Special Issue "Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tadeja Kosec
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory for metals, corrosion and anticorrosion protection, Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: electrochemistry; corrosion; characterization of passive films; Raman spectroscopy; copper
Dr. Aleksandra Kocijan
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Corrosion, Physics and Chemistry of Materials, Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: electrochemistry; analytical chemistry; surface analysis; corrosion; thin coatings; biomaterials

Special Issue Information

The scope of this Special Issue “Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings” is the research on anticorrosion coatings of nonmetallic and metallic origin. The present Special Issue focuses on the improved anticorrosion properties of metallic, nonmetallic, and composite coatings using different engineering approaches to increase their durability in various demanding applications. It is highly recommended to present your research using novel approaches of defining anticorrosion properties through electrochemical, spectroscopic techniques and other techniques in your research on nonmetallic and metallic coatings. Submitted papers are expected to follow different aspects of processes, including physical and chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, thermal and plasma spraying, directed energy techniques, wet chemical and electrochemical processes, and techniques based on nanotechnology. The papers should provide comprehensive insight on corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and surface and interface characterisation, with emphasis on enhanced functional performance for different applications.

Dr. Tadeja Kosec
Dr. Aleksandra Kocijan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Corrosion
  • Metallic coatings
  • Nonmetallic coatings
  • Electrochemical characterization
  • Spectroscopic characterization
  • Coating/metal interfaces
  • Mechanical properties

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bioactive Coating on Titanium Dental Implants for Improved Anticorrosion Protection: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study
Coatings 2019, 9(10), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9100612 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
In recent years, extensive studies have been continuously undertaken on the design of bioactive and biomimetic dental implant surfaces due to the need for improvement of the implant–bone interface properties. In this paper, the titanium dental implant surface was modified by bioactive vitamin [...] Read more.
In recent years, extensive studies have been continuously undertaken on the design of bioactive and biomimetic dental implant surfaces due to the need for improvement of the implant–bone interface properties. In this paper, the titanium dental implant surface was modified by bioactive vitamin D3 molecules by a self-assembly process in order to form an improved anticorrosion coating. Surface characterization of the modified implant was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and contact angle measurements (CA). The implant’s electrochemical stability during exposure to an artificial saliva solution was monitored in situ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results obtained were corroborated by means of quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level (DFT). The formation mechanism of the coating onto the titanium implant surface was proposed. During a prolonged immersion period, the bioactive coating effectively prevented a corrosive attack on the underlying titanium (polarization resistance in order of 107 Ω cm2) with ~95% protection effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Short- and Long-Term Wettability Evolution and Corrosion Resistance of Uncoated and Polymer-Coated Laser-Textured Steel Surface
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090592 - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
We present the results of one year observation of wetting and corrosion properties of nanosecond fiber laser-textured stainless steel, uncoated and coated with epoxy or FAS (fluoroalkylsilane)-TiO2/epoxy. A comparative study was performed on samples kept under ambient conditions and in reduced [...] Read more.
We present the results of one year observation of wetting and corrosion properties of nanosecond fiber laser-textured stainless steel, uncoated and coated with epoxy or FAS (fluoroalkylsilane)-TiO2/epoxy. A comparative study was performed on samples kept under ambient conditions and in reduced air pressure and humidity. The results show the ability to induce wettability conversion from initially superhydrophilic to final superhydrophobic state either indirectly by ageing the uncoated laser-textured surface or directly by application of FAS-TiO2/epoxy coating. The storage conditions significantly influenced the wettability development of uncoated laser-textured steel, i.e., the process of ageing was slowed down in reduced air pressure and humidity. Detailed surface chemical analysis revealed that adsorption of the organic matters from the surrounding media influences the wettability conversion and ageing. However, the ageing of the coated surfaces was not affected by the storage conditions. Corrosion stability of uncoated laser-textured surfaces was enhanced over time due to the wettability transition, depending on their morphology. Coatings represent a superior barrier over the texture and wettability with the stable long-term surface protection against aggressive media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Growth Defects on the Corrosion Resistance of Sputter-Deposited TiAlN Hard Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080511 - 12 Aug 2019
Abstract
In this work, the causes of porosity of TiAlN hard coatings sputter deposited on D2 tool steel were studied since its corrosion resistance is mainly affected by imperfections within the coating (e.g., pinholes, pores, crevices). The corrosion test was performed in a chlorine [...] Read more.
In this work, the causes of porosity of TiAlN hard coatings sputter deposited on D2 tool steel were studied since its corrosion resistance is mainly affected by imperfections within the coating (e.g., pinholes, pores, crevices). The corrosion test was performed in a chlorine solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coating morphology of growth defects before and after the exposure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while focused ion beam (FIB) was used to make series of cross-sections through individual selected defects. We confirm that pitting corrosion is closely related to the through-thickness growth defects. It was also found that in the case of nodular defects, the intensity of corrosion depends on the shape of the seed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Inclusion of 5-Mercapto-1-Phenyl-Tetrazole into β-Cyclodextrin for Entrapment in Silane Coatings: An Improvement in Bronze Corrosion Protection
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080508 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
The corrosion protection of coatings can be reinforced by the addition of entrapped corrosion inhibitors. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) can form inclusion complexes with small inhibiting organic molecules that, when entrapped in coatings, allow the inhibitor release and adsorption at corrosion initiation sites. In this [...] Read more.
