Cosmetics still retain their brilliant effect, but public concern about their toxicity has become a hot issue. Trace amounts of toxic heavy metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. We therefore assessed the levels of lead, nickel, copper, zinc and iron in six brands of lipstick and six brands of cosmetic powder that are widely available in local Polish markets. The cosmetics were digested and analyzed for the metals using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead and nickel were found in some powders, but none in lipstick samples. This study revealed that the levels of these metals were higher than the specifications reported in the literature data. On the other hand, the copper content was determined at the level of 435 mg/kg in one sample of powder and at 75.92 mg/kg in one lipstick. Iron levels ranged from 0 to 12,168.57 mg/kg depending on the brand of powder or lipstick, and were generally higher in powders. Zinc was detected in the range of 1.73–488.31 mg/kg in all 12 samples. The results lead to the conclusion that constant control of metallic content in lipsticks, powders and other facial cosmetics should be seriously considered. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hair Strengthening Evaluation of Anisotropic Osmolite Solutions (Inositol + Arginine): Cross-Talk between Dermal Papilla Fibroblast and Keratinocytes of the Outer Root Sheath Using a µHair Follicle 3D Model
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
The hair follicle (HF) is a dynamic “mini-organ” which undergoes bi-continuous cycles of growth, destruction and rest. The molecular mechanisms underlying the HF cycle are complex yet not fully understood. Anyhow, it is clear that the epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, and in particular the cross-talk [...] Read more.
The hair follicle (HF) is a dynamic “mini-organ” which undergoes bi-continuous cycles of growth, destruction and rest. The molecular mechanisms underlying the HF cycle are complex yet not fully understood. Anyhow, it is clear that the epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, and in particular the cross-talk between dermal papilla fibroblast (DPF) and the keratinocytes of the outer root sheath (ORSK) play a pivotal role. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the biological activity of anisotropic osmolyte solutions on the HF cycle. As reported in recent studies, dermal papilla cells deeply modify their gene expression profile when cultured as monolayers, but their transcriptional pattern can be partially restored when they are cultured as 3-dimensional spheroids. This draws our attention to the discovery that the spatial distribution of cells in the growth medium is fundamental in order to produce a verisimilar model. Therefore, we used the hanging drop technology to produce a scaffold-free micro-tissue model applied to a DPF-ORSK co-culture in order to create a µHF 3-dimensional model. As a result, this system was capable of evaluating the efficacy of the anisotropic osmolyte solutions on the progressive increase of the follicle turnover and ‘health’. Moreover, an in silico model was used in order to screen the most promising combination of osmolyte molecules. In vivo objective evaluations were finally carried out on volunteers having hair disorders. Full article
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Open AccessReview Anti-Aging Properties of Plant Stem Cell Extracts
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
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Abstract
Skin aging is a complex process which involves all the layers of the epidermis and dermis. In order to slow skin aging, methods are researched which would strengthen and protect skin stem cells. Science is in search of the right method to stimulate [...] Read more.
Skin aging is a complex process which involves all the layers of the epidermis and dermis. In order to slow skin aging, methods are researched which would strengthen and protect skin stem cells. Science is in search of the right method to stimulate the proliferation of epidermal stem cells. Plant stem cells show outstanding anti-aging properties, as they can, among other activities, stimulate fibroblasts to synthesise collagen, which, in turn, stimulates skin regeneration. One of the most important agents which give anti-aging properties to plant stem cell extracts is kinetin (6-furfuryladenine). This compound belongs to a cytokine group and is considered to be a strong antioxidant which protects protein and nucleic acids from oxidation and glycoxidation processes. It enables cells to remove the excess of free radicals to protect them from oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
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