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Cosmetics, Volume 10, Issue 4 (August 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the application of bioactive peptides in cosmetics, shedding light on their transformative role in the development of innovative and effective skincare products. This review focuses on the classifications of bioactive peptides (signal, carrier, neurotransmitter-inhibitory, and enzyme-inhibitory peptides) based on their mechanisms of action (e.g., downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, radical scavenging, inhibiting collagen, tyrosinase, and elastase synthesis). The identified natural sources of bioactive peptides are animals, plants, and marine sources. The safety assessment and challenges of using peptides in cosmetics are also discussed, highlighting the need for further research to exploit their potential in enhancing skin health. View this paper
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11 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of a Cosmetic Treatment in Decreasing the Mild-to-Moderate Atopic Dermatitis in Babies, Children, and Adults: A Pilot Study
by Vincenzo Nobile, Valentina Zanoletti, Marta Pisati and Enza Cestone
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040117 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory and pruritic skin disease with a worldwide progressive increase in its incidence. In this clinical study, we studied the effect of a cosmetic treatment composed of a cleanser, and a body and face cream, on subjects [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory and pruritic skin disease with a worldwide progressive increase in its incidence. In this clinical study, we studied the effect of a cosmetic treatment composed of a cleanser, and a body and face cream, on subjects (babies, children, and adults) suffering from mild-to-moderate AD. The product effect on AD clinical signs was investigated by SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, subjective evaluation, skin erythema index, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The products were shown to be effective in improving the AD scoring by SCORAD in all the groups, and a trend towards the decrease of the erythema index and the TEWL in the adult population. An improvement in itching sensation, skin redness, and skin dryness scoring was also reported by the subjects. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of the tested products in decreasing the overall AD severity through 28 days of treatment. Overall, the first results occurred within 14 days of treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 4304 KiB  
Article
Sargassum fusiforme Extract Induces Melanogenesis through the cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway
by Hayeon Kim, Seoungwoo Shin, Youngsu Jang, Eunae Cho, Deokhoon Park and Eunsun Jung
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040116 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Sargassum fusiforme extract (SFE) on melanogenesis and its mechanism both in vitro and ex vivo. The melanogenic-inducing effect of SFE was evaluated using a melanin contents assay and a cellular tyrosinase activity [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Sargassum fusiforme extract (SFE) on melanogenesis and its mechanism both in vitro and ex vivo. The melanogenic-inducing effect of SFE was evaluated using a melanin contents assay and a cellular tyrosinase activity assay. To investigate whether SFE could protect melanocytes against oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxidase was used. The molecular mechanism underlying the effect of SFE on melanogenesis was determined via Western blot analysis of tyrosinase, a microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and a phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression. The degree of pigmentation in a 3D skin model was determined by measuring the L* values. Contents of melanin in ex vivo human hair follicles were evaluated via Fontana–Masson staining. SFE significantly increased melanin contents and cellular tyrosinase activity in human epidermal melanocytes. SFE also increased the phosphorylation of CREB and the protein levels of tyrosinase and MITF. Moreover, SFE attenuated oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity and depigmentation. Finally, the melanogenesis promoting effect of SFE was confirmed in both a 3D skin model and ex vivo human hair follicles. These findings suggest that SFE can induce melanogenesis via the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in human epidermal melanocytes through its hyperpigmentation activity. Full article
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14 pages, 2116 KiB  
Review
Filler Migration after Facial Injection—A Narrative Review
by Uwe Wollina and Alberto Goldman
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040115 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 10495
Abstract
Background: The injection of dermal fillers for facial esthetics has become a very popular procedure. Although usually safe in the hands of the experienced user, filler injections may bear a risk of unwanted side effects. Material and Methods: This is a narrative review [...] Read more.