The corrosion protection of coatings can be reinforced by the addition of entrapped corrosion inhibitors. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) can form inclusion complexes with small inhibiting organic molecules that, when entrapped in coatings, allow the inhibitor release and adsorption at corrosion initiation sites. In this paper, several Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based experiments (e.g., Complexation-Induced Shifts (CIS), NMR titration, Diffusion-Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY)) were performed to study the stability and geometry of a complex formed by β-cyclodextrin with 5-mercapto-1-phenyl-tetrazole (MPT). The complex was also detected by Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. Its influence on the protectiveness of a silane coating against bronze corrosion was evaluated in plain (AR) and concentrated (ARX10) synthetic acid rain, under different exposure conditions. In particular, the time evolution of the polarization resistance values during 20 days in ARX10 and the polarization curves recorded at the end of the immersions evidenced a higher protectiveness of the coating with the β-CD–MPT complex in comparison to that containing only MPT or only β-CD. The cyclic AR spray test carried out on coated bronze coupons with cross-cut scratches evidenced the absence of underfilm corrosion starting from the scratches only in the complex-containing coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Dual Component Polymeric Epoxy-Polyaminoamide Based Zinc Phosphate Anticorrosive Formulation for 15CDV6 Steel
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080463 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
The present research is focused on a formulation with two active components as an anticorrosive polymer coating for 15CDV6 steel. The dual component formulation (epoxy-zinc phosphate (ZP) coating) consists of a polymeric epoxy resin Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) cured with a polyaminoamide [...] Read more.
The present research is focused on a formulation with two active components as an anticorrosive polymer coating for 15CDV6 steel. The dual component formulation (epoxy-zinc phosphate (ZP) coating) consists of a polymeric epoxy resin Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) cured with a polyaminoamide as a first component and zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2(H2O)4) (ZP) added in 5% by weight as a second component. The anticorrosive performance of the epoxy-ZP coating was evaluated against the standard coating, which consists of only one component, the cured polymeric epoxy resin. The two polymer coatings were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The surface morphology was of the two polymer coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coated samples of 15CDV6 steel were tested in a harsh environment of corrosive electrolytes (3 wt % NaCl solution). Under these conditions, a very high impedance value was obtained for 15CDV6 steel coated with the epoxy-ZP coating. Even after exposure for a long period of time (5856 h), the performance was still acceptable, indicating that the epoxy-ZP coating is an excellent barrier. The standard epoxy coating provided an adequate corrosion protection performance for a short period of time, then the performance started to decline. The results were confirmed by surface characterization, a cross-sectional image obtained by optical microscopy for an epoxy-ZP coating applied on 15CDV6 steel exposed for 5856 h to a salt spray test showed that the coating is homogeneous and adheres well to the surface of the steel. So, the coating with a dual component could have great potential in marine applications as anticorrosive for steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterisation of NiTi Orthodontic Archwires Surface after the Simulation of Mechanical Loading in CACO2-2 Cell Culture
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070440 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
Nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires are crucial in the initial stages of orthodontic therapy when the movement of teeth and deflection of the archwire are the largest. Their great mechanical properties come with their main disadvantage—the leakage of nickel. Various in vitro studies measured [...] Read more.
Nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires are crucial in the initial stages of orthodontic therapy when the movement of teeth and deflection of the archwire are the largest. Their great mechanical properties come with their main disadvantage—the leakage of nickel. Various in vitro studies measured nickel leakage from archwires that were only immersed in the medium with little or minimal simulation of all stress and deflection forces that affect them. This study aims to overcome that by simulating deflection forces that those archwires are exposed to inside the mouth of a patient. NiTi orthodontic archwires were immersed in CACO2-2 cell culture medium and then immediately loaded while using a simulator of multiaxial stress for 24 h. After the experiment, the surface of the NiTi orthodontic archwires were analysed while using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The observations showed significant microstructural and compositional changes within the first 51 nm thickness of the archwire surface. Furthermore, the released nickel and titanium concentrations in the CACO2-2 cell culture medium were measured while using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). It was found out that the level of released nickel ions was 1.310 µg/L, which can be assigned as statistically significant results. These data represent the first mention of the already detectable release of Ni ions after 24 h during the simulation of mechanical loading in the CACO2-2 cell culture medium, which is important for clinical orthodontic praxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation on the Corrosive Behaviour of Waterborne Silicate Micaceous Iron Oxide Coatings in Seawater
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070415 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The anticorrosive composite coatings based on waterborne silicate were prepared to replace existing solvent-based coatings suitable for ships. A series of composite coatings were prepared by adding zinc powder and micaceous iron oxide to the waterborne silicate resin. The adhesion, pencil hardness and [...] Read more.
