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Biosensors, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 14 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Flexible screen-printed immunosensors, coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), were [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Novel Magneto-Biosensor for Sulfapyridine Detection
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040043 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
In this work, we report the development of a highly sensitive biosensor for sulfapyridine detection based on an integrated bio micro-electromechanical system (Bio-MEMS) containing four gold working electrodes (WEs), a platinum counter electrode (CE), and a reference electrode (RE). Firstly, the cleaned WEs [...] Read more.
In this work, we report the development of a highly sensitive biosensor for sulfapyridine detection based on an integrated bio micro-electromechanical system (Bio-MEMS) containing four gold working electrodes (WEs), a platinum counter electrode (CE), and a reference electrode (RE). Firstly, the cleaned WEs were modified with 4-aminophenylacetic acid (CMA). Then, (5-[4-(amino)phenylsulfonamide]-5-oxopentanoic acid (SA2BSA) was immobilized onto the transducers surface by carbodiimide chemistry. The analyte was quantified by competitive detection with SA2BSA immobilized on the WE toward a mixture of Ab155 antibody (with fixed concentration) and sulfapyridine. In order to obtain a highly sensitive biosensor, Ab155 was immobilized onto magnetic latex nanoparticles surface to create a 3D architecture (Ab-MLNp). Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we investigated the influence of the Ab-MLNp on the sensitivity of our approach. The optimized system was analyzed, as competitive assay, with different concentrations of sulfapyridine (40 µM, 4 µM, and 2 nM) and with phosphate buffer solution. From data fitting calculations and graphs, it was observed that the EIS showed more linearity when Ab-MLNp was used. This result indicates that the magnetic latex nanoparticles increased the sensitivity of the biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Portable Technologies toward ASSURED Biosensing and Diagnostics)
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Sensing Technologies for Monitoring of Bone Health
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040042 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Changing lifestyle and food habits are responsible for health problems, especially those related to bone in an aging population. Poor bone health has now become a serious matter of concern for many of us. In order to avoid serious consequences, the early prediction [...] Read more.
Changing lifestyle and food habits are responsible for health problems, especially those related to bone in an aging population. Poor bone health has now become a serious matter of concern for many of us. In order to avoid serious consequences, the early prediction of symptoms and diagnosis of bone diseases have become the need of the hour. From this inspiration, the evolution of different bone health monitoring techniques and measurement methods practiced by researchers and healthcare companies has been discussed. This paper focuses on various types of bone diseases along with the modeling and remodeling phenomena of bones. The evolution of various diagnosis tests for bone health monitoring has been also discussed. Various types of bone turnover markers, their assessment techniques, and recent developments for the monitoring of biochemical markers to diagnose the bone conditions are highlighted. Then, the paper focuses on the potential assessment of the recent sensing techniques (physical sensors and biosensors) that are currently available for bone health monitoring. Considering the importance of electrochemical biosensors in terms of high sensitivity and reliability, specific attention has been given to the recent development of electrochemical biosensors and significance in real-time monitoring of bone health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Nondestructive Detection of Water Content and Granulation in Postharvest “Shatian” Pomelo Using Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040041 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for rapid, nondestructive fruit quality detection. This technology has been widely applied for quality detection of small, thin-peeled fruit, though less so for large, thick-peeled fruit due to a weak spectral signal resulting in a reduction [...] Read more.
Visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for rapid, nondestructive fruit quality detection. This technology has been widely applied for quality detection of small, thin-peeled fruit, though less so for large, thick-peeled fruit due to a weak spectral signal resulting in a reduction of accuracy. More modeling work should be focused on solving this problem. “Shatian” pomelo is a traditional Chinese large, thick-peeled fruit, and granulation and water loss are two major internal quality factors that influence its storage quality. However, there is no efficient, nondestructive detection method for measuring these factors. Thus, the VIS/NIR spectral signal detection of 120 pomelo samples during storage was performed. Information mining (singular sample elimination, data processing, feature extraction) and modeling were performed in different ways to construct the optimal method for achieving an accurate detection. Our results showed that the water content of postharvest pomelo was optimally detected using the Savitzky–Golay method (SG) plus the multiplicative scatter correction method (MSC) for data processing, genetic algorithm (GA) for feature extraction, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) for modeling (the coefficient of determination and root mean squared error of the validation set were 0.712 and 0.0488, respectively). Granulation degree was best detected using SG for data processing and PLSR for modeling (the detection accuracy of the validation set was 100%). Additionally, our research showed a weak relationship between the pomelo water content and granulation degree, which provided a reference for the existing debates. Therefore, our results demonstrated that VIS/NIR combined with optimal information mining and modeling methodswas feasible for determining the water content and granulation degree of postharvest pomelo, and for providing references for the nondestructive internal quality detection of other large, thick-peeled fruits. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Identification of Suitable Biomarkers for Stress and Emotion Detection for Future Personal Affective Wearable Sensors
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040040 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Skin conductivity (i.e., sweat) forms the basis of many physiology-based emotion and stress detection systems. However, such systems typically do not detect the biomarkers present in sweat, and thus do not take advantage of the biological information in the sweat. Likewise, such systems [...] Read more.