Background: The injection of dermal fillers for facial esthetics has become a very popular procedure. Although usually safe in the hands of the experienced user, filler injections may bear a risk of unwanted side effects. Material and Methods: This is a narrative review of dermal filler migration after facial injections. We performed research on the literature on Pubmed and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were observational studies, case reports, and clinical trials which investigated the association of facial filler injections to filler migration. Animal studies have not been considered. Intravascular injections were excluded. Results: We identified 28 reports that met the inclusion criteria. The age range of affected patients was 21 to 86 years (mean ± standard deviation: 47 ± 14.8 years). Women were 25 times more reported than males. Hyaluronic acid and polyalkylimide were the most commonly encountered filler substances. Injections into the nose, lips, nasolabial folds, and forehead (including glabella) are more often reported for filler migration than injections into the cheeks. Tear-trough correction bears a risk for orbital migration. The delay from injection to presentation of filler migration was highly variable. Very late filler migration was more commonly seen with permanent fillers than non-permanent products. Conclusions: Filler migration distant from the injection site can occur even several years after the primary treatment. All filler types can be involved. Permanent fillers bear a higher risk of very late filler migration. Migration of permanent fillers needs surgical treatment, while HA fillers respond to hyaluronidase injections. Detailed knowledge of facial anatomy, safer injection techniques, and filler qualities are preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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13 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Involvement of Vitamin D3 in the Aging Process According to Sex
by Daniela Florina Trifan, Adrian Gheorghe Tirla, Calin Mos, Adrian Danciu, Florian Bodog, Felicia Manole and Timea Claudia Ghitea
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040114 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Background/Aim: Rapid onset of facial ptosis can impact physical appearance and compromise the outcomes of facelift procedures. The level of vitamin D has a potential correlation with collagen formation and its deficiency with inflammatory processes that affect the breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: Rapid onset of facial ptosis can impact physical appearance and compromise the outcomes of facelift procedures. The level of vitamin D has a potential correlation with collagen formation and its deficiency with inflammatory processes that affect the breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This study aims to investigate the potential relationship between accentuated facial ptosis in women and low levels of vitamin D. Furthermore, it aims to explore preventive measures or strategies to slow down facial ptosis and enhance the longevity of facelift results. Materials and Methods: The study was focused on monitoring the vitamin D levels in women and men with advanced facial ptosis and comparing them with a control group. Results: Notably, a direct association between gender and serum vitamin D levels was observed, indicating less sustainable outcomes in women. Conclusions: Women face additional challenges in the aging process due to hormonal shifts after menopause or premenopausal, which are associated with osteoporosis and lower vitamin D levels. Full article
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19 pages, 1826 KiB  
Review
Nanogels Based on Hyaluronic Acid as Potential Active Carriers for Dermatological and Cosmetic Applications
by Emanuele Mauri and Stefano Scialla
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040113 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
Nanogels are a prominent research topic in biomedical and drug delivery applications. The versatility of their chemistry allows them to be tailored both to carry and release a wide range of active molecules, and to target specific tissues or cell types. Within a [...] Read more.
Nanogels are a prominent research topic in biomedical and drug delivery applications. The versatility of their chemistry allows them to be tailored both to carry and release a wide range of active molecules, and to target specific tissues or cell types. Within a vast field of possible chemical designs, nanogels based on hyaluronic acid seem particularly interesting from the standpoint of dermatological and cosmetic applications, due to the well-known involvement of hyaluronic acid in several fundamental processes related to skin health and ageing. In spite of this, relatively few studies about these nanocarriers and their potential skin-related benefits have appeared so far in the literature. With the aim to stimulate further interest in the topic, in this review, we provide information on hyaluronic acid-based nanogels, including their key physicochemical properties, their typical drug release behavior, and the main synthetic methodologies. The latter include: approaches based on spontaneous self-assembly of polymer molecules; approaches based on chemical cross-linking, where nanogel formation is promoted by covalent bonds between polymer chains; and hybrid approaches that leverage a combination of the above two mechanisms. We believe this body of information, which we collected by going through the relevant literature from the past 10–15 years, offers cosmetic formulators plenty of options to design innovative products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Cosmetic Sciences: Sustainability in Materials and Processes)
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21 pages, 419 KiB  
Review
Olea europea and By-Products: Extraction Methods and Cosmetic Applications
by Cecilia Dauber, Emma Parente, María Pía Zucca, Adriana Gámbaro and Ignacio Vieitez
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040112 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2866
Abstract
Currently, in addition to the use of olive oil in cosmetics, the use of olive-derived bioactives and their incorporation into cosmetics is a growing trend. The olive oil industry produces vast quantities of by-products, such as olive mill wastewater, olive pomace and leaves [...] Read more.
Currently, in addition to the use of olive oil in cosmetics, the use of olive-derived bioactives and their incorporation into cosmetics is a growing trend. The olive oil industry produces vast quantities of by-products, such as olive mill wastewater, olive pomace and leaves from which new ingredients may be obtained for cosmetic use. In this way, by-products are revalorized, which contributes to the implementation of a sustainable economy or upcycling. This review intends to provide a detailed overview of the different extraction techniques reported in order to obtain the bioactive compounds of cosmetic value that can be found in olive by-products: fatty acids, tocopherols, polyphenols, phytosterols and squalene. Different extraction techniques are presented, including some traditional techniques (solid–liquid extraction) and more novel or “greener” ones: ultrasound, microwave, supercritical extraction, pressurized fluids and deep eutectic solvents. Additionally, different applications of olive by-products in skin care products are explored: emollient, antioxidant, anti-age, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial, and the perspective of consumers is also considered since they increasingly demand products formulated with natural ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
18 pages, 986 KiB  
Review
Insights into Bioactive Peptides in Cosmetics
by Le Thi Nhu Ngoc, Ju-Young Moon and Young-Chul Lee
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040111 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 16111
Abstract
Bioactive peptides have gained significant attention in the cosmetic industry due to their potential in enhancing skin health and beauty. These small protein fragments exhibit various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, making them ideal ingredients for cosmetic formulations. [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides have gained significant attention in the cosmetic industry due to their potential in enhancing skin health and beauty. These small protein fragments exhibit various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, making them ideal ingredients for cosmetic formulations. These bioactive peptides are classified into four categories: signal, carrier, neurotransmitter-inhibitory, and enzyme-inhibitory peptides. This review provides insight into applying bioactive peptides in cosmetics and their mechanisms of action (e.g., downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, radical scavenging, inhibiting collagen, tyrosinase, and elastase synthesis). The abundant natural origins (e.g., animals, plants, and marine sources) have been identified as primary sources for extractions of cosmetic peptides through various techniques (e.g., enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrafiltration, fermentation, and high-performance liquid chromatography). Furthermore, the safety and regulatory aspects of using peptides in cosmetics are examined, including potential allergic reactions and regulatory guidelines. Finally, the challenges of peptides in cosmetics are discussed, emphasizing the need for further research to fully harness their potential in enhancing skin health. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the application of peptides in cosmetics, shedding light on their transformative role in developing innovative and effective skincare products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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12 pages, 13002 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characteristics and Hydrolytic Degradation of Polylactic Acid Dermal Fillers: A Comparative Study
by Nikita G. Sedush, Kirill T. Kalinin, Pavel N. Azarkevich and Antonina A. Gorskaya
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040110 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4886
Abstract
Dermal fillers have gained significant attention in the field of aesthetic medicine due to their ability to restore volume and correct facial wrinkles. Even though such formulations have similar compositions, they can have different microstructure and molecular characteristics, which in turn affect the [...] Read more.
