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Coatings, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) represent the outermost cell envelope component in archaea and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mechanical Properties and Oxidation Behavior of Cr–Si–N Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080528 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Cr–Si–N coatings were prepared through reactive direct current magneton sputtering using a high N2/Ar flow ratio of 1. The addition of Si to improve the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of Cr–N coatings was examined. The results indicated that the Cr–Si–N [...] Read more.
Cr–Si–N coatings were prepared through reactive direct current magneton sputtering using a high N2/Ar flow ratio of 1. The addition of Si to improve the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of Cr–N coatings was examined. The results indicated that the Cr–Si–N coatings with an Si content of <12 at % and an N content of >50 at % exhibited a cubic CrN phase with a columnar structure, whereas the coatings with 14 at % Si comprised of a nanocomposite structure, and the coatings with 16–18 at % Si were near-amorphous. The nanocomposite Cr32Si14N54 coating possessed hardness and Young’s modulus values of 17 and 209 GPa, respectively, accompanied with a hardness to effective Young’s modulus (H/E*) value of 0.077 and an elastic recovery (We) level of 55%—all the properties were highest within the as-deposited coating. The addition of Si was also beneficial to reduce the surface roughness and improve the oxidation resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Vapor Deposition)
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Open AccessArticle
Triple Local Similarity Solutions of Darcy-Forchheimer Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Flow of Micropolar Nanofluid Over an Exponential Shrinking Surface: Stability Analysis
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080527 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 503
Abstract
In this paper, the MHD flow of a micropolar nanofluid on an exponential sheet in an Extended-Darcy-Forchheimer porous medium have been considered. Buongiorno’s model is considered in order to formulate a mathematical model with different boundary conditions. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) [...] Read more.
In this paper, the MHD flow of a micropolar nanofluid on an exponential sheet in an Extended-Darcy-Forchheimer porous medium have been considered. Buongiorno’s model is considered in order to formulate a mathematical model with different boundary conditions. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) of the nanofluid flow are changed into a third order non-linear quasi-ordinary differential equation (ODE), using the pseudo-similarity variable. The resultant ODEs of the boundary value problems (BVPs) are renewed into initial value problems (IVPs) using a shooting method, and then the IVPs are solved by a fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method. The effects of various physical parameters on the profiles of velocity, temperature, microrotation velocity, concentration, skin friction, couple stress coefficients, heat, and concentration transfer are demonstrated graphically. The results reveal that triple solutions appear when S 2.0337 for K = 0.1 and S 2.7148 for K = 0.2 . A stability analysis has been performed to show the stability of the solutions; only the first solution is stable and physically possible, whereas the remaining two solutions are not stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Coatings and Thin Film–Modeling and Application)
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Open AccessEditorial
The Plastics Sunset and the Bio-Plastics Sunrise
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080526 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Plastics has been an integral part of our lives for the last century as the main material for various useful commodity items. Irony of fate, the same specific properties that make plastics ideal to create such a wide range of products are also [...] Read more.
Plastics has been an integral part of our lives for the last century as the main material for various useful commodity items. Irony of fate, the same specific properties that make plastics ideal to create such a wide range of products are also responsible for the present dramatic environmental pollution. What suggestions do the technological innovations currently suggest to solve this worldwide problem? Among the others, one is to replace the traditional plastics with alternative materials derived from non-oil polymers capable of being degraded in months and not in years or centuries. But the research in this field is relatively new and undoubtedly there are still developments that need to be made. Thus, we must be aware that the plastic age is at sunset and the bio-plastics sun is just rising on the horizon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physico-Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of PLA/TiO2 Composite Materials Synthesized via Electrospinning and Solution Casting Processes
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080525 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 518
Abstract
In this study, PLA/TiO2 composites materials were prepared via electrospinning and solution casting processes. By testing the mechanical properties, water contact angle, water vapor permeability, and solubility of the composite nanofibers and films, the comprehensive performances of the two types of nanocomposites [...] Read more.
In this study, PLA/TiO2 composites materials were prepared via electrospinning and solution casting processes. By testing the mechanical properties, water contact angle, water vapor permeability, and solubility of the composite nanofibers and films, the comprehensive performances of the two types of nanocomposites were analyzed. The results show that maximum tensile strengths of 2.71 ± 0.11 MPa and 14.49 ± 0.13 MPa were achieved for the nanofibers and films at a TiO2 content of 0.75 wt.%. Moreover, the addition of TiO2 significantly cut down the water vapor transmittance rate of the nanofibers and films while significantly improving the water solubility. Further, the antibacterial activity increased under UV-A irradiation for a TiO2 nanoparticle content of 0.75 wt.%, and the nanofiber and films exhibited inhibition zones of 4.86 ± 0.50 and 3.69 ± 0.40 mm for E. coli, and 5.98 ± 0.77 and 4.63 ± 0.45 mm for S. aureus, respectively. Overall, the performance of the nanofiber was better than that of the film. Nevertheless, both the nanocomposite membranes satisfied the requirements of food packaging materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Variable Viscosity on the Peristaltic Flow of Newtonian Fluid Coated with Magnetic Field: Application of Adomian Decomposition Method for Endoscope
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080524 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 520
Abstract
In the present analysis, peristaltic flow was discussed for MHD Newtonian fluid through the gap between two coaxial tubes, where the viscosity of the fluid is treated as variable. In addition, the inner tube was considered to be at rest, while the outer [...] Read more.
