Special Issue "Recent Advances in Metal, Ceramic, and Metal-Ceramic Composite Films/Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion, Wear and Erosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 13814

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Special Issue Editor

Dr. Małgorzata Norek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Technology & Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: nanostructures; anodization; surface properties; optical materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of various metal, ceramic, or metal–ceramic composite coatings is currently considered as the one of the most effective methods to tailor surface properties of materials to specific requirements for conventional and advanced technological applications. The well-defined surface properties induced by various coating layers can change mechanical (e.g., hardness, fatigue limit, elongation, tensile strength), thermal (e.g., thermal conductivity, expansion), electrical, and many other functional properties of materials (corrosion resistance, hydrophobicity or super-hydrophobicity, wettability, optical properties, etc.) without the necessity of using expensive and time-consuming heat treatments or alloying techniques. Metal coatings are successfully used in photovoltaics, optical, energy conversion, and sensing devices. Ceramic coatings create a barrier on the substrate that separates the material from the corrosive environment, thus enhancing its corrosion resistance. Additionally, the coatings provide better abrasion resistance that makes them extremely robust and ensures a longer life for the coated surface. Moreover, the coatings can modify surface texture for specific needs, enhance wettability/hydrophobicity, provide better wear resistance and thermal/electrical insulation, and improve surface hardness of a given material. Application of various coatings is, therefore, an efficient and affordable method to obtain the desired surface and material properties for a broad range of applications.

In particular, the topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • The effect of thin coatings on mechanical properties of bulk materials;
  • New directions in design and production of hard coatings;
  • Thermal barrier coating (TBC) to prevent heat loss;
  • Smart and self-healing coatings for corrosion protection;
  • Super-hydrophobic and self-cleaning coatings;
  • High refractive index (HRI) coatings;
  • Plasmonic and antireflecting coatings;
  • Single and multilayer films;
  • Coating methods and technologies.

Dr. Małgorzata Norek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metal thin films
  • metal-ceramic composite
  • functional coatings
  • multilayers