Dermal fillers have gained significant attention in the field of aesthetic medicine due to their ability to restore volume and correct facial wrinkles. Even though such formulations have similar compositions, they can have different microstructure and molecular characteristics, which in turn affect the biodegradation profile. This study presents the results of an investigation of the physicochemical characteristics of four dermal fillers from different manufacturers (Sculptra®, Gana V®, AestheFill®, and Repart PLA®). The molecular and supramolecular characteristics of polylactic acid (L/D isomer ratio, molecular weight, degree of crystallinity), the morphology and size of PLA microparticles were determined. Hydrolytic degradation studies in phosphate buffer revealed differences in the rate of molecular weight reduction in the polymer. The obtained data may be important for the analysis and interpretation of the results of biological studies and clinical outcomes of the PLA dermal fillers. Full article
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14 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Formulation of Botanical Shampoo Infused with Standardised Mangosteen Peel Extract for Healthy Hair and Scalp
by Sze-Huey Sang, Kai Bin Liew, Siew-Keah Lee, Jing-Wen Keng, Sue-Kei Lee, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Ching Siang Tan and Yik-Ling Chew
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040109 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5719
Abstract
In recent decades, there has been a growing demand for shampoos derived from botanical sources due to their avoidance of synthetic and highly allergenic chemicals used as bioactives and excipients. These hair care products are free from sulfates, parabens, silicones, synthetic fragrances, and [...] Read more.
In recent decades, there has been a growing demand for shampoos derived from botanical sources due to their avoidance of synthetic and highly allergenic chemicals used as bioactives and excipients. These hair care products are free from sulfates, parabens, silicones, synthetic fragrances, and artificial colours. Natural shampoos are sustainable, skin-friendly, and eco-friendly to the environment. Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) peel is usually discarded as agricultural waste. It consists of numerous bioactives which exhibit promising activities for hair care and scalp maintenance. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate a novel hair shampoo containing standardised mangosteen peel extract. The formulation of the mangosteen shampoo utilised botanical ingredients and naturally derived components. It underwent an evaluation to assess its physicochemical properties, including visual inspection, pH, surface tension, percentage solid content, wetting time, foam ability and stability, as well as dirt dispersion. These properties were then compared to those of two commercially available hair shampoos. Its antimicrobial activity towards Malassezia furfur ATCC 14521 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was also examined and compared with the commercial shampoo using the microbroth dilution method. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. It was noticed that all formulations (F1–F4) had acceptable physicochemical properties, and they fell within the standard range. F2 had the best antifungal activity (MIC 0.039 mg/mL, MFC 0.156 mg/mL), and moderate antibacterial (MIC 2.50 mg/mL, MBC 5.00 mg/mL) and antioxidant activities (IC50 21.9 ± 3.27 mg/mL; AEAC 26.3 ± 4.06 mg AA/100 g sample). A microscopic examination of hair strands after washing revealed the successful removal of artificial sebum, signifying a good detergency effect. The physical and chemical properties of the hair shampoo formula remained stable without phase separation. In conclusion, the formulated clean hair shampoo with standardised mangosteen peel extract has good cleansing properties, and it is effective in inhibiting dandruff-causing microbial and scavenging free radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dermatopharmaceutics: The Epitome of Skin Science)
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12 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
Citrulluside T, Isolated from the Citrullus lanatus Stem, Inhibits Melanogenesis in α-MSH-Induced Mouse B16F10 Cells
by Hyeon-Mi Kim, Mi-Yeon Moon and Chang-Gu Hyun
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040108 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
With the increasing number of cosmetic consumers emphasizing value consumption and sustainability, upcycling has gained attention as a solution to agricultural by-products, which are the main culprits of environmental problems. In this study, we isolated citrulluside T with whitening activity from discarded Citrullus [...] Read more.