The anticorrosive composite coatings based on waterborne silicate were prepared to replace existing solvent-based coatings suitable for ships. A series of composite coatings were prepared by adding zinc powder and micaceous iron oxide to the waterborne silicate resin. The adhesion, pencil hardness and impact resistance of the coatings were investigated and corrosion performance in seawater is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that coatings have excellent adhesion and impact resistance and their pencil hardness can reach up to 4H. During the immersion of composite coatings in seawater for 8 h, only one time constant appears in the Bode plot, coating capacitance (Qc) gradually increases but dispersion coefficient (n) and coating resistance (Rc) gradually decrease. The breakpoint frequency formula was deduced, considering the dispersion effect. With the increase of micaceous iron oxide, the fluctuation of breakpoint frequency with immersion time is weakened. It can be used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of inorganic anticorrosive coatings in seawater. In addition, different penetration models of corrosive media were proposed for the coatings with low or high content of micaceous iron oxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
The Corrosion Inhibition of AA6082 Aluminium Alloy by Certain Azoles in Chloride Solution: Electrochemistry and Surface Analysis
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060380 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The corrosion inhibition effect of five azole compounds on the corrosion of an AA6082 aluminium alloy in 5 wt.% NaCl solution at 25 and 50 °C was investigated using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) showed a corrosion inhibition effect at [...] Read more.
The corrosion inhibition effect of five azole compounds on the corrosion of an AA6082 aluminium alloy in 5 wt.% NaCl solution at 25 and 50 °C was investigated using weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) showed a corrosion inhibition effect at both temperatures and was further studied in detail, including with the addition of potassium iodide as a possible intensifier. Surface analysis of the MBT surface layer was performed by means of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques. The hydrophobicity of the MBT surface layer was also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Laser Colour Marking on the Corrosion Properties of Low Alloyed Ti
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060375 - 09 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the field of surface treatment, laser colour marking can be used to produce coloured marks on the surfaces of metals. Laser colour markings can be applied to various materials, but on titanium alloys a wide spectra of vivid colours can be achieved. [...] Read more.
In the field of surface treatment, laser colour marking can be used to produce coloured marks on the surfaces of metals. Laser colour markings can be applied to various materials, but on titanium alloys a wide spectra of vivid colours can be achieved. This study presents an analysis of the corrosion properties of laser treated surfaces that were exposed to aggressive environments. Different samples were prepared with laser light of various power intensities and processing speeds. The samples were prepared on low alloyed Ti. Electrochemical, spectroscopic and microstructural analyses were conducted in order to study the properties of the laser treated surfaces. Corrosion testing showed different effects of laser power and production speed on the properties of the laser treated surfaces. It was shown that a high intensity and slow processing rate affect the surfaces by forming oxides that are relatively stable in a corrosive environment of 0.1 M NaCl. Spectroscopic investigations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed the differences in chemical structure of the surface layer formed after laser treatment. Similarly, microstructural investigations showed different effects on the surface and sub-surface layer of the laser treated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Deposition of SiOxCyHz Protective Coatings on Polymer Substrates in an Industrial-Scale PECVD Reactor
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040234 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The deposition of protective coatings on aluminised polymer substrates by a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition PECVD technique in a plasma reactor with a volume of 5 m3 was studied. HMDSO was used as a precursor. Plasma was sustained in a capacitively [...] Read more.
The deposition of protective coatings on aluminised polymer substrates by a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition PECVD technique in a plasma reactor with a volume of 5 m3 was studied. HMDSO was used as a precursor. Plasma was sustained in a capacitively coupled radiofrequency (RF) discharge powered by an RF generator operating at 40 kHz and having an adjustable output power up to 8 kW. Gaseous plasma was characterised by residual gas mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy. Polymer samples with an average roughness of approximately 5 nm were mounted into the plasma reactor and subjected to a protocol for activation, metallisation and deposition of the protective coating. After depositing the protective coating, the samples were characterised by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The combination of various techniques for plasma and coating characterisation provided insight into the complex gas-phase and surface reactions upon deposition of the protective coatings in the industrial-size plasma reactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Cyclic Hot Corrosion Failure Behaviors of EB-PVD TBC Systems in the Presence of Sulfate and Vanadate Molten Salts
Coatings 2019, 9(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9030166 - 01 Mar 2019
Abstract
The cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) method has been considered a promising technology to produce a metallic bond coat for thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. In this study, CoNiCrAlY bond coats produced by CGDS method were coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by electron [...] Read more.
The cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) method has been considered a promising technology to produce a metallic bond coat for thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. In this study, CoNiCrAlY bond coats produced by CGDS method were coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). TBCs were subjected to 50 wt % V2O5 and 50 wt % Na2SO4 molten hot corrosion salt combinations at 1000 °C. In the case of YSZ top coat on TBCs, the reaction between Na2SO4, V2O5, and Y2O3 salts generates YVO4 crystals, and these structures cause the transformation of tetragonal ZrO2 to monoclinic ZrO2. This situation occurs under operating conditions that lead to TBC failure. Hot corrosion behavior and the related failure mechanisms of TBC systems were investigated and discussed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticorrosion Protection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Coatings)
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