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Recent Advances in Metal, Ceramic, and Metal–Ceramic Composite Films/Coatings
Coatings 2022, 12(5), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12050571 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Coating materials and technologies are becoming increasingly important in many research areas because they can provide an efficient and affordable way to engineer materials with desirable properties for a broad range of applications [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Analysis of Iron Anchor Diseases Unearthed from Gudu Ruins in Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province, China
Coatings 2022, 12(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030381 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
Iron cultural relics are easily affected by environmental factors and can completely rust away. As early as the Qin Dynasty in ancient China, Xianyang Gudu was part of the most important transportation route to the West from ancient Chang’an; research into Xianyang Gudu [...] Read more.
Iron cultural relics are easily affected by environmental factors and can completely rust away. As early as the Qin Dynasty in ancient China, Xianyang Gudu was part of the most important transportation route to the West from ancient Chang’an; research into Xianyang Gudu has provided important information for understanding the historical changes in ancient China, East–West trade, and ancient boating technology. In this research, we use the iron anchors unearthed from the Gudu ruins in Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province, China as the research object; then, we used a scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), a high-resolution X-ray diffractometer (XRD), ion chromatography, and other methods to detect the corroded products of the iron anchors, and analyzed the iron anchor diseases in different preservation environments to explore the relationship between iron anchor disease and the preservation environment. This research found that the corroded products of the iron anchors contained the harmful tetragonal lepidocrocite (β-FeOOH) and that a high concentration of salt ions in the river channel accelerated the corrosion of the anchors; this analysis, based on the disease results, can provide a basis for the subsequent scientific restoration of iron anchors. Full article
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Communication
Aluminide Thermal Barrier Coating for High Temperature Performance of MAR 247 Nickel Based Superalloy
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010048 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In this paper, mechanical properties of the as-received and aluminide layer coated MAR 247 nickel based superalloy were examined through creep and fatigue tests. The aluminide layer of 20 µm was obtained through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the hydrogen protective [...] Read more.
In this paper, mechanical properties of the as-received and aluminide layer coated MAR 247 nickel based superalloy were examined through creep and fatigue tests. The aluminide layer of 20 µm was obtained through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the hydrogen protective atmosphere for 8 h at the temperature of 1040 °C and internal pressure of 150 mbar. A microstructure of the layer was characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that aluminide coating improve the high temperature fatigue performance of MAR247 nickel based superalloy at 900 °C significantly. The coated MAR 247 nickel based superalloy was characterized by the stress amplitude response ranging from 350 MPa to 520 MPa, which is twice as large as that for the uncoated alloy. Full article
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Article
On-Aluminum and Barrier Anodic Oxide: Meeting the Challenges of Chemical Dissolution Rate in Various Acids and Solutions
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090875 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
The chemical dissolution—in 0.1 M solutions of phosphoric, malonic, citric, sulfosalicylic, and tartaric acids and 0.6 M solutions of sulfuric, oxalic, malonic, phosphoric, tartaric, and citric acids—of aluminum (Al) and its barrier anodic oxide, with thicknesses of 240 and 350 nm, produced during [...] Read more.
The chemical dissolution—in 0.1 M solutions of phosphoric, malonic, citric, sulfosalicylic, and tartaric acids and 0.6 M solutions of sulfuric, oxalic, malonic, phosphoric, tartaric, and citric acids—of aluminum (Al) and its barrier anodic oxide, with thicknesses of 240 and 350 nm, produced during the anodization of Al deposited on a sitall substrate and Al foil, respectively, in a 1% citric acid aqueous solution, was investigated. Signs of chemical dissolution for 0.1 M phosphoric acid solution and 0.6 M concentrations of all the listed solutions were found. It was shown that the dissolution rate and the nature of its change depend on the acid nature, the state of the sample surface, and the classification of the electrolytes according to their degrees of aggressiveness with respect to aluminum. Full article
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Article
Infrared Absorption Study of Zn–S Hybrid and ZnS Ultrathin Films Deposited on Porous AAO Ceramic Support
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050459 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems [...] Read more.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems in analysis of thin films. In this work, an approach is demonstrated to overcome these problems. It is shown that a standard IR spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study the structure and composition of films as thin as 20 nm, when the layers were grown on porous substrates with a well-developed surface area. In contrast to IR spectra of the films deposited on flat Si substrates, the IR spectra of the same films but deposited on porous ceramic support show distinct bands that enabled reliable chemical analysis. The analysis of Zn-S ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc (DEZ) and 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT) as precursors of Zn and S, respectively, served as proof of concept. However, the approach presented in this study can be applied to analysis of any ultrathin film deposited on target substrate and simultaneously on porous support, where the latter sample would be a reference sample dedicated for IR analysis of this film. Full article
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Article
The Abrasive Wear Resistance of Coatings Manufactured on High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Offshore Steel in Wet Welding Conditions
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030219 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Some marine and offshore structure elements exploited in the water cannot be brought to the surface of the water as this will generate high costs, and for this reason, they require in-situ repairs. One of the repair techniques used in underwater pad welding [...] Read more.
Some marine and offshore structure elements exploited in the water cannot be brought to the surface of the water as this will generate high costs, and for this reason, they require in-situ repairs. One of the repair techniques used in underwater pad welding conditions is a wet welding method. This paper presents an investigation of the abrasive wear resistance of coatings made in wet welding conditions with the use of two grades of covered electrodes—an electrode for underwater welding and a commercial general use electrode. Both electrodes were also used for manufacturing coatings in the air, which has been also tested. The Vickers HV10 hardness measurements are performed to demonstrate the correlation in abrasive wear resistance and the hardness of each specimen. The microscopic testing was performed. For both filler materials, the coatings prepared in a water environment are characterized by higher resistance to metal–mineral abrasion than coatings prepared in an air environment—0.61 vs. 0.44 for commercial usage electrode and 0.67 vs. 0.60 for underwater welding. We also proved that in the water, the abrasive wear was greater for specimens welded by the general use electrode, which results in a higher hardness of the layer surface. In the air welding conditions, the layer welded by the electrode for use in the water was characterized by a lower hardness and higher resistance to metal–mineral abrasion. The microstructure of the prepared layers is different for both the environment and both electrodes, which results in abrasive wear resistance. Full article
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Article
Improvement in Tribological Properties of Cr12MoV Cold Work Die Steel by HVOF Sprayed WC-CoCr Cermet Coatings
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120825 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to develop an efficient coating to increase the wear resistance of cold work die steel at different temperatures. The microstructures of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to develop an efficient coating to increase the wear resistance of cold work die steel at different temperatures. The microstructures of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of temperature on the tribological properties of the coatings and the reference Cr12MoV cold work die steel were both investigated by SEM, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and a pin-on-disk high-temperature tribometer. The coating exhibited a significantly lower wear rate and superior resistance against sliding wear as compared to the die steel at each test temperature, whereas no major differences in terms of the variation tendency of the friction coefficient as a function of temperature were observed in both the coatings and the die steels. These can be attributed to the presence of nanocrystalline grains and the fcc-Co phase in the coating. Moreover, the wear mechanisms of the coatings and the die steels were compared and discussed. The coating presented herein provided a competitive approach to improve the sliding wear performance of cold work die steel. Full article
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Article
Ce3+/Eu2+ Doped Al2O3 Coatings Formed by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Aluminum: Photoluminescence Enhancement by Ce3+→Eu2+ Energy Transfer
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120819 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in electrolytes containing CeO2 and Eu2O3 powders in various concentrations was used for creating Al2O3 coatings doped with Ce3+ and Eu2+ ions. Phase and chemical composition, surface morphology, [...] Read more.
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in electrolytes containing CeO2 and Eu2O3 powders in various concentrations was used for creating Al2O3 coatings doped with Ce3+ and Eu2+ ions. Phase and chemical composition, surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) properties and energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu2+ were investigated. When excited by middle ultraviolet radiation, Al2O3:Ce3+/Eu2+ coatings exhibited intense and broad emission PL bands in the ultraviolet/visible spectral range, attributed to the characteristic electric dipole 4f05d1→4f1 transition of Ce3+ (centered at about 345 nm) and 4f65d1→4f7 transition of Eu2+ (centered at about 405 and 500 nm). Due to the overlap between the PL emission of Al2O3:Ce3+ and the PL excitation of Al2O3:Eu2+, energy transfer from Ce3+ sensitizer to the Eu2+ activator occurs. The energy transfer is identified as an electric dipole–dipole interaction. The critical distance between Eu2+ and Ce3+ ions in Al2O3 was estimated to be 8.6 Å by the spectral overlap method. Full article
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Article
Study on Corrosion Resistance and Wear Resistance of Zn–Al–Mg/ZnO Composite Coating Prepared by Cold Spraying
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080505 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Two composite coatings, Zn65Al15Mg5ZnO15 and Zn45Al35Mg5ZnO15, were prepared by the cold spray technique and were found to be compact, with no pits or cracks, based on scanning electron [...] Read more.
Two composite coatings, Zn65Al15Mg5ZnO15 and Zn45Al35Mg5ZnO15, were prepared by the cold spray technique and were found to be compact, with no pits or cracks, based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) investigations. The results of the neutral salt spray (NSS) and electrochemical tests showed that the two composite coatings possess a suitable corrosion performance. However, the Zn45Al35Mg5ZnO15 composite coatings were more corrosion resistant and allowed a better long-term stability. In addition, they were found to exhibit the best wear resistance and photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Full article
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Review