With the increasing number of cosmetic consumers emphasizing value consumption and sustainability, upcycling has gained attention as a solution to agricultural by-products, which are the main culprits of environmental problems. In this study, we isolated citrulluside T with whitening activity from discarded Citrullus lanatus stems and investigated the anti-melanogenic effect of citrulluside T and the underlying mechanisms. We found that citrulluside T did not exhibit cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 90 μM and significantly reduced the melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells. In addition, citrulluside T inhibited the expression of melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, as well as melanin synthesis via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated downregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key transcription factor in melanogenesis. Furthermore, we found that citrulluside T exerted its anti-melanogenic effect by downregulating the β-catenin protein and upregulating phosphorylated β-catenin. Finally, we confirmed that citrulluside T was safe for skin through skin irritation tests on 33 subjects, suggesting its applicability as a protective agent against hyperpigmentation for topical applications such as cosmetics and ointments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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14 pages, 1308 KiB  
Review
Hair Lipid Structure: Effect of Surfactants
by Luisa Coderch, Cristina Alonso, M. Teresa García, Lourdes Pérez and Meritxell Martí
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040107 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7986
Abstract
Human hair fibres are mainly comprised of proteins (>90%) and lipids (1–9%), which are characterised as exogenous or endogenous, depending on whether they originate from sebaceous glands or hair matrix cells, respectively. Exogenous lipids consist of free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides, cholesterol (CH), [...] Read more.
Human hair fibres are mainly comprised of proteins (>90%) and lipids (1–9%), which are characterised as exogenous or endogenous, depending on whether they originate from sebaceous glands or hair matrix cells, respectively. Exogenous lipids consist of free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides, cholesterol (CH), wax esters, and squalene. Endogenous hair lipids comprise FFAs, CH, ceramides, glycosylceramides, cholesterol sulfate, and 18-methyleicosanoic acid. Lipids were demonstrated to be fundamental against damage and maintenance of healthy hair. Several studies have evaluated the effects of hair lipid content and have shown how hair properties were altered when lipids were removed by solvent extraction. The effect of surfactants on hair lipids is difficult to determine, as the complex structure of the cell membrane complex makes it difficult to determine where surfactants act. Shampoos and conditioners contain surfactants that remove lipids during routine cleansing of hair. However, shampooing does not completely remove all free lipids from the surface layers. The effect of surfactants on the alteration and removal of structural lipids is poorly developed, and there is no consensus on the results. Further research on the lipid composition of the hair could provide information on the penetration pathways of surfactants to improve effectiveness and limit possible damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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41 pages, 9048 KiB  
Review
An Updated Etiology of Hair Loss and the New Cosmeceutical Paradigm in Therapy: Clearing ‘the Big Eight Strikes’
by Nicholas Sadgrove, Sanjay Batra, David Barreto and Jeffrey Rapaport
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040106 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 12664
Abstract
In this current review, research spanning the last decade (such as transcriptomic studies, phenotypic observations, and confirmed comorbidities) has been synthesized into an updated etiology of hair loss and applied to the new cosmeceutical paradigm of hair rejuvenation. The major etiological components in [...] Read more.
In this current review, research spanning the last decade (such as transcriptomic studies, phenotypic observations, and confirmed comorbidities) has been synthesized into an updated etiology of hair loss and applied to the new cosmeceutical paradigm of hair rejuvenation. The major etiological components in scalps with hair loss are denoted as the ‘big eight strikes’, which include the following: androgens, prostaglandins, overactive aerobic metabolism of glucose, bacterial or fungal over-colonization, inflammation, fibrosis, metabolism or circulation problems, and malnutrition. The relevance of the ‘big eight’ to nine categories of hair loss is explained. In cases of androgenetic alopecia or female pattern hair loss, both elevated DHT and increased frequency of androgen receptors lead to problems with the metabolism of glucose (sugar), redox imbalance, disruption to the electron transport chain, and PPAR-γ overactivity (the latter is unique to androgenetic alopecia, where the reverse occurs in other types of hair loss). These etiological factors and others from ‘the big eight’ are the focal point of our hypothetical narrative of the attenuative mechanisms of commercial cosmeceutical hair serums. We conclude that cosmeceuticals with the potential to improve all eight strikes (according to published in vitro or clinical data) utilize bioactive peptides and plant compounds that are either flavonoids (isoflavones, procyanidins, flavanols, and flavonols) or sterols/triterpenes. It is noteworthy that many therapeutic interventions are generic to the multiple types of hair loss. Lastly, suggestions are made on how scalp and hair health can be improved by following the cosmeceutical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Substances and Bioavailability in Cosmetics)
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9 pages, 1332 KiB  
Communication
Global Facial Rejuvenation Using a New Cohesive, Highly Concentrated Hyaluronic Acid Filler: A Descriptive Analysis of 35 Cases
by Maria Claudia Almeida Issa, Andreia Fogaça, Eliandre Palermo, Luciana Maluf, Patricia Ormiga, Luciana Conrado and Luis Henrique Barbizan de Moura
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040105 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
Cosmetic procedures using fillers have gained importance over the last decades due to their ability to offer rejuvenation and beautification quickly with no (or minor) side effects. Hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is the most used filler in cosmetic dermatology; its physical and chemical [...] Read more.