In the present analysis, peristaltic flow was discussed for MHD Newtonian fluid through the gap between two coaxial tubes, where the viscosity of the fluid is treated as variable. In addition, the inner tube was considered to be at rest, while the outer tube had the sinusoidal wave traveling down its motion. Further, the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number were taken into account for the formulation of the problem. A closed form solution is presented for general viscosity using the Adomian decomposition method. Numerical illustrations that show the physical effects and pertinent features were investigated for different physical included phenomenon. It was found that the pressure rise increases with an increase in Hartmann number, and frictional forces for the outer and inner tube decrease with an increase in Hartmann number when the viscosity is constant. It was also observed that the size of the trapping bolus decreases with an increase in Hartmann number, and increases with an increase in amplitude ratio when the viscosity is parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Coatings and Thin Film–Modeling and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of [email protected]3O4 Core–Shell Materials and the Fe3O4 Shell Prevents Leaching of Arsenic from Scorodite in Neutral and Alkaline Environments
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080523 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 503
Abstract
In recent years, arsenic pollution has seriously harmed human health. Arsenic-containing waste should be treated to render it harmless and immobilized to form a stable, solid material. Scorodite (iron arsenate) is recognized as the best solid arsenic material in the world. It has [...] Read more.
In recent years, arsenic pollution has seriously harmed human health. Arsenic-containing waste should be treated to render it harmless and immobilized to form a stable, solid material. Scorodite (iron arsenate) is recognized as the best solid arsenic material in the world. It has the advantages of high arsenic content, good stability, and a low iron/arsenic molar ratio. However, scorodite can decompose and release arsenic in a neutral and alkaline environment. Ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) is a common iron oxide that is insoluble in acid and alkali solutions. Coating a Fe3O4 shell that is acid- and alkali-resistant on the surface of scorodite crystals will improve the stability of the material. In this study, a [email protected]3O4 core–shell structure material was synthesized. The synthesized core–shell material was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques, and the composition and structure were confirmed. The synthesis condition and forming process were analyzed. Long-term leaching tests were conducted to evaluate the stability of the synthesized [email protected]3O4. The results indicate that the [email protected]3O4 had excellent stability after 20 days of exposure to neutral and weakly alkaline solutions. The inert Fe3O4 shell could prevent the scorodite core from corrosion by the external solution. The [email protected]3O4 core–shell structure material was suitable for the immobilization of arsenic and has potential application prospects for the treatment of arsenic-containing waste. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Two-Dimensional SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs as Promising Candidates for Photocatalytic Applications
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080522 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Group IV–V-type layered materials, such as SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs, are among the most attractive two-dimensional (2D) materials that exhibit anisotropic mechanical, optical and transport properties. In this short communication, we conducted density functional theory simulations to explore the prospect of SiP, [...] Read more.
Group IV–V-type layered materials, such as SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs, are among the most attractive two-dimensional (2D) materials that exhibit anisotropic mechanical, optical and transport properties. In this short communication, we conducted density functional theory simulations to explore the prospect of SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs nanosheets for the water-splitting application. The semiconducting gaps of stress-free SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs monolayers were estimated to be 2.59, 2.34, 2.30 and 2.07 eV, respectively, which are within the desirable ranges for the water splitting. Moreover, all the considered nanomaterials were found to yield optical absorption in the visible spectrum, which is a critical feature for the employment in the solar water splitting systems. Our results furthermore confirm that the valence and conduction band edge positions in SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs monolayers also satisfy the requirements for the water splitting. Our results highlight the promising photocatalytic characteristics of SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs nanosheets for the application in solar water splitting and design of advanced hydrogen fuel cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of TiO2 Additives on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Al-Mg Alloy Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080521 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Four ceramic coatings are fabricated on 6061 aluminum alloy substrates with a micro-arc oxidation technique in silicate electrolytes with different TiO2 nano-additive concentrations. To explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating, cavitation tests are performed using a vibratory [...] Read more.