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Review
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Ceramic Coatings on Zirconium (Zr) and ZrAlloys: Part I—Growth Mechanisms, Microstructure, and Chemical Composition
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060634 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Recently, a significant number of research projects have been directed towards designing and developing ceramic coatings for zirconium-based substrates due to their outstanding surface properties and utilization in modern technologies. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is an environmentally friendly wet coating method [...] Read more.
Recently, a significant number of research projects have been directed towards designing and developing ceramic coatings for zirconium-based substrates due to their outstanding surface properties and utilization in modern technologies. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is an environmentally friendly wet coating method that can be performed in a wide range of electrolytes. The surface characteristics of PEO coatings can be tailored by changing electrochemical parameters, electrolyte composition, and substrate alloying elements to adopt a conformal and adhesive PEO ceramic coating for the final demanding applications in chemical, electronics, and energy technologies. This review focuses on deriving a deeper fundamental understanding of the PEO growth mechanisms and the effect of process parameters on transient discharge behavior at breakdown, initiation, and growth of the oxide layer and incorporating species from the electrolyte. It highlights the fundamental microstructural properties associated with structural defects, phase transformation, and the role of additives. Full article
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Review
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Ceramic Coatings on Zirconium (Zr) and Zr-Alloys: Part-II: Properties and Applications
Coatings 2021, 11(6), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11060620 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an electrochemical and eco-friendly process where the surface features of the metal substrate are changed remarkably by electrochemical reactions accompanied by plasma micro-discharges. A stiff, adhesive, and conformal oxide layer on the Zr and Zr-alloy substrates can [...] Read more.
A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an electrochemical and eco-friendly process where the surface features of the metal substrate are changed remarkably by electrochemical reactions accompanied by plasma micro-discharges. A stiff, adhesive, and conformal oxide layer on the Zr and Zr-alloy substrates can be formed by applying the PEO process. The review describes recent progress on various applications and functionality of PEO coatings in light of increasing industrial, medical, and optoelectronic demands for the production of advanced coatings. Besides, it explains how the PEO coating can address concerns about employing protective and long-lasting coatings with a remarkable biocompatibility and a broad excitation and absorption range of photoluminescence. A general overview of the process parameters of coatings is provided, accompanied by some information related to the biological conditions, under which, coatings are expected to function. The focus is to explain how the biocompatibility of coatings can be improved by tailoring the coating process. After that, corrosion and wear performance of PEO coatings are described in light of recognizing parameters that lead to the formation of coatings with outstanding performance in extreme loading conditions and corrosive environments. Finally, a future outlook and suggested research areas are outlined. The emerging applications derived from paramount features of the coating are considered in light of practical properties of coatings in areas including biocompatibility and bioactivity, corrosion and wear protection, and photoluminescence of coatings Full article
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