Cosmetic procedures using fillers have gained importance over the last decades due to their ability to offer rejuvenation and beautification quickly with no (or minor) side effects. Hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is the most used filler in cosmetic dermatology; its physical and chemical properties vary according to the manufacturing process. The characteristics of the final product are crucial for its clinical indication. Specific physicochemical properties of HA gel are required to fill, volumize, sustain, and contour different anatomical areas and layers. Ideally, HA gels should have a consistency similar to that of the surrounding tissue to promote a natural feel, but, at the same time, they should be able to sustain their shape against constant physical strain caused by muscle contraction during mimic movements. Generally, softer gels are indicated to fill superficial layers, and are not usually meant to perform lifting or volumizing, for which stiffer gels are proposed. Therefore, combining gels with different characteristics is indicated for global facial treatment. The Brazilian market recently introduced a new Korean HA filler. Still, clinical evaluation of global facial treatment using these products is lacking in the literature. This study aims to describe clinical results, patient satisfaction, and side effects of facial treatment using these fillers. We analysed the clinical impact of global facial treatment in 35 patients performed by seven dermatologists. Patients of both sexes desiring beautification or rejuvenation were included, and all of them had indications for the filling procedure. Three Korean HA gels (e.p.t.q. S100, S300, and S500, Jetema ®) with high HA concentrations and cohesiveness, varying only in their crosslinking degree, were used. The dermatologists chose the product for each procedure based on their rheological properties and clinical assessment. S100 gel was indicated for refinement, and S300 and S500 gels for structure and volume. The doctors evaluated the clinical outcomes of rejuvenation or beautification using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS), and patient satisfaction using the Likert scale, 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedures. Patients treated included 4 males and 31 females with a mean age of 43.08 years. An average of 6.33 syringes was used. After 30 days, 80% of patients showed excellent or accentuated improvement, with 94.2% satisfaction. After 3 and 6 months, 80% of patients showed excellent or accentuated improvement, which increased their happiness (97%). Immediate common side effects occurred in 17 patients. One patient had a vascular occlusion, which was quickly reverted using hyaluronidase. Most patients had accentuated improvement and great satisfaction. This new cohesive, highly concentrated HA gel promoted a sustained global improvement and patient satisfaction with expected transitory side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology: 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 2020 KiB  
Article
Follicular Delivery of Caffeine from a Shampoo for Hair Retention
by Loris Busch, Anna Lena Klein, James R. Schwartz, Kathleen Pearson, Heike Richter, Sabine Schanzer, Silke B. Lohan, Fabian Schumacher, Burkhard Kleuser and Martina C. Meinke
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040104 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
A key factor in the prevention of hair loss is the provision of optimal conditions on the scalp. In this regard, reduction of oxidative stress on the scalp is one critical requirement to support the hair follicles to function optimally. Recently, a novel [...] Read more.
A key factor in the prevention of hair loss is the provision of optimal conditions on the scalp. In this regard, reduction of oxidative stress on the scalp is one critical requirement to support the hair follicles to function optimally. Recently, a novel shampoo formulation technology containing anti-oxidants such as piroctone olamine has been demonstrated to improve hair retention based on micellar degradation and coacervation effects. Caffeine has also been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant activity including the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. As with piroctone olamine, it is expected that follicular delivery of caffeine will enhance its anti-oxidant activity in a region that will be beneficial for hair retention. In this study, two shampoo formulations as well as a control formulation were applied to the calf area of n = 9 male participants. The technique of differential tape stripping was applied to obtain the caffeine penetrated to the stratum corneum and to the hair follicles. Isotope-dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to demonstrate caffeine follicular delivery from the shampoo formulas. The results showed that the percentage of caffeine recovered in the hair follicles was 8–9% of the caffeine absorbed into the skin and matched an existing caffeine-based shampoo. In conclusion, a novel shampoo formulation technology has been developed that effectively delivers beneficial anti-oxidants to improve hair retention. This new shampoo is expected to be especially useful in the goal of retaining hair during aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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8 pages, 1544 KiB  
Communication
Brevundimonas aurantiaca M3d10, Isolated from the Olive Fly, Produces Hydroxylated Astaxanthin
by Marisanna Centini, Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Marco Biagi, Elena Dreassi, Luca Mazzon and Laura Marri
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040103 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
In recent years, the exploitation of bacteria for the production of carotenoids has become of great interest as a sustainable alternative to chemical synthesis, which is expensive and technically challenging. This study contributes to the repertoire of carotenogenic bacteria by reporting the isolation [...] Read more.
