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Adm. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 25 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Organizational change initiatives are necessary to update business components or practices to meet the evolving needs of changing industries. Unfortunately, explicit emphasis on the importance of truth and buy-in is often missing from most, if not all, change initiatives. Including these factors is essential because accepting explanations for change, and resultant stakeholder buy-in, may be among the most significant challenges to organizational change success. Indeed, the absence of leadership conveyed truth-telling and stakeholder truth acceptance restrains growth and organization evolution. This investigation considers the general role(s) of truth and buy-in in the organizational change process and provides an in-road to students and practitioners who wish to engage with the organizational change literature. View this paper
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17 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
How Short-Term Orientation Dominates Western Businesses and the Challenges They Face—An Example Using Germany, the UK, and the USA
by Michael Gerlich
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010025 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4454
Abstract
The current study investigates and establishes the factors that lead to short-term orientation strategies in western organisations. Moreover, this study used questionnaire-based surveys to assess the relationship between these factors and what it would take for the organisation to move to a long-term [...] Read more.
The current study investigates and establishes the factors that lead to short-term orientation strategies in western organisations. Moreover, this study used questionnaire-based surveys to assess the relationship between these factors and what it would take for the organisation to move to a long-term orientation strategy. At the start of the study, it was evident that the annual bonus system is a key reason for prioritising a short-term orientation strategy. The sample was composed of 300 companies of different sizes from different western countries. Furthermore, the general consensus within these companies was that most managers knew that long-term orientation was necessary; however, either their superiors/shareholders/supervisory board only reward short-term results, or the managers and stakeholders prefer short-term goals for evaluations because it is challenging to transform a long-term strategy into multiple short-term strategies and goals. At the end of the study, a basic framework has been suggested to be used as guidelines for any company moving from short-term to long-term orientation strategies. Full article
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15 pages, 627 KiB  
Article
“Searching for Gold” with Sustainable Human Resources Management and Internal Communication: Evaluating the Mediating Role of Employer Attractiveness for Explaining Turnover Intention and Performance
by Daniel Roque Gomes, Neuza Ribeiro and Maria João Santos
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010024 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4163
Abstract
Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of sustainable human resources management (SHRM) and internal communication (IC) on turnover intention (TI) and employee performance (PER) while assessing the mediating role of organizational attractiveness (AT) over these relationships. In [...] Read more.
Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of sustainable human resources management (SHRM) and internal communication (IC) on turnover intention (TI) and employee performance (PER) while assessing the mediating role of organizational attractiveness (AT) over these relationships. In this sense, this study intends to evaluate the effect of SHRM and IC on employee PER and TI, with AT acting as the mediator in a joint model of analysis. Methodology: To achieve the aforementioned purposes, a cross-sectional quantitative study was prepared using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). In total, 177 individuals participated in the study. Regarding gender, 62.4% were female. Participants came from all districts of Portugal and were aged from 21 years old to over 55 years old. Results: The main results show that both SHRM and IC are significantly correlated with AT, PER, and TI. Additionally, AT has a total mediation effect in the relationship between SHRM, PER, and TI and also between IC, PER, and TI. Practical implications: These results seem to support the need for organizations to invest in combined strategies and practices that aim to intertwine SHRM and IC towards the benefit of the worker. Both areas have been shown to have solid effects over PER and TI, as well as on the development of favorable worker perceptions that identify the organization as a good place to work. Practitioners should look at both SHRM and IC as valid ways of stimulating the quality of the worker–organization relationship. Incorporating these areas into common strategic planning and consecutive practices seems advisable regarding workers’ performance and employee retention. Full article
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19 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
High-Performance Work System and Innovation Capabilities: The Mediating Role of Intellectual Capital
by Hafiz Ali Javed, Naveed Ahmad Khan, Silke Michalk, Noor Ullah Khan and Muhammad Kamran
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010023 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
This study examined the effect of high-performance work systems on developing incremental and radical innovation capabilities. Drawing on resource-based and knowledge-based theories, the mediating effects of human capital, social capital, and organizational capital were tested. Data were collected from 233 middle-to-senior level managers [...] Read more.