Four ceramic coatings are fabricated on 6061 aluminum alloy substrates with a micro-arc oxidation technique in silicate electrolytes with different TiO2 nano-additive concentrations. To explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating, cavitation tests are performed using a vibratory test rig. After cavitation tests lasting 10 min, the mass losses, surface morphologies, and chemical compositions of the samples after cavitation tests are examined using a digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results indicate that, in contrast to the aluminum alloy, the MAO coatings, by adjusting TiO2 nano-additive concentration, can decrease the mean depth of erosion rate (MDER) due to the cavitation damage, and lead to an excellent cavitation erosion resistance. The results also show that: In contrast to aluminum alloy, MAO coatings can decrease the MDER due to the cavitation damage in a short period of time by adjusting TiO2 nano-additive concentration. With the increase of TiO2 nano-additive concentration, the compactness and the surface hardness of MAO coatings decrease, which can easily lead to larger erosion pits. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Review of CdTe1−xSex Thin Films in Solar Cell Applications
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080520 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Recent improvements in CdTe thin film solar cells have been achieved by using CdTe1−xSex as a part of the absorber layer. This review summarizes the published literature concerning the material properties of CdTe1−xSex and its [...] Read more.
Recent improvements in CdTe thin film solar cells have been achieved by using CdTe1−xSex as a part of the absorber layer. This review summarizes the published literature concerning the material properties of CdTe1−xSex and its application in current thin film CdTe photovoltaics. One of the important properties of CdTe1−xSex is its band gap bowing, which facilitates a lowering of the CdTe band gap towards the optimum band gap for highest theoretical efficiency. In practice, a CdTe1−xSex gradient is introduced to the front of CdTe, which induces a band gap gradient and allows for the fabrication of solar cells with enhanced short-circuit current while maintaining a high open-circuit voltage. In some device structures, the addition of CdTe1−xSex also allows for a reduction in CdS thickness or its complete elimination, reducing parasitic absorption of low wavelength photons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thin Film Materials for Photovoltaic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribomechanical Behaviour of TiAlN and CrAlN Coatings Deposited onto AISI H11 with Different Pre-Treatments
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080519 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 618
Abstract
In the metalworking industry, different processes and applications require the utilisation of custom designed tools. The selection of the appropriated substrate material and its pre-treatment as well as the protective coating are of great importance in the performance and life time of forming [...] Read more.
In the metalworking industry, different processes and applications require the utilisation of custom designed tools. The selection of the appropriated substrate material and its pre-treatment as well as the protective coating are of great importance in the performance and life time of forming tools, dies, punches and coated parts in general. TiAlN and CrAlN coatings have been deposited onto the hot work tool steel AISI H11 by means of Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering. Prior to the deposition, the steel substrate was modified by the implementation of three different pre-treatments: nitriding of the annealed substrate [Nitr.], heat treatment of the steel (quenching and double tempering) [HT] and nitridation subsequent to a heat treatment of the substrate [HT + Nitr.]. The purpose of this research is to obtain valuable information on the microstructural properties and tribomechanical behaviour of two of the most promising ternary transition metal nitride coatings, TiAlN and CrAlN, when deposited on the AISI H11 steel with different initial properties. The different pre-treatments performed to the steel prior to the deposition favour the tailoring during the design and construction of tools for specific applications. The microstructure, the adhesion and the wear resistance of TiAlN coatings were highly influenced by the substrate preparation. Contrarily, CrAlN results were more independent of the substrate preparation and no high influences were found. For instance, the adhesion of the TiAlN coating varied from 17 to 43 N for the coating deposited onto the HT + Nitr. substrate and the HT substrate respectively, while the lowest and highest adhesion of the CrAlN coating varied between 42 and 53 N for the HT and the HT + Nitr. respectively. Likewise, the wear coefficient of the CrAlN were ten times smaller than those found for the TiAlN coatings, presumably due to the presence of hex-AlN phases and the small differences on the Young´s Modulus of the substrate and the CrAlN coatings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Biofilm Formation and Coating Degradation by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080518 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Recent findings showed severe localized corrosion of submerged steel bridge piles in a Florida bridge and was associated with microbial activity in the presence of marine foulers. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) can cause severe degradation of submerged steel infrastructure with the presence of [...] Read more.