In recent years, the exploitation of bacteria for the production of carotenoids has become of great interest as a sustainable alternative to chemical synthesis, which is expensive and technically challenging. This study contributes to the repertoire of carotenogenic bacteria by reporting the isolation of an orange-pigmented bacterium from the gut of adult olive flies. The novel isolate, designated as M3d10, shared 100% identity with Brevundimonas aurantiaca strain CB-R 16S ribosomal RNA, and, through a preliminary characterization, its orange pigment was predicted to be a hydroxylated astaxanthin derivative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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21 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Natural Antioxidant-Loaded Nanoemulsions for Sun Protection Enhancement
by Eleni Galani, Dimitrios Galatis, Kyriaki Tzoka, Vassiliki Papadimitriou, Theodore G. Sotiroudis, Antonios Bonos, Aristotelis Xenakis and Maria D. Chatzidaki
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040102 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
The aim of this study was to formulate nanodispersions to encapsulate antioxidants extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMW) and phycocyanin extracted from Spirulina maxima to act as enhancers for the skin’s protection against UV radiation. For this purpose, two water-in-oil nanoemulsions were prepared [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to formulate nanodispersions to encapsulate antioxidants extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMW) and phycocyanin extracted from Spirulina maxima to act as enhancers for the skin’s protection against UV radiation. For this purpose, two water-in-oil nanoemulsions were prepared using a low-energy homogenization method. Both systems were based on isopropyl myristate as the continuous phase, while water or a mixture of glycerol and water was used as the dispersed phase. Then, antioxidants extracted from OMW and phycocyanin from Spirulina maxima were encapsulated in the water core of the nanoemulsions. The empty and antioxidant-loaded systems were then structurally studied using dynamic light scattering for the detection of their droplet size and stability over time. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using adequate probes was applied for the characterization of the surfactants’ monolayer in the presence and absence of antioxidants. It was found that the mean droplet diameter of the emulsions was 200 nm. The nanoemulsions remained stable for over 2 months. The encapsulated antioxidants were assessed for their scavenging activity of a model stable radical by applying EPR spectroscopy. It was found that the loaded systems exhibited an increased antioxidant capacity compared with the empty ones. Finally, the most stable system was added to commercial sunscreen lotions and the overall sun protection factor (SPF) was assessed. The sunscreen lotions that contained the nanoemulsions loaded with OMW extracts or phycocyanin showed an increase in their SPF value. Full article
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22 pages, 2131 KiB  
Review
Ultraviolet Filters for Cosmetic Applications
by Georgiana Nitulescu, Dumitru Lupuliasa, Ines Adam-Dima and George Mihai Nitulescu
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040101 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7775
Abstract
Sunscreens reduce the occurrence risk of skin disorders such as sunburn, skin aging, and cancer through their ability to absorb, reflect, and scatter ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This review provides an overview of UV filters as active ingredients of sunscreen products, emphasizing their classification [...] Read more.
Sunscreens reduce the occurrence risk of skin disorders such as sunburn, skin aging, and cancer through their ability to absorb, reflect, and scatter ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This review provides an overview of UV filters as active ingredients of sunscreen products, emphasizing their classification and structural characteristics. Their photostability, mechanism of action of ultraviolet radiation absorption, optical properties, and regulatory status are discussed based on their chemical structure. The main classes of organic UV filters presented include aminobenzoic acid derivatives, salicylic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzophenones, dibenzoylmethane derivatives, benzylidene camphor derivatives, triazines, benzimidazole derivatives, and benzotriazole derivatives. The pursuit of new UV filters through research is crucial in advancing sunscreen technology and ensuring the availability of effective and safe options for sun protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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16 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Structural and Photoprotective Characteristics of Zn-Ti, Zn-Al, and Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides—A Comparative Study
by Orielia Pria Egambaram, Sreejarani Kesavan Pillai, Suprakas Sinha Ray and Marlize Goosen
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040100 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Organic UV filters have been known to generate harmful by-products and undergo photoreactive degradation, which ultimately poses a great threat to consumers using sunscreen products. Inorganic UV filters such as TiO2 and ZnO, although considered safer options, are not without threat considering [...] Read more.
Organic UV filters have been known to generate harmful by-products and undergo photoreactive degradation, which ultimately poses a great threat to consumers using sunscreen products. Inorganic UV filters such as TiO2 and ZnO, although considered safer options, are not without threat considering their photocatalytic nature and ability to generate reactive oxygen species. A study was conducted to identify the influence of different metal ions on the photochemical properties of layered double hydroxides (LDH), Zinc-Titanium LDH (Zn-Ti LDH), Zinc-Aluminium LDH (Zn-Al LDH), and Magnesium- Aluminium LDH (Mg-Al LDH) and their prospects in photoprotection. The photocatalytic properties of the LDH were analyzed and compared to TiO2 and ZnO. The intermediate band gaps of Zn-Ti (3.72 eV) and Zn-Al LDH (3.3 eV) proved favorable and safer for the use of these LDH in cosmetic formulations as they offer lower photo-reactivity when compared to cosmetic grade ZnO and TiO2. The in vitro SPF values obtained for formulations containing 2 wt% Zn-Ti and 2 wt% Zn-Al LDH showed promise, with both samples claiming “broad spectrum” protection and valid claims of UVA protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology Advances in Cosmetics)
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15 pages, 2821 KiB  
Article
Exploring Stearic-Acid-Based Nanoparticles for Skin Applications—Focusing on Stability and Cosmetic Benefits
by Catarina Pereira-Leite, Mariana Bom, Andria Ribeiro, Cíntia Almeida and Catarina Rosado
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040099 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), ensures protection against harmful xenobiotics, and alterations in its lipidic matrix composition are related to several cutaneous dysfunctions. The skin barrier function is usually attributed to ceramides, but the role of free fatty [...] Read more.