Skin conductivity (i.e., sweat) forms the basis of many physiology-based emotion and stress detection systems. However, such systems typically do not detect the biomarkers present in sweat, and thus do not take advantage of the biological information in the sweat. Likewise, such systems do not detect the volatile organic components (VOC’s) created under stressful conditions. This work presents a review into the current status of human emotional stress biomarkers and proposes the major potential biomarkers for future wearable sensors in affective systems. Emotional stress has been classified as a major contributor in several social problems, related to crime, health, the economy, and indeed quality of life. While blood cortisol tests, electroencephalography and physiological parameter methods are the gold standards for measuring stress; however, they are typically invasive or inconvenient and not suitable for wearable real-time stress monitoring. Alternatively, cortisol in biofluids and VOCs emitted from the skin appear to be practical and useful markers for sensors to detect emotional stress events. This work has identified antistress hormones and cortisol metabolites as the primary stress biomarkers that can be used in future sensors for wearable affective systems. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Design and Fabrication of Capillary-Driven Flow Device for Point-Of-Care Diagnostics
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040039 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics enables the diagnosis and monitoring of patients from the clinic or their home. Ideally, POC devices should be compact, portable and operatable without the requirement of expertise or complex fluid mechanical controls. This paper showcases a chip-and-dip device, which works [...] Read more.
Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics enables the diagnosis and monitoring of patients from the clinic or their home. Ideally, POC devices should be compact, portable and operatable without the requirement of expertise or complex fluid mechanical controls. This paper showcases a chip-and-dip device, which works on the principle of capillary-driven flow microfluidics and allows analytes’ detection by multiple microchannels in a single microchip via smartphone imaging. The chip-and-dip device, fabricated with inexpensive materials, works by simply dipping the reagents-coated microchip consisting of microchannels into a fluidic sample. The sample is loaded into the microchannels via capillary action and reacts with the reagents to produce a colourimetric signal. Unlike dipstick tests, this device allows the loading of bacterial/pathogenic samples for antimicrobial testing. A single device can be coated with multiple reagents, and more analytes can be detected in one sample. This platform could be used for a wide variety of assays. Here, we show the design, fabrication and working principle of the chip-and-dip flow device along with a specific application consisting in the determination of β-lactamase activity and cortisol. The simplicity, robustness and multiplexing capability of the chip-and-dip device will allow it to be used for POC diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics with Point-of-Care and Point-of-Need Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Immunosensor for Human IgE Using Ferrocene Self-Assembled Monolayers Modified ITO Electrode
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040038 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The immunoglobulin E (IgE) level in serum is an important factor in the examination of allergy. Ferrocene (Fc)-modified self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were placed on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as a sensing layer for the detection of human IgE. The Fc moiety [...] Read more.
The immunoglobulin E (IgE) level in serum is an important factor in the examination of allergy. Ferrocene (Fc)-modified self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were placed on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as a sensing layer for the detection of human IgE. The Fc moiety in the SAMs facilitated the electron transfer through the organic SAMs layer and electrocatalytic signal amplification. The electrochemical measurement was accomplished after the sandwich type immobilization of the receptor antibody, target human IgE, and enzyme conjugated secondary antibody. The enzyme product, p-aminophenol, was quantitatively analyzed by redox cycling via Fc. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was investigated for the detection of IgE. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and dynamic range of the electrochemical sensor were 3 IU/mL, 10 IU/mL, and from 10 IU/mL to 100 IU/mL, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Rapid Diagnostics)
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Open AccessReview
Integrated Electrochemical Biosensors for Detection of Waterborne Pathogens in Low-Resource Settings
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040036 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
More than 783 million people worldwide are currently without access to clean and safe water. Approximately 1 in 5 cases of mortality due to waterborne diseases involve children, and over 1.5 million cases of waterborne disease occur every year. In the developing world, [...] Read more.