Recent findings showed severe localized corrosion of submerged steel bridge piles in a Florida bridge and was associated with microbial activity in the presence of marine foulers. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) can cause severe degradation of submerged steel infrastructure with the presence of biofilm associated with microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Coatings have been developed to mitigate MIC and marine fouling. Coating degradation and disbondment can occur as a result of microbial attack due to the production of metabolites that degrade coating chemical and physical properties. In the work described here, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted to identify microbial activity and degradation of an antifouling coating exposed to SRB-inoculated modified Postgate B solution. The measurements resulted in complicated impedance with multiple loops in the Nyquist diagram associated with the coating material, development of surface layers (biofilm), and the steel interface. Deconvolution of the impedance results and fitting to equivalent circuit analogs were made to identify coating characteristics and surface layer formation. EIS test results revealed coating degradation and subsequent formation of surface layers associated with SRB due to coating self-polishing and depletion of biocide components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Oxygen Defects and Properties of Scandium Oxide Films Prepared by Ion-Beam Sputtering
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080517 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Scandium oxide (Sc2O3) thin films with different numbers of oxygen defects were prepared by ion-beam sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The results showed that the oxygen defects heavily affected crystal phases, optical properties, laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and [...] Read more.
Scandium oxide (Sc2O3) thin films with different numbers of oxygen defects were prepared by ion-beam sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The results showed that the oxygen defects heavily affected crystal phases, optical properties, laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and surface quality of Sc2O3 films. The thin film under 0 standard-state cubic centimeter per minute (sccm) oxygen flow rate had the largest number of oxygen defects, which resulted in the lowest transmittance, LIDT and the worst surface quality. In addition, the refractive index of 0 sccm Sc2O3 film could not be measured in the same way. When the oxygen flow rate was 15 sccm, the Sc2O3 film possessed the best transmittance, refractive index, LIDT and surface roughness due to the lowest number of oxygen defects. This work elucidated the relationship between oxygen defects and properties of Sc2O3 films. Controlling oxygen flow rate was an important step of limiting the number of oxygen defects, which is of great significance for industrial production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Formation of Microcrystal in Helium Ion Irradiated Aluminum Alloy
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080516 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 506
Abstract
A microstructure variation in Al-1060 alloy after helium ion irradiation was revealed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The result shows that ion irradiation produced dislocations, dislocation loops, cavities and microcrystals in the irradiated layer. Dislocation-defect interactions were portrayed, especially the pinning effect [...] Read more.
A microstructure variation in Al-1060 alloy after helium ion irradiation was revealed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The result shows that ion irradiation produced dislocations, dislocation loops, cavities and microcrystals in the irradiated layer. Dislocation-defect interactions were portrayed, especially the pinning effect of a dislocation loop and cavity on moving dislocation. Irradiation-induced stress was recognized as the main factor which impacted on the interaction of defect. Based on the dislocation inhibited with irradiation defects, the mechanism of microcrystal formation was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering of Light Alloys)
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Open AccessReview
Fused Deposition Modelling as a Potential Tool for Antimicrobial Dialysis Catheters Manufacturing: New Trends vs. Conventional Approaches
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080515 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The rising rate of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ineffective treatment methods for catheter-associated infections in dialysis patients has led to the need for a novel approach to the manufacturing of catheters. The current process requires moulding, which is time consuming, [...] Read more.
The rising rate of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ineffective treatment methods for catheter-associated infections in dialysis patients has led to the need for a novel approach to the manufacturing of catheters. The current process requires moulding, which is time consuming, and coated catheters used currently increase the risk of bacterial resistance, toxicity, and added expense. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has gained a lot of attention in recent years and offers the opportunity to rapidly manufacture catheters, matched to patients through imaging and at a lower cost. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) in particular allows thermoplastic polymers to be printed into the desired devices from a model made using computer aided design (CAD). Limitations to FDM include the small range of thermoplastic polymers that are compatible with this form of printing and the high degradation temperature required for drugs to be extruded with the polymer. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) allows the potential for antimicrobial drugs to be added to the polymer to create catheters with antimicrobial activity, therefore being able to overcome the issue of increased rates of infection. This review will cover the area of dialysis and catheter-related infections, current manufacturing processes of catheters and methods to prevent infection, limitations of current processes of catheter manufacture, future directions into the manufacture of catheters, and how drugs can be incorporated into the polymers to help prevent infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Antimicrobial Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
A Low Impact Ionization Rate Poly-Si TFT with a Current and Electric Field Split Design
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080514 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 560
Abstract