The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), ensures protection against harmful xenobiotics, and alterations in its lipidic matrix composition are related to several cutaneous dysfunctions. The skin barrier function is usually attributed to ceramides, but the role of free fatty acids, such as stearic acid, has been increasingly acknowledged. This research work aimed to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) based on stearic acid and glyceryl distearate, in order to explore the potential of these materials as the basis of lipid nanoparticles. Different blends of stearic acid, Precirol® ATO 5, Capryol® 90 and Tween® 80 were probed to prepare SLN and NLC. These lipid nanoparticles were further characterised according to particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), pH, and viscosity. Accelerated and long-term stability tests were also performed for 90 days, as well as in vivo assays to evaluate safety and efficacy. Overall, most nanoparticles showed interesting properties for topical application if they had sizes less than 300 nm, PDI below 0.3, pH compatible with skin and viscosity lower than 5 mPa.s. In long-term stability studies, the SLN_2 and NLC_2 formulations stood out, as they remained stable over time. In vivo biocompatibility tests conducted in human volunteers showed no negative impact of the formulations when applied openly or under occlusion. Efficacy studies with the most stable nanoparticles made of Precirol® ATO 5 showed an increase in skin hydration. The nanoparticles developed in this study have shown potential to be used for cosmetic purposes, and the blend of lipids provided good biocompatibility and moisturising properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Cosmetic Use and Their Application)
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19 pages, 2646 KiB  
Article
Production of Resveratrol Glucosides and Its Cosmetic Activities
by Samir Bahadur Thapa, Juhee Jeon, Byung Gyu Park, Dabin Shim, Chang Seok Lee and Jae Kyung Sohng
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040098 - 4 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2249
Abstract
A biocatalytic system that could produce bioactive resveratrol poly-glucosides, using sucrose as a low-cost source of UDP-glucose donors and amylosucrase DgAS from Deinococcus geothermalis, was developed in this study. This system boasts several advantages, including the rapid and direct conversion of substrates [...] Read more.
A biocatalytic system that could produce bioactive resveratrol poly-glucosides, using sucrose as a low-cost source of UDP-glucose donors and amylosucrase DgAS from Deinococcus geothermalis, was developed in this study. This system boasts several advantages, including the rapid and direct conversion of substrates to products, thermostability, regio-stereospecificity, and effectiveness, both in vitro and in vivo, at 40 °C. The results showed that the optimal reaction condition of the production of resveratrol glucosides was obtained by 2.0 µg/mL DgAS and 100 mM sucrose at pH 7.0, incubated at 40 °C for 5 h. With a success rate of around 97.0% in vitro and 95.0% in vivo in a short period of time, resveratrol-O-glucosides showed exciting outcomes in cosmetic applications, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, and whitening effects when tested with Raw 264.7, B16, and HS68 cell lines. DgAS is recognized as an important biocatalyst due to its high thermostability, effectiveness, and specificity among all known amylosucrases (ASases) in the production of poly-glucosides in a chain of polyphenols, such as resveratrol, making it an ideal candidate for industrial use in the cost-effective production of cosmetic items. Full article
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12 pages, 2458 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Cutaneous Carotenoid Content via Ozone Exposure
by Franco Cervellati, Mascia Benedusi, Angela Mastaloudis, Vittoria Nagliati and Giuseppe Valacchi
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040097 - 4 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant to which we are constantly exposed. Given its strong oxidizing effects and pervasiveness in the air we breathe, O3 is especially damaging to target organs in the respiratory system (e.g., lungs) and the [...] Read more.
Ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant to which we are constantly exposed. Given its strong oxidizing effects and pervasiveness in the air we breathe, O3 is especially damaging to target organs in the respiratory system (e.g., lungs) and the integumentary apparatus (e.g., skin). Both of these systems act as a barrier and are able to limit the penetration of atmospheric pollutants into the body. In this regard, skin—the largest and main barrier against atmospheric intrusions—offers continuous protection against environmental intrusions. The skin is equipped with several defensive molecules that act as protective intracellular antioxidants against oxidative intrusions, including O3. Among these antioxidants are carotenoids, a family of lipophilic phytonutrients that are abundant in fruits and vegetables. It is well established that carotenoids accumulate in the epidermis layer of the skin, where they confer protection against oxidative intrusions and modulate inflammation, and that there is a direct correlation between skin and serum carotenoids level. The present study aimed to evaluate the variations in carotenoid content present in human skin prior to and after O3 exposure in 141 human subjects. Carotenoids were measured non-invasively using a resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS)-based photonic device (Pharmanex BioPhotonic Scanner (BPS) Nu Skin Enterprises). In each volunteer, RRS skin carotenoids were determined at baseline and after 15 and 30 min of exposure to O3 0.8 ppm. The data obtained have an indicative value for individual variations in the cutaneous carotenoids, which have been shown to correlate with plasmatic contents. After the first 15 min of O3 exposure, there was a modulation of skin carotenoids, confirming their importance in the maintenance of cutaneous redox homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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16 pages, 616 KiB  
Review
Active Ingredients and Natural Raw Materials Used in Foot Care in Diabetic Patients—A Literature Review
by Aleksandra Krawiec, Olga Czerwińska-Ledwig, Bartłomiej Kita and Anna Piotrowska
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040096 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 3800