More than 783 million people worldwide are currently without access to clean and safe water. Approximately 1 in 5 cases of mortality due to waterborne diseases involve children, and over 1.5 million cases of waterborne disease occur every year. In the developing world, this makes waterborne diseases the second highest cause of mortality. Such cases of waterborne disease are thought to be caused by poor sanitation, water infrastructure, public knowledge, and lack of suitable water monitoring systems. Conventional laboratory-based techniques are inadequate for effective on-site water quality monitoring purposes. This is due to their need for excessive equipment, operational complexity, lack of affordability, and long sample collection to data analysis times. In this review, we discuss the conventional techniques used in modern-day water quality testing. We discuss the future challenges of water quality testing in the developing world and how conventional techniques fall short of these challenges. Finally, we discuss the development of electrochemical biosensors and current research on the integration of these devices with microfluidic components to develop truly integrated, portable, simple to use and cost-effective devices for use by local environmental agencies, NGOs, and local communities in low-resource settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses II)
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Open AccessArticle
Instrumenting Polyodon spathula (Paddlefish) Rostra in Flowing Water with Strain Gages and Accelerometers
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040037 - 11 Apr 2020
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The prominent rostrum of the North American Paddlefish, supported by a lattice-like endoskeleton, is highly durable, making it an important candidate for bio-inspiration studies. Energy dissipation and load-bearing capacity of the structure from extreme physical force has been demonstrated superior to that of [...] Read more.
The prominent rostrum of the North American Paddlefish, supported by a lattice-like endoskeleton, is highly durable, making it an important candidate for bio-inspiration studies. Energy dissipation and load-bearing capacity of the structure from extreme physical force has been demonstrated superior to that of man-made systems, but response to continuous hydraulic forces is unknown and requires special instrumentation for in vivo testing on a live fish. A single supply strain gage amplifier circuit has been combined with a digital three-axis accelerometer, implemented in a printed circuit board (PCB), and integrated with the commercial-off-the-shelf Adafruit Feather M0 datalogger with a microSD card. The device is battery powered and enclosed in silicon before attachment around the rostrum with a silicon strap "watch band." As proof-of-concept, we tested the instrumentation on an amputated Paddlefish rostrum in a water-filled swim tunnel and successfully obtained interpretable data. Results indicate that this design could work on live swimming fish in future in vivo experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible and Printed Electrochemical Immunosensor Coated with Oxygen Plasma Treated SWCNTs for Histamine Detection
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040035 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Heterocyclic amine histamine is a well-known foodborne toxicant (mostly linked to “scombroid poisoning”) synthesized from the microbial decarboxylation of amino acid histidine. In this work, we report the fabrication of a flexible screen-printed immunosensor based on a silver electrode coated with single-walled carbon [...] Read more.
Heterocyclic amine histamine is a well-known foodborne toxicant (mostly linked to “scombroid poisoning”) synthesized from the microbial decarboxylation of amino acid histidine. In this work, we report the fabrication of a flexible screen-printed immunosensor based on a silver electrode coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for the detection of histamine directly in fish samples. Biosensors were realized by first spray depositing SWCNTs on the working electrodes and by subsequently treating them with oxygen plasma to reduce the unwanted effects related to their hydrophobicity. Next, anti-histamine antibodies were directly immobilized on the treated SWCNTs. Histamine was detected using the typical reaction of histamine and histamine-labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) competing to bind with anti-histamine antibodies. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear detection range from 0.005 to 50 ng/mL for histamine samples, with a coefficient of determination as high as 98.05%. Average recoveries in fish samples were observed from 96.00% to 104.7%. The biosensor also shows good selectivity (less than 3% relative response for cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine), reproducibility, mechanical and time stability, being a promising analytical tool for the analysis of histamine, as well as of other food hazards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Photoplethysmography Behind the Ear for Pulse Oximetry in Hypoxic Conditions with a Novel Device (SPYDR)
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040034 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a valuable technique for noninvasively evaluating physiological parameters. However, traditional PPG devices have significant limitations in high-motion and low-perfusion environments. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the accuracy of a clinically novel PPG site using SPYDR®, a new [...] Read more.
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a valuable technique for noninvasively evaluating physiological parameters. However, traditional PPG devices have significant limitations in high-motion and low-perfusion environments. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the accuracy of a clinically novel PPG site using SPYDR®, a new PPG sensor suite, against arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements as well as other commercial PPG sensors at the finger and forehead in hypoxic environments. SPYDR utilizes a reflectance PPG sensor applied behind the ear, between the pinna and the hairline, on the mastoid process, above the sternocleidomastoid muscle, near the posterior auricular artery in a self-contained ear cup system. ABG revealed accuracy of SPYDR with a root mean square error of 2.61% at a 70–100% range, meeting FDA requirements for PPG sensor accuracy. Subjects were also instrumented with SPYDR, as well as finger and forehead PPG sensors, and pulse rate (PR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured and compared at various reduced oxygen profiles with a reduced oxygen breathing device (ROBD). SPYDR was shown to be as accurate as other sensors in reduced oxygen environments with a Pearson’s correlation >93% for PR and SpO2. In addition, SPYDR responded to changes in SpO2 up to 50 s faster than PPG measurements at the finger and forehead. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Sensing of Serotonin by a Modified MnO2-Graphene Electrode
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040033 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
The development of MnO2-graphene (MnO2-GR) composite by microwave irradiation method and its application as an electrode material for the selective determination of serotonin (SE), popularly known as “happy chemical”, is reported. Anchoring MnO2 nanoparticles on graphene, yielded MnO [...] Read more.
