Next Article in Journal
Seaweeds as Source of Bioactive Substances and Skin Care Therapy—Cosmeceuticals, Algotheraphy, and Thalassotherapy
Previous Article in Journal
Biocellulose Masks as Delivery Systems: A Novel Methodological Approach to Assure Quality and Safety
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Cosmetics 2018, 5(4), 67;

Evaluation of the Transepidermal Penetration of a Carnosine Complex in Gel Formulation by 3D Skin Models

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Master Course in Cosmetic Science and Technology (COSMAST), University of Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Department of Animal Science, Plants for Human Health Institute, North Caroline State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences University of Ferrara Via Fossato di Mortara 17, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
PDF [707 KB, uploaded 14 November 2018]


Carnosine has several physiological roles, from intracellular pH buffering to antioxidant activities, which all depend on bioavailability. This study was conducted in a human skin 3D model and focuses on the effects of the topical delivery of carnosine, from a dermo-cosmetic gel, through the stratum corneum in the presence of a magnesium ion as a complexing agent. To evaluate possible enhancement for small peptide delivery to the skin from simple cosmetic formulations, we discovered that complexation was able to improve the delivery of carnosine into human skin 3D models by application in gel formulation. The concentrations of carnosine released in the underlying media and those that remained in the reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) tissues after 24 and 48 h exposure were measured. Moreover, the influence of magnesium ions was also evaluated comparing the same formulation with and without the salt. The results obtained in this study support hypothesis that magnesium can influence the delivery of small peptides and that the gel formulation based on the carnosine-magnesium complex allows for superior delivery of carnosine in the lower skin layer at a concentration up to 60% more than carnosine alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: carnosine; complexation; dermo-cosmetic formulation; topical delivery carnosine; complexation; dermo-cosmetic formulation; topical delivery

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dissette, V.; Bignozzi, C.A.; Valacchi, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Manfredini, S.; Vertuani, S. Evaluation of the Transepidermal Penetration of a Carnosine Complex in Gel Formulation by 3D Skin Models. Cosmetics 2018, 5, 67.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cosmetics EISSN 2079-9284 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top