In this study, a novel low impact ionization rate (low-IIR) poly-Si thin film transistor featuring a current and electric field split (CES) structure with bottom field plate (BFP) and partial thicker channel raised source/drain (RSD) designs is proposed and demonstrated. The bottom field [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel low impact ionization rate (low-IIR) poly-Si thin film transistor featuring a current and electric field split (CES) structure with bottom field plate (BFP) and partial thicker channel raised source/drain (RSD) designs is proposed and demonstrated. The bottom field plate design can allure the electron and alter the electron current path to evade the high electric field area and therefore reduce the device IIR and suppress the kink effect. A two-dimensional device simulator was applied to describe and compare the current path, electric field magnitude distributions, and IIR of the proposed structure and conventional devices. In addition, the advantages of a partial thicker channel RSD design are present, and the leakage current of CES-thin-film transistor (TFT) can be reduced and the ON/OFF current ratio be improved, owing to a smaller drain electric field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Thin Films)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Electron Beam Treatment of Co–Cr Alloy on the Growing Mechanism, Surface Topography, and Mechanical Properties of Deposited TiN/TiO2 Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080513 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 593
Abstract
This study examines the effect of electron beam treatment (EBT) of Co–Cr substrate on the film growth mechanism, mechanical properties, and surface topography of TiN/TiO2 coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The obtained results and processes that occurred during the deposition are [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of electron beam treatment (EBT) of Co–Cr substrate on the film growth mechanism, mechanical properties, and surface topography of TiN/TiO2 coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The obtained results and processes that occurred during the deposition are discussed in the context of crystallographic principles, and special attention is paid to the crystallographic orientation and growth mechanism studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were investigated by means of nanoindentation and wear tests. The surface topography was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results obtained in the present study showed that polycrystalline TiN and anatase TiO2 phases were present in all cases. Electron beam treatment of Co–Cr substrate tended to form a reorientation of the microvolumes from (111) to (200) of TiN, leading to a change in the growth mechanism from three-dimensional (Volmer–Weber) to layer-by-layer (Frank–van der Merwe). It was found that the electron beam treatment process did not significantly affect the thickness of the coatings and the deposition rate. The treatment process led to an increase in surface roughness. The higher surface roughness after the EBT process should be appropriate to support cell growth and adhesion on the surface of the deposited bilayer coating. It was demonstrated that EBT of the substrate caused a decrease in hardness of the deposited coatings from 10 to 5 GPa. The observed decrease in hardness was attributed to the change in the preferred crystallographic orientation and film growth mechanism. The hardness of the bilayer coating after the application of EBT of the Co–Cr substrate was much closer to that of human bones, which means that severe stress shielding effect could not be expected. The evaluated coefficient of friction (COF) exhibited significantly lower values in the case of EBT of the substrate compared to the untreated Co–Cr material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Properties of CrAlSiN Coatings Deposited by HiPIMS and Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080512 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Four CrAlSiN coatings with different Al contents were prepared by varying Al sputtering power using a combined method of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Microstructure, chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the four coatings were characterized [...] Read more.
Four CrAlSiN coatings with different Al contents were prepared by varying Al sputtering power using a combined method of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Microstructure, chemical compositions and mechanical properties of the four coatings were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, nano-indentation etc. Results showed that the four coatings possessed face-centered cubic (fcc) CrN phase with Al and part of Si dissolved in it. Another part of Si existed as amorphous phase in the coatings. All the four coatings had columnar structure and formed in epitaxy growth by template effect. With increasing Al sputtering power, the Al content increased from 11.4 to 17.6 at.% gradually, while the Cr content decreased a little. The hardness of the CrAlSiN coatings increased initially probably due to the refinement of the coating grain size, while it decreased afterwards mainly caused by the aggregation of small particles leading to rougher surface and defects formed in the coatings. The elastic modulus and adhesive strength possessed the same variation tendency as the hardness versus Al sputtering power. The CrAlSiN coating with Al sputtering power of about 0.8 kW had the highest hardness of about 26.7 GPa and adhesive strength of about 27.2 N. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Growth Defects on the Corrosion Resistance of Sputter-Deposited TiAlN Hard Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080511 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 660
Abstract
In this work, the causes of porosity of TiAlN hard coatings sputter deposited on D2 tool steel were studied since its corrosion resistance is mainly affected by imperfections within the coating (e.g., pinholes, pores, crevices). The corrosion test was performed in a chlorine [...] Read more.
In this work, the causes of porosity of TiAlN hard coatings sputter deposited on D2 tool steel were studied since its corrosion resistance is mainly affected by imperfections within the coating (e.g., pinholes, pores, crevices). The corrosion test was performed in a chlorine solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coating morphology of growth defects before and after the exposure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while focused ion beam (FIB) was used to make series of cross-sections through individual selected defects. We confirm that pitting corrosion is closely related to the through-thickness growth defects. It was also found that in the case of nodular defects, the intensity of corrosion depends on the shape of the seed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthesis and Properties of Orthorhombic MoAlB Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080510 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 688
Abstract
MoAlB is a potential candidate for high-temperature application since a dense, adherent alumina scale is formed. While, based on X-ray diffraction investigations, the formation of phase pure orthorhombic MoAlB coatings is observed, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy carried out in a scanning transmission electron [...] Read more.
