Next Article in Journal
Flexible and Printed Electrochemical Immunosensor Coated with Oxygen Plasma Treated SWCNTs for Histamine Detection
Previous Article in Journal
Electrochemical Sensing of Serotonin by a Modified MnO2-Graphene Electrode
Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Photoplethysmography Behind the Ear for Pulse Oximetry in Hypoxic Conditions with a Novel Device (SPYDR)

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The David Crawford School of Engineering, Norwich University, 158 Harmon Drive, Northfield, VT 05663, USA
2
Spotlight Labs, 13335 15 Mile Rd Ste-135, Sterling Heights, MI 48312, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040034
Received: 24 February 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 4 April 2020
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a valuable technique for noninvasively evaluating physiological parameters. However, traditional PPG devices have significant limitations in high-motion and low-perfusion environments. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the accuracy of a clinically novel PPG site using SPYDR®, a new PPG sensor suite, against arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements as well as other commercial PPG sensors at the finger and forehead in hypoxic environments. SPYDR utilizes a reflectance PPG sensor applied behind the ear, between the pinna and the hairline, on the mastoid process, above the sternocleidomastoid muscle, near the posterior auricular artery in a self-contained ear cup system. ABG revealed accuracy of SPYDR with a root mean square error of 2.61% at a 70–100% range, meeting FDA requirements for PPG sensor accuracy. Subjects were also instrumented with SPYDR, as well as finger and forehead PPG sensors, and pulse rate (PR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured and compared at various reduced oxygen profiles with a reduced oxygen breathing device (ROBD). SPYDR was shown to be as accurate as other sensors in reduced oxygen environments with a Pearson’s correlation >93% for PR and SpO2. In addition, SPYDR responded to changes in SpO2 up to 50 s faster than PPG measurements at the finger and forehead. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulse oximetry; oxygen saturation; pulse rate (PR); physiological monitoring; SPYDR; vital signs monitor; photoplethysmography (PPG); noninvasive monitoring; hypoxia pulse oximetry; oxygen saturation; pulse rate (PR); physiological monitoring; SPYDR; vital signs monitor; photoplethysmography (PPG); noninvasive monitoring; hypoxia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bradke, B.; Everman, B. Investigation of Photoplethysmography Behind the Ear for Pulse Oximetry in Hypoxic Conditions with a Novel Device (SPYDR). Biosensors 2020, 10, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop