Changing lifestyle and food habits are responsible for health problems, especially those related to bone in an aging population. Poor bone health has now become a serious matter of concern for many of us. In order to avoid serious consequences, the early prediction of symptoms and diagnosis of bone diseases have become the need of the hour. From this inspiration, the evolution of different bone health monitoring techniques and measurement methods practiced by researchers and healthcare companies has been discussed. This paper focuses on various types of bone diseases along with the modeling and remodeling phenomena of bones. The evolution of various diagnosis tests for bone health monitoring has been also discussed. Various types of bone turnover markers, their assessment techniques, and recent developments for the monitoring of biochemical markers to diagnose the bone conditions are highlighted. Then, the paper focuses on the potential assessment of the recent sensing techniques (physical sensors and biosensors) that are currently available for bone health monitoring. Considering the importance of electrochemical biosensors in terms of high sensitivity and reliability, specific attention has been given to the recent development of electrochemical biosensors and significance in real-time monitoring of bone health.
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