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Identification of Suitable Biomarkers for Stress and Emotion Detection for Future Personal Affective Wearable Sensors

1
Biomedical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY, UK
2
Department of Information Technology, Techno India College of Technology, West Bengal 700156, India
3
Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2020, 10(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10040040
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
Skin conductivity (i.e., sweat) forms the basis of many physiology-based emotion and stress detection systems. However, such systems typically do not detect the biomarkers present in sweat, and thus do not take advantage of the biological information in the sweat. Likewise, such systems do not detect the volatile organic components (VOC’s) created under stressful conditions. This work presents a review into the current status of human emotional stress biomarkers and proposes the major potential biomarkers for future wearable sensors in affective systems. Emotional stress has been classified as a major contributor in several social problems, related to crime, health, the economy, and indeed quality of life. While blood cortisol tests, electroencephalography and physiological parameter methods are the gold standards for measuring stress; however, they are typically invasive or inconvenient and not suitable for wearable real-time stress monitoring. Alternatively, cortisol in biofluids and VOCs emitted from the skin appear to be practical and useful markers for sensors to detect emotional stress events. This work has identified antistress hormones and cortisol metabolites as the primary stress biomarkers that can be used in future sensors for wearable affective systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: stress; emotion; cortisol; volatile organic components; biomarkers; wearable sensors stress; emotion; cortisol; volatile organic components; biomarkers; wearable sensors
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Zamkah, A.; Hui, T.; Andrews, S.; Dey, N.; Shi, F.; Sherratt, R.S. Identification of Suitable Biomarkers for Stress and Emotion Detection for Future Personal Affective Wearable Sensors. Biosensors 2020, 10, 40.

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