MoAlB is a potential candidate for high-temperature application since a dense, adherent alumina scale is formed. While, based on X-ray diffraction investigations, the formation of phase pure orthorhombic MoAlB coatings is observed, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy carried out in a scanning transmission electron microscope reveals the presence of Al-rich and O-rich regions within the MoAlB matrix. The oxidation kinetics of coatings and bulk is similar to the scale thickness formed on the MoAlB coating after oxidation at 1200 °C for 30 min is similar to the one extrapolated for bulk MoAlB. Furthermore, the oxidation kinetics of MoAlB coatings is significantly lower than the one reported for bulk Ti2AlC. Finally, the elastic properties measured for the as-deposited coatings are consistent ab initio predictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological and Thermophysical Properties of Environmentally-Friendly Lubricants Based on Trimethylolpropane Trioleate with Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanoparticles as an Additive
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080509 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Dispersions based on hexagonal boron nitride, h-BN, nanoparticles, at 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 wt.% mass concentrations, in an ester base oil composed mainly of trimethylolpropane trioleate, were investigated as potential nanolubricants. The stability of the dispersions was assessed to determine the reliability of [...] Read more.
Dispersions based on hexagonal boron nitride, h-BN, nanoparticles, at 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 wt.% mass concentrations, in an ester base oil composed mainly of trimethylolpropane trioleate, were investigated as potential nanolubricants. The stability of the dispersions was assessed to determine the reliability of the tribological, thermophysical and rheological measurements. Density and viscosity were measured from 278.15 to 373.15 K, while rheological behavior was analyzed at shear rates from 1 to 1000 s−1 at 283.15 K. Newtonian behavior was exhibited by all nanolubricants at the explored conditions, with the exception of the highest concentration at the lowest shear rates, where possible non-Newtonian behavior was observed. Tribological tests were performed under a normal load of 2.5 N. Wear was evaluated by means of a 3D profiler, scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy. The best tribological performance was achieved by the 0.75 wt.% nanolubricant, with reductions of 25% in the friction coefficient, 9% in the scar width, 14% in the scar depth, and 22% of the transversal area, all with respect to the neat oil. It was observed that physical protective tribofilms are created between rubbing surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Green Tribology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Inclusion of 5-Mercapto-1-Phenyl-Tetrazole into β-Cyclodextrin for Entrapment in Silane Coatings: An Improvement in Bronze Corrosion Protection
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080508 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The corrosion protection of coatings can be reinforced by the addition of entrapped corrosion inhibitors. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) can form inclusion complexes with small inhibiting organic molecules that, when entrapped in coatings, allow the inhibitor release and adsorption at corrosion initiation sites. In this [...] Read more.
The corrosion protection of coatings can be reinforced by the addition of entrapped corrosion inhibitors. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) can form inclusion complexes with small inhibiting organic molecules that, when entrapped in coatings, allow the inhibitor release and adsorption at corrosion initiation sites. In this paper, several Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based experiments (e.g., Complexation-Induced Shifts (CIS), NMR titration, Diffusion-Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY)) were performed to study the stability and geometry of a complex formed by β-cyclodextrin with 5-mercapto-1-phenyl-tetrazole (MPT). The complex was also detected by Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. Its influence on the protectiveness of a silane coating against bronze corrosion was evaluated in plain (AR) and concentrated (ARX10) synthetic acid rain, under different exposure conditions. In particular, the time evolution of the polarization resistance values during 20 days in ARX10 and the polarization curves recorded at the end of the immersions evidenced a higher protectiveness of the coating with the β-CD–MPT complex in comparison to that containing only MPT or only β-CD. The cyclic AR spray test carried out on coated bronze coupons with cross-cut scratches evidenced the absence of underfilm corrosion starting from the scratches only in the complex-containing coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum–Bronze Coatings as a Function of Gas Pressure Used in the Thermal Spraying Process
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080507 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 713
Abstract
We report the results of the influence of acetylene and oxygen gas pressure on the corrosion resistance of bronze–aluminum coatings deposited on a naval brass substrate by means of the thermal (flame) deposition process. The coatings were characterized by means of scanning electronic [...] Read more.
We report the results of the influence of acetylene and oxygen gas pressure on the corrosion resistance of bronze–aluminum coatings deposited on a naval brass substrate by means of the thermal (flame) deposition process. The coatings were characterized by means of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion tests were carried out via Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, some samples were selected in order to investigate heat treatment and its effects on corrosion resistance. The results indicate that changes in the pressure and flow of the gas affects the composition, morphology, and physical properties of the coatings, and these effects have consequences for the behavior of the coatings when they are immersed in corrosion environments. The collision speed of the particles was identified as the most significant factor that influences the properties and the performance of the coating. The gas pressure modified the oxides and the porosity level, which improved the corrosion resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formulation and Characterization of Edible Films Based on Organic Mucilage from Mexican Opuntia ficus-indica
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080506 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The consumption of organic products has increased in recent years. One of the most important products in Mexico is nopal. Nopal’s content and properties make the formulation of edible films possible. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize biodegradable edible films [...] Read more.