Abstract
Diabetic foot syndrome is the leading cause of limb loss due to non-healing ulcers. Repeated injuries, abnormal foot loads, and ischemia lead to ulcers. Poor shoe selection and inadequate care worsen the situation. Lack of patient education contributes to bacterial infections, tissue necrosis, [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot syndrome is the leading cause of limb loss due to non-healing ulcers. Repeated injuries, abnormal foot loads, and ischemia lead to ulcers. Poor shoe selection and inadequate care worsen the situation. Lack of patient education contributes to bacterial infections, tissue necrosis, and amputation. Vigilant observation and regular care can reduce wound size and prevent new wounds. Cleansing, infection control, and pressure relief are crucial in diabetic foot treatment. In this review, the effect of selected active ingredients and natural raw materials used for topical application in the care of diabetic foot was analyzed. The main focus used was on ingredients of natural origin—research studies utilizing emollients, humectants, plant extracts, and animal-derived ingredients were discussed. In addition, research studies on the application of nanomaterials, ozone and stem cells are also discussed. The cosmetics industry and manufacturers of podiatric products play a vital role in diabetic care. They should prioritize proper formulation, optimal ingredient doses, and skin microbiome control. Educating diabetics and using cosmetic products with self-massage elements can reduce the risk of hard-to-heal ulcers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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14 pages, 4773 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Human Epidermal Barrier Structure and Lipid Profile in Xerotic- and Atopic-Prone Skin via Application of a Plant-Oil and Urea Containing pH 4.5 Emulsion
by Jürgen Blaak, Dorothee Dähnhardt, Stephan Bielfeldt, Christiane Theiss, Isabel Simon, Klaus-Peter Wilhelm, Stephan Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer and Peter Staib
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040095 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Epidermal barrier dysfunction can lead to xerotic skin and promote skin disorders like atopic dermatitis. Atopic skin is characterized by reduced water-retaining compounds, altered lipid composition and elevated skin pH. Against this background, a study was conducted to investigate the impact of a [...] Read more.
Epidermal barrier dysfunction can lead to xerotic skin and promote skin disorders like atopic dermatitis. Atopic skin is characterized by reduced water-retaining compounds, altered lipid composition and elevated skin pH. Against this background, a study was conducted to investigate the impact of a specific skin care product on epidermal barrier function in dry and atopic-prone skin. A marketed pH 4.5 cosmetic formulation containing 10% urea and specific plant oils was evaluated on 25 subjects with dry and atopic-prone skin. Measurements of skin hydration, pH, and barrier function were performed before and after 3 weeks of product usage. Additionally, visual scoring and stratum corneum lipid analysis using electron microscopy were conducted to investigate lipid composition. An improved skin hydration compared to the untreated area and a tendency to decrease the baseline elevated skin surface pH were observed. The visual scoring showed reduced dryness, roughness, and tension through the application. Furthermore, the stratum corneum lipid matrix was improved in terms of lipid content and organization. The combination of an acidic product’s pH, a relevant urea content and effective plant oils is shown to be beneficial in terms of improving the skin barrier function, structure and appearance and is recommended for dry and atopic-prone skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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27 pages, 729 KiB  
Review
Hydrobiome of Thermal Waters: Potential Use in Dermocosmetics
by María Lourdes Mourelle, Carmen P. Gómez and José L. Legido
Cosmetics 2023, 10(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10040094 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3482
Abstract
Over the course of the last 20 years, numerous studies have identified the benefits of thermal waters on different skin conditions. Consequently, several investigations have been carried out on their effects on the skin, which are linked to their chemical composition, and, recently, [...] Read more.
Over the course of the last 20 years, numerous studies have identified the benefits of thermal waters on different skin conditions. Consequently, several investigations have been carried out on their effects on the skin, which are linked to their chemical composition, and, recently, scientists have turned their attention to the role of the thermal spring’s microbiota, named “hydrobiome”, regarding these therapeutic effects. At the same time, the development of cosmetics based on pre, pro, and postbiotics has reached great relevance and research is increasing every day. This review gathers information on the biological diversity of thermal spring waters and their potential use in obtaining biological compounds, metabolites, or bacterial extracts for use in dermocosmetics as active ingredients. These bioactive compounds are able to improve dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis or rosacea and ameliorate pruritus and xerosis; moreover, they can increase protection against UV exposure, strengthen barrier function, maintain good homeostasis of skin defenses, repair damaged skin, promote wound healing, improve skin condition, reduce uneven skin pigmentation, and prevent skin aging. From a future perspective, fruitful cooperation among researchers, hydrologists, thermal spa centers, and cosmetic industries will drive this sector toward a better understanding of the role of the hydrobiome of thermal spring waters on healthy skin and dermatological diseases and consider the inclusion of derivatives of this hydrobiome (in the form of fermenters, lysates, extracts, etc.) in dermocosmetic formulations. Therefore, and being aware of the potential of the hydrobiome in dermatological and skin care applications, the future prospects for the use of bioactive substances derived from it in dermocosmetic formulations are promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2023)
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