The development of MnO2-graphene (MnO2-GR) composite by microwave irradiation method and its application as an electrode material for the selective determination of serotonin (SE), popularly known as “happy chemical”, is reported. Anchoring MnO2 nanoparticles on graphene, yielded MnO2-GR composite with a large surface area, improved electron transport, high conductivity and numerous channels for rapid diffusion of electrolyte ions. The composite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for assessing the actual composition, structure and morphology. The MnO2-GR composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited an excellent electrochemical activity towards the detection of SE in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at physiological pH of 7.0. Under optimum conditions, the modified electrode could be applied to the quantification of serotonin by square wave voltammetry over a wide linear range of 0.1 to 800 µM with the lowest detection limit of 10 nM (S/N = 3). The newly fabricated sensor also exhibited attractive features such as good anti-interference ability, high reproducibility and long-term stability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors for Pesticides Detection Using Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040032 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Pesticides are among the most important contaminants in food, leading to important global health problems. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have traditionally been utilized for the detection of such food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, [...] Read more.
Pesticides are among the most important contaminants in food, leading to important global health problems. While conventional techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) have traditionally been utilized for the detection of such food contaminants, they are relatively expensive, time-consuming and labor intensive, limiting their use for point-of-care (POC) applications. Electrochemical (bio)sensors are emerging devices meeting such expectations, since they represent reliable, simple, cheap, portable, selective and easy to use analytical tools that can be used outside the laboratories by non-specialized personnel. Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) stand out from the variety of transducers used in electrochemical (bio)sensing because of their small size, high integration, low cost and ability to measure in few microliters of sample. In this context, in this review article, we summarize and discuss about the use of SPEs as analytical tools in the development of (bio)sensors for pesticides of interest for food control. Finally, aspects related to the analytical performance of the developed (bio)sensors together with prospects for future improvements are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Competitive HRP-Linked Colorimetric Aptasensor for the Detection of Fumonisin B1 in Food based on Dual Biotin-Streptavidin Interaction
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040031 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent and toxic form among fumonisin homologues which are produced by fusarium species and it contaminates various types of food products, posing serious health hazards for humans and animals. In this work, a colorimetric assay for the [...] Read more.
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent and toxic form among fumonisin homologues which are produced by fusarium species and it contaminates various types of food products, posing serious health hazards for humans and animals. In this work, a colorimetric assay for the detection of FB1 has been developed based on competitive horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-linked aptamer and dual biotin-streptavidin interaction. In short, a biotinylated aptamer of FB1 was immobilized on the microplate by biotin-streptavidin binding; the complementary strand (csDNA) of the aptamer was ligated with HRP by biotin-streptavidin binding again to form a csDNA-HRP sensing probe, competing with FB1 to bind to the aptamer. The color change can be observed after the addition of chromogenic and stop solution, thereby realizing the visual detection of FB1. Under optimal conditions, good linearity was observed within the concentration range of 0.5 to 300 ng/mL, with a detection of limit of 0.3 ng/mL. This assay is further validated by spike recovery tests towards beer and corn samples, it provides a simple, sensitive and reliable method for the screening of FB1 in food samples and may be potentially used as an alternative to conventional assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Sensors and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons in Chitosan for Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Guanine, Adenine, Thymine and Cytosine
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040030 - 27 Mar 2020
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Herein, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) were obtained from the oxidative unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Covalent coupling reaction of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) with amine functional groups (-NH2) of the chitosan natural polymer (CH) was used for [...] Read more.
Herein, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) were obtained from the oxidative unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Covalent coupling reaction of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) with amine functional groups (-NH2) of the chitosan natural polymer (CH) was used for entrapping GONRs on the activated glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GONRs-CH). The nanocomposite was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, the modification steps were monitored using FTIR. The nanocomposite-modified electrode was used for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four DNA bases; guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T) and cytosine (C). The nanocomposite-modified GCE displayed a strong, stable and continuous four oxidation peaks during electrochemistry detection at potentials 0.63, 0.89, 1.13 and 1.27 V for G, A, T and C, respectively. The calibration curves were linear up to 256, 172, 855 and 342 μM with detection limits of 0.002, 0.023, 1.330 and 0.641 μM for G, A, T and C, respectively. The analytical performance of the GCE/GONRs-CH has been used for the determination of G, A, T and C in real samples and obtained a recovery percentage from 91.1%–104.7%. Our preliminary results demonstrated that GCE/GONRs-CH provided a promising platform to detect all four DNA bases for future studies on DNA damage and mutations. Full article
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