The consumption of organic products has increased in recent years. One of the most important products in Mexico is nopal. Nopal’s content and properties make the formulation of edible films possible. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize biodegradable edible films containing mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica. The mucilage extraction yield, thickness, color, water vapor permeability, light transmission rate, film transparency, solubility, stability of dispersion, and puncture strength were measured. The use of mucilage from different cultivars affected the water vapor permeability (8.40 × 10−11 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1 for cultivar Villanueva, 3.48 × 10−11 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1 for Jalpa, and 1.63 × 10−11 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1 for Copena F1). Jalpa provided the most soluble mucilage with the highest thickness (0.105 mm). Copena F1 provided the clearest film with the greatest transparency (3.81), the best yellowness index, and the highest resistance (4.44 N·mm−1). Furthermore, this film had the best light transmission rate (48.93%). The Copena F1 showed the best film formation solution viscosity. These results indicate that mucilage mixed with pectin is a potential source for the formulation of edible films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Films and Coatings: Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Corrosion Resistance and Wear Resistance of Zn–Al–Mg/ZnO Composite Coating Prepared by Cold Spraying
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080505 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Two composite coatings, Zn65Al15Mg5ZnO15 and Zn45Al35Mg5ZnO15, were prepared by the cold spray technique and were found to be compact, with no pits or cracks, based on scanning electron [...] Read more.
Two composite coatings, Zn65Al15Mg5ZnO15 and Zn45Al35Mg5ZnO15, were prepared by the cold spray technique and were found to be compact, with no pits or cracks, based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) investigations. The results of the neutral salt spray (NSS) and electrochemical tests showed that the two composite coatings possess a suitable corrosion performance. However, the Zn45Al35Mg5ZnO15 composite coatings were more corrosion resistant and allowed a better long-term stability. In addition, they were found to exhibit the best wear resistance and photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Structure-Property Relationships in Suspension HVOF Nano-TiO2 Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080504 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Hardness and tribological properties of microstructured coatings developed by conventional thermal spraying are significantly affected by the feedstock melting condition, however, their effect on the performance of nanostructured coatings by suspension high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) are inconclusive. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings [...] Read more.
Hardness and tribological properties of microstructured coatings developed by conventional thermal spraying are significantly affected by the feedstock melting condition, however, their effect on the performance of nanostructured coatings by suspension high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) are inconclusive. In this work, nano-TiO2 coatings with different degrees of melting (12%, 51%, 81%) of nanosized feedstock were deposited via suspension HVOF spraying, using suspensions with a solid content of 5 wt.%. All the coatings produced had dense structures without visible pores and cracks. Two TiO2 crystal structures were identified in which the rutile content of the coatings increased with increased feedstock melting. Their mechanical, friction and wear behaviours largely relied on the extent of melting of the feedstock. The coating composed of mostly agglomerate particles (12% melted particles) had the lowest coefficient of friction and wear rate due to the formation of a smooth tribo-film on the wearing surface, while the coating composed of mostly fully melted splats (81% melted particles) presented the highest coefficient of friction and low wear rate, whose wear mechanism was dominated by abrasive wear and accompanied by the formation of cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings for Corrosion and Tribology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chitosan-Ascorbic Acid Coatings on the Refrigerated Storage Stability of Fresh-Cut Apples
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080503 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
Using natural antimicrobial substances in edible films becomes crucial to extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits due to the consumers’ preferences. In this study chitosan and ascorbic acid based film was used to improve the shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Fresh-cut apple cubes were [...] Read more.
Using natural antimicrobial substances in edible films becomes crucial to extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits due to the consumers’ preferences. In this study chitosan and ascorbic acid based film was used to improve the shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Fresh-cut apple cubes were dipped in water (control), ascorbic acid (1%) or mixtures of chitosan–ascorbic acid in different ratios (1%:1%, 2%:2% or 1%:5%) for 5 min. After draining, fresh-cut apples were packed in sterile polypropylene jars and stored at 5 °C for 14 days. The treatment with chitosan and ascorbic acid suppressed browning, retained flesh firmness and maintained phenolic compounds throughout the storage period. Moreover, the treatment with chitosan–ascorbic acid significantly retarded the microbial growth during storage. Those findings suggested that the best performance was acquired in 1% chitosan and 5% ascorbic acid coating. That coating could be practical and useful to prolonging the chemical and microbial shelf lives of fresh-cut apples during refrigerated storage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Dielectric Loss and Multiferroic Properties in Ferroelectric/Mutiferroic/Ferroelectric Sandwich Structured Thin Films
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080502 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) has proven to be promising for a wide variety of microelectric and magnetoelectric devices applications. In this work, a dense (Ba0.65Sr0.35)TiO3(BST)/(Bi0.875Nd0.125)FeO3(BNF)/BST trilayered thin film grown on [...] Read more.
Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) has proven to be promising for a wide variety of microelectric and magnetoelectric devices applications. In this work, a dense (Ba0.65Sr0.35)TiO3(BST)/(Bi0.875Nd0.125)FeO3(BNF)/BST trilayered thin film grown on Pt-coated Si (100) substrates was developed by the rf-sputtering. For comparison, single-layered BNF and BST were also prepared on the same substrates, respectively. The results show that the dielectric loses suppression in BST/BNF/BST trilayered thin films at room temperature but has enhanced ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. The remnant polarization (Pr) and coercive electronic field (Ec) were 5.51 μC/cm2 and 18.3 kV/cm, and the remnant magnetization (Mr) and coercive magnetic field (Hc) were 10.1 emu/cm3 and 351 Oe, respectively, for the trilayered film. We considered that the bismuth’s volatilization was limited by BST bottom layers making the Bi/Fe in good station, and the action of BST layer in the charge transfer between BNF thin film and electrode led to the quite low leakage current and enhanced multiferroic property. The origin of the mechanism of the highly enhanced dielectric constant and decreased loss tanδ was discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Literature Review on Fretting Wear and Contact Mechanics of Tribological Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080501 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 673
Abstract
This article reviews fretting wear damage in industries and in the contact mechanics of coated systems. Micro-slip motion resulting in fretting damage is discussed along with major experimental factors. The experimental factors, including normal force, relative displacement, frequency and medium influence are directly [...] Read more.
This article reviews fretting wear damage in industries and in the contact mechanics of coated systems. Micro-slip motion resulting in fretting damage is discussed along with major experimental factors. The experimental factors, including normal force, relative displacement, frequency and medium influence are directly compared. Industrial solutions to reduce fretting damages are then discussed. The contact mechanics of a coated system are reviewed to quantify stress states in a coating layer and the substrate. Finally, a literature review on simulation for fretting is carried out. This review study provides useful methods and practical solutions to minimize fretting wear damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Resisting Fretting Damage)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Local Residual Stress in a Nanocrystalline Cr2O3 Coating by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080500 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Residual stress in coatings often affects the service performance of coatings, and the residual stresses in some local areas even lead to premature failure of coatings. In this work, we characterized the residual stress of local micro-areas of a nanocrystalline Cr2O [...] Read more.
Residual stress in coatings often affects the service performance of coatings, and the residual stresses in some local areas even lead to premature failure of coatings. In this work, we characterized the residual stress of local micro-areas of a nanocrystalline Cr2O3 coating deposited on a Si wafer through micro-Raman spectroscopy, including the depositional edge zone where the electrode was placed, the micro-area containing Cr2O3 macroparticles, and other micro-areas vulnerable to cracks. To accurately measure the thickness of the coating, we combined optical interferometry and direct measurement by a profilometer. The results indicate the existence of in-plane tensile residual stress on the Cr2O3 coating. In thick coatings, the residual stress is independent of the coating thickness and is stable between 0.55 GPa and 0.75 GPa. As the coating thickness is less than 0.8 μm, the residual stress is directly related to the coating thickness. This in-plane tensile stress is considered as the origin of the observed microcrack, which can partially release the stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress in Thin Films and Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Conductivity Measurement of Transparent Conductive Films Based on Carbon Nanoparticles
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080499 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Transparent conductive films are fundamental materials, currently used in several fields. Recently, due to their unique multifunctional properties, composite materials have started to be used in place of fluorine tin oxide and indium tin oxide in transparent conductive electrodes. However, the production of [...] Read more.
Transparent conductive films are fundamental materials, currently used in several fields. Recently, due to their unique multifunctional properties, composite materials have started to be used in place of fluorine tin oxide and indium tin oxide in transparent conductive electrodes. However, the production of composite materials is still complicated and involves toxic chemicals. Through a simple and environmentally-friendly method, we synthesized new composite materials—conductive, transparent, and flexible films—that can be applied to the production of modern optoelectronic devices. An even dispersion of the nanoparticles was achieved by ultrasound excitation. Moreover, a series of morphological and structural investigations were conducted on the films by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electrical conductivity, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and testing their sheet resistance. The results indicated that the tested composite materials were ideal for film coating. The nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes presented the highest electrical conductivity; nevertheless, all the composite nanofluids tended to have relatively high electrical conductivities. The flexible films with composite structures presented lower sheet resistances than those with single structures. Finally, the hybrid materials showed a higher transmittance. Full article
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