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Antibiotics, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2015) – 11 articles , Pages 230-410

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Article
Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 397-410; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030397 - 16 Sep 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 8570
Abstract
Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for [...] Read more.
Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive oxygen species production are more active against the B. burgdorferi persisters than the commonly used antibiotics that inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis. Future studies are needed to evaluate and optimize the promising active hits in drug combination studies in vitro and also in vivo in animal models. These studies may have implications for developing more effective treatments of Lyme disease. Full article
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Review
Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 379-396; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030379 - 28 Aug 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3808
Abstract
Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In [...] Read more.
Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps in the medicinally relevant microaerobic and anaerobic pathogens and their implications in the effort to combat drug-resistant infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-drug Efflux and Drug Permeation)
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Article
Short, Synthetic Cationic Peptides Have Antibacterial Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis by Forming Pores in Membrane and Synergizing with Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 358-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030358 - 24 Aug 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4096
Abstract
Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were [...] Read more.
Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Human-derived cathelicidin LL-37 is well characterized and studied against M. smegmatis; we compared LL-37 with Chinese cobra-derived cathelicidin NA-CATH and mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP). Two synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1A and ATRA-2) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were tested for their activity against M. smegmatis along with a short synthetic peptide derivative from the human beta-defensin hBD3 (hBD3-Pep4). We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides may demonstrate antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and at less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds or use in combination with antibiotics. These peptides have antimicrobial activity with EC50 ranging from 0.05 to 1.88 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ATRA-1A short peptide was found to be the most effective antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (EC50 = 0.05 μg/mL). High bactericidal activity correlated with bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. The efficacy of the peptides was further analyzed through Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays. The MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The peptide mCRAMP showed the best MIC activity at 15.6 μg/mL. Neither of the effective short synthetic peptides demonstrated synergy with the antibiotic rifampicin, although both demonstrated synergy with the cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B. The peptides LL-37 and mCRAMP displayed synergism with rifampicin in MIC assays, whereas antibiotic polymyxin B displayed synergism with LL-37, ATRA-1A, and hBD3-Pep4. In further studies, polymyxin B synergized with LL-37, ATRA-1A, and hBD3-Pep4 while Rifampicin synergized with LL-37 and mCRAMP for intracellular killing of mycobacteria residing inside macrophages. These studies provide the foundation for the potential development of synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides with activity against mycobacteria. Full article
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Review
Colonization Resistance of the Gut Microbiota against Clostridium difficile
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 337-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030337 - 07 Aug 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4818
Abstract
Antibiotics strongly disrupt the human gut microbiota, which in consequence loses its colonization resistance capacity, allowing infection by opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. This bacterium is the main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a current problem in developed countries, since its [...] Read more.
Antibiotics strongly disrupt the human gut microbiota, which in consequence loses its colonization resistance capacity, allowing infection by opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. This bacterium is the main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a current problem in developed countries, since its incidence and severity have increased during the last years. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance strains has reduced the efficiency of the standard treatment with antibiotics, leading to a higher rate of relapses. Here, we review recent efforts focused on the impact of antibiotics in the gut microbiome and their relationship with C. difficile colonization, as well as, in the identification of bacteria and mechanisms involved in the protection against C. difficile infection. Since a healthy gut microbiota is able to avoid pathogen colonization, restoration of the gut microbiota seems to be the most promising approach to face C. difficile infection, especially for recurrent cases. Therefore, it would be possible to design probiotics for patients undergoing antimicrobial therapies in order to prevent or fight the expansion of the pathogen in the gut ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
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Article
A Clinical Drug Library Screen Identifies Tosufloxacin as Being Highly Active against Staphylococcus aureus Persisters
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 329-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030329 - 31 Jul 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, [...] Read more.
To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections. Full article
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Communication
Participation of S. Typhimurium cysJIH Operon in the H2S-mediated Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Presence of Sulfate as Sulfur Source
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 321-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030321 - 31 Jul 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
H2S production has been proposed as a mechanism to explain bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In this work, we present evidence for the role of the cysJIH operon in resistance to ciprofloxacin mediated by H2S production with different sulfate as [...] Read more.
H2S production has been proposed as a mechanism to explain bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In this work, we present evidence for the role of the cysJIH operon in resistance to ciprofloxacin mediated by H2S production with different sulfate as the only sulfur source. We found that the products of the cysJIH operon are involved in ciprofloxacin resistance by increasing both, the levels of H2S and reduced thiols apparently counteracting antimicrobial-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). This protective effect was observed only when bacteria were cultured in the presence of sulfate, but not with cysteine, as the sole sulfur source. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention and Feedback to Infectious Disease Specialists: A Case Study in High-Dose Daptomycin
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 309-320; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030309 - 24 Jul 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3522
Abstract
Infectious Diseases specialists have used high-dose daptomycin (≥6 mg/kg/day) in select patients with difficult to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections to optimize outcomes. Antimicrobial stewardship programs enforce antimicrobial formulary restrictions; however, interventions specifically aimed at Infectious Disease specialists [...] Read more.
