Visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for rapid, nondestructive fruit quality detection. This technology has been widely applied for quality detection of small, thin-peeled fruit, though less so for large, thick-peeled fruit due to a weak spectral signal resulting in a reduction of accuracy. More modeling work should be focused on solving this problem. “Shatian” pomelo is a traditional Chinese large, thick-peeled fruit, and granulation and water loss are two major internal quality factors that influence its storage quality. However, there is no efficient, nondestructive detection method for measuring these factors. Thus, the VIS/NIR spectral signal detection of 120 pomelo samples during storage was performed. Information mining (singular sample elimination, data processing, feature extraction) and modeling were performed in different ways to construct the optimal method for achieving an accurate detection. Our results showed that the water content of postharvest pomelo was optimally detected using the Savitzky–Golay method (SG) plus the multiplicative scatter correction method (MSC) for data processing, genetic algorithm (GA) for feature extraction, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) for modeling (the coefficient of determination and root mean squared error of the validation set were 0.712 and 0.0488, respectively). Granulation degree was best detected using SG for data processing and PLSR for modeling (the detection accuracy of the validation set was 100%). Additionally, our research showed a weak relationship between the pomelo water content and granulation degree, which provided a reference for the existing debates. Therefore, our results demonstrated that VIS/NIR combined with optimal information mining and modeling methodswas feasible for determining the water content and granulation degree of postharvest pomelo, and for providing references for the nondestructive internal quality detection of other large, thick-peeled fruits.
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