Infectious Diseases specialists have used high-dose daptomycin (≥6 mg/kg/day) in select patients with difficult to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections to optimize outcomes. Antimicrobial stewardship programs enforce antimicrobial formulary restrictions; however, interventions specifically aimed at Infectious Disease specialists can be particularly challenging. The purpose of this study was to create a high-dose daptomycin algorithm for Infectious Disease specialists that are consistent with best-practices. Daptomycin prescribing habits pre- and post-daptomycin algorithm implementation were evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design. Patients were included if ≥18 years of age and received daptomycin for ≥48 h. Patients were excluded if daptomycin was initiated on an outpatient setting. During the 12-month pre-intervention phase, 112 patients were included, with 73 patients in the 12-month post-intervention phase. A statistically significant decrease in the mean daptomycin dose from 9.01 mg/kg to 7.51 mg/kg (p < 0.005) was observed, resulting in an annual drug cost-savings of over $75,000 without adversely affecting readmission rates due to infection. Creation of a daptomycin algorithm with consideration of pathogen, disease state, and prior treatment, is an effective means of influencing prescribing habits of Infectious Disease specialists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Hypothesis
Can Clays in Livestock Feed Promote Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Pathogenic Bacteria?
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 299-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030299 - 16 Jul 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4061
Abstract
The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has long been associated with the appearance of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor determinants. Nonetheless, the number of cases of human infection involving resistant or virulent microorganisms that originate in farms is increasing. While many antibiotics [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has long been associated with the appearance of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor determinants. Nonetheless, the number of cases of human infection involving resistant or virulent microorganisms that originate in farms is increasing. While many antibiotics have been banned as dietary supplements in some countries, other additives thought to be innocuous in terms of the development and spread of antibiotic resistance are used as growth promoters. In fact, several clay materials are routinely added to animal feed with the aim of improving growth and animal product quality. However, recent findings suggest that sepiolite, a clay additive, mediates the direct transfer of plasmids between different bacterial species. We therefore hypothesize that clays present in animal feed facilitate the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants in the digestive tract of farm animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Antibiotics in Food-Producing Animals)
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Review
Antimicrobial Resistance and Reduced Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile: Potential Consequences for Induction, Treatment, and Recurrence of C. difficile Infection
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 267-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030267 - 10 Jul 2015
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5721
Abstract
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a substantial burden on healthcare systems and is likely to remain so given our reliance on antimicrobial therapies to treat bacterial infections, especially in an aging population in whom multiple co-morbidities are common. Antimicrobial agents are a key [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a substantial burden on healthcare systems and is likely to remain so given our reliance on antimicrobial therapies to treat bacterial infections, especially in an aging population in whom multiple co-morbidities are common. Antimicrobial agents are a key component in the aetiology of CDI, both in the establishment of the infection and also in its treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarise the role of antimicrobial agents in primary and recurrent CDI; assessing why certain antimicrobial classes may predispose to the induction of CDI according to a balance between antimicrobial activity against the gut microflora and C. difficile. Considering these aspects of CDI is important in both the prevention of the infection and in the development of new antimicrobial treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
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Review
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Expanding Horizons for Clostridium difficile Infections and Beyond
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 254-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030254 - 06 Jul 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4024
Abstract
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) methodology has been progressively refined over the past several years. The procedure has an extensive track record of success curing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with remarkably few adverse effects. It achieves similar levels of success whether the CDI occurs [...] Read more.
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) methodology has been progressively refined over the past several years. The procedure has an extensive track record of success curing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with remarkably few adverse effects. It achieves similar levels of success whether the CDI occurs in the young or elderly, previously normal or profoundly ill patients, or those with CDI in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). While using FMT to treat CDI, however, we learned that using the procedure in other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as IBD without CDI, generally fails to effect cure. To improve results in treating other non-CDI diseases, innovatively designed Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) will be required to address questions about mechanisms operating within particular diseases. Availability of orally deliverable FMT products, such as capsules containing lyophilised fecal microbiota, will simplify CDI treatment and open the door to convenient, prolonged FMT delivery to the GI tract and will likely deliver improved results in both CDI and non-CDI diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
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Review
Antimicrobial Use, Human Gut Microbiota and Clostridium difficile Colonization and Infection
Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 230-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics4030230 - 03 Jul 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4563
Abstract
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials have profound detrimental effects on the structure and diversity of the indigenous intestinal microbiota. These alterations often impair colonization resistance, allowing the establishment and proliferation of C. difficile in [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials have profound detrimental effects on the structure and diversity of the indigenous intestinal microbiota. These alterations often impair colonization resistance, allowing the establishment and proliferation of C. difficile in the gut. Studies involving animal models have begun to decipher the precise mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota mediates colonization resistance against C. difficile and numerous investigations have described gut microbiota alterations associated with C. difficile colonization or infection in human subjects. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective approach for the treatment of recurrent CDI that allows the restoration of a healthy intestinal ecosystem via infusion of fecal material from a healthy donor. The recovery of the intestinal microbiota after FMT has been examined in a few reports and work is being done to develop custom bacterial community preparations that could be used as a replacement for fecal material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
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