This study examined the effect of high-performance work systems on developing incremental and radical innovation capabilities. Drawing on resource-based and knowledge-based theories, the mediating effects of human capital, social capital, and organizational capital were tested. Data were collected from 233 middle-to-senior level managers working in the banking sector of Pakistan, and hypotheses were tested through partial least squares structural equation modeling using Smart PLS 4.0. The findings showed that all components of intellectual capital mediated the relationship to develop both types of innovation capabilities. In terms of the strength of the relationship, social capital was found to be a more effective mediator, and next to this were human capital and organizational capital, respectively. Our findings contribute to the existing literature by explaining the relationship between HPWS and innovation capabilities, which is also referred to as the black box through the mediation of intellectual capital. Decision makers should recognize the importance of this relationship because it develops innovation capabilities that enhance organizational performance by giving them a competitive advantage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organizational Behavior: Strategic Management and Innovation)
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21 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
Entrepreneurship Education, a Challenging Learning Process towards Entrepreneurial Competence in Education
by Heliona Miço and Jonida Cungu
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010022 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5553
Abstract
Entrepreneurship education is a recent field in education. From a field mainly related to small business, it is extended towards enhancement of students’ entrepreneurial attitudes and skills. It can support students in developing an independent and versatile way by growing the spirit of [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurship education is a recent field in education. From a field mainly related to small business, it is extended towards enhancement of students’ entrepreneurial attitudes and skills. It can support students in developing an independent and versatile way by growing the spirit of entrepreneurship. Developing entrepreneurship competence among students requires the mastery of concepts by teachers. Training teachers in entrepreneurship education helps them apply specific competences, methods, and tools to encourage confidence in learners’ own capabilities and to stimulate flexibility, leadership, and initiative. To understand the teachers’ entrepreneurial competence, an online survey was developed to assess the level of mastery of such competence in Albanian teachers. The survey was designed to analyze the development of entrepreneurial competence of teachers, and their entrepreneurship education and training. The research goal of the survey is to evaluate the influence mechanisms of gaining entrepreneurship education competence and the way of implementing this competence in pre-university education schools. Results from the questionnaire highlighted the teachers’ need for the acquisition of entrepreneurial competence at every professional level, starting from initial teacher education. The findings from the survey are analyzed by taking into consideration the European policies regarding entrepreneurship education, such as the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp), and their implementation in the Albanian educational sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Role of Universities in Entrepreneurship Education)
18 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Knowledge Management Processes Capability on Innovation Activities in the Mexican Industry
by José Guadalupe Flores López, Carlos Armando Jacobo Hernández, Beatriz Alicia Leyva Osuna and Luis Alberto Limón Valencia
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010021 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Mexican industrial organizations focus their efforts on the development of new products and processes, including breakthrough technology. Few studies have focused on the analysis of this corporate effort. After an in-depth theoretical review, it has been detected that most of the research has [...] Read more.
Mexican industrial organizations focus their efforts on the development of new products and processes, including breakthrough technology. Few studies have focused on the analysis of this corporate effort. After an in-depth theoretical review, it has been detected that most of the research has been based on the study of knowledge management along its dimensions, and there has been no research that incorporates the capabilities of the knowledge management process and its effect on two activities that generate innovation. With the application of a Likert scale-type instrument to 279 industrial companies in Mexico, it was detected that there is a relationship and influence between the dimensions of knowledge acquisition (KAC), knowledge updating (KUP), knowledge protection (KP), knowledge conversion (KC) and knowledge application (KAP) in innovation-generating activities, such as research and development (R&D) and technology acquisition (TA). This was analyzed by the partial least squares (PLS) structural equation technique. Finally, it is important to highlight the contribution that the results of the study have in possible future research that can be carried out, for example, the analysis of the protection of knowledge and its impact on the industry of other countries. Full article
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31 pages, 1846 KiB  
Article
Modeling Conflicts at Work: The Case of Elementary School Employees in Croatia
by Katarina Kostelić, Morena Paulišić and Marli Gonan Božac
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010020 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
This paper aims to explore conflict as a process that includes antecedents, management strategy, and outcomes while examining the role of affective states in an elementary school working environment. After a theoretical overview and systematization of the conflict elements, a questionnaire was developed [...] Read more.
This paper aims to explore conflict as a process that includes antecedents, management strategy, and outcomes while examining the role of affective states in an elementary school working environment. After a theoretical overview and systematization of the conflict elements, a questionnaire was developed that satisfies internal reliability and construct validity. Conflicts at the workplace were modeled with Bayesian SEM, and the results point out the prominent role of affective states in conflicts. Findings confirmed that (1) affective states affect the conflict management strategy choice; (2) different conflict management strategies lead to different conflict consequences; and (3) different affective states lead to differently perceived conflict consequences/outcomes. In addition, we conclude that conflicts with dominantly positive and negative affective states behave structurally differently. The revealed role of affective states facilitates future intervention possibilities in education about conflict management strategies and control of emotions and affective states. Raising awareness about affective states’ role in the conflict might increase mutual un-understanding and contribute to a healthy school social environment as a safe space for learning, sharing ideas, and joint actions toward a common goal. Full article
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19 pages, 1015 KiB  
Article
Good Governance in Rural Local Administration
by Zaitul Zaitul, Desi Ilona and Neva Novianti
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010019 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3306
Abstract
The governance principle is an important aspect of good governance, and its implementation is believed to have a good impact on governance outcomes, such as corruption reduction and performance improvement. The governance principle has been developed for several types of organisations. However, previous [...] Read more.
The governance principle is an important aspect of good governance, and its implementation is believed to have a good impact on governance outcomes, such as corruption reduction and performance improvement. The governance principle has been developed for several types of organisations. However, previous studies did not focus on the rural local administration’s governance. This study aims to develop a good governance principle for the rural local administration. There are four objectives of this study: first, to identify governance principles and their indicators in the literature; second, to create a governance principle using exploratory factor analysis; third, to model the governance principle using the structural equation model (SEM); and finally, to analyse any different perceptions about the governance principles for the rural local administration using univariate analysis. The result showed that 33 indicators of governance principles were identified through the literature. Using 238 usable questionnaires and exploratory factor analysis, we found 6 governance principles: fairness and capability, inclusivity, legitimacy and direction, participation, performance and information, and transparency and accountability. Using the second-order SEM in SmartPLS, we developed a governance principle model for the rural local administration. A few indicators of governance principles found were deleted through measurement model validation. In addition, the univariate analysis concluded that perceptions did not differ by the sex, education level, and occupation type of respondents. In other words, they agreed with the governance principle for the rural local administration. This study has practical and theoretical implications, which are discussed in detail in this article. Full article
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22 pages, 2070 KiB  
Article
Leadership and Turnover Intentions in a Public Hospital: The Mediating Effect of Organisational Commitment and Moderating Effect by Activity Department
by Patrícia Martins, Generosa Nascimento and Ana Moreira
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010018 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
This research aimed to study the effect of leadership (transformational and transactional) on turnover intentions and whether this relationship is mediated by organisational commitment and moderated by the department of activity. To this end, it was hypothesized that: (1) leadership has a negative [...] Read more.
This research aimed to study the effect of leadership (transformational and transactional) on turnover intentions and whether this relationship is mediated by organisational commitment and moderated by the department of activity. To this end, it was hypothesized that: (1) leadership has a negative and significant association with turnover intentions; (2) leadership has a positive and significant association with affective organisational commitment; (3) organisational commitment has a negative and significant association with turnover intentions; (4) organisational commitment has a mediating effect on the relationship between leadership and turnover intentions; (5) the department to which the employee belongs has a moderating effect on the relationship between leadership and organisational turnover intentions. The sample consists of 477 participants working at the Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca (HFF) in Portugal, performing their functions in several departments. This is a quantitative, correlational, and cross-sectional study. The results indicate that transformational leadership has a negative and significant effect on turnover intentions and a positive and significant effect on affective and normative commitment. Transactional leadership negatively and significantly affects all three components of organisational commitment. Affective and normative commitment has a negative and significant effect on turnover intentions. Calculative commitment has a positive and significant effect on turnover intentions. Affective commitment and calculative commitment have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and organisational turnover intentions. The department to which the employee belongs does not have a moderating effect on the relationship between leadership and turnover intentions. It has been proven that leadership plays an extremely important role in the smooth running of this hospital unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leadership in the Public Sector: From an International Perspective)
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19 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Consumers’ Online Purchasing Intentions Post COVID-19: Evidence from Lebanon and the Kingdom of Bahrain
by Charbel M. El Khoury, Mrinalini Choudhary and Adel F. Al Alam
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010017 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3846
Abstract
The future of consumers’ online shopping trends post COVID-19 remains among the contemporary topics that necessitate further explorations. The aim of this research is to explore the intention of Lebanese and Bahraini consumers to shop online in the post pandemic era. This study [...] Read more.
The future of consumers’ online shopping trends post COVID-19 remains among the contemporary topics that necessitate further explorations. The aim of this research is to explore the intention of Lebanese and Bahraini consumers to shop online in the post pandemic era. This study extends the technology acceptance model that has exhibited prominent results when it comes of online purchasing. An online survey was addressed to consumers in Lebanon and the Kingdom of Bahrain to collect the data. More precisely, a total of 778 responses equally divided between the two countries was collected. Following the analysis of the data, it was found that both Lebanese and Bahraini shoppers demonstrate variations in the positive evidence associated with the elements of the technology acceptance model, except the perceived usefulness positive impact on consumers’ intention toward online shopping where no significant impact was shown in both countries. Contactless payment modes have no significant impact on attitudes in both countries contrary to their positive impacts on the intention toward online shopping in both countries. The use of social media and price consciousness also have variations in the positive evidence linked to consumers attitudes in both countries. Finally, both the use of social media and price consciousness reveal differences in the level of negative association with consumers’ intention toward online shopping in Lebanon and the Kingdom of Bahrain. Full article
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30 pages, 1189 KiB  
Review
Mapping Internal Knowledge Transfers in Multinational Corporations
by Rita Castro and António Carrizo Moreira
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010016 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Managing multiple knowledge transfers between headquarters and subsidiaries, among subsidiaries, and also within each of these units is crucial for multinational corporations’ (MNCs) survival. Therefore, this article aims to uncover the main factors influencing internal knowledge transfers in MNCs—including intra-unit knowledge transfers and [...] Read more.
Managing multiple knowledge transfers between headquarters and subsidiaries, among subsidiaries, and also within each of these units is crucial for multinational corporations’ (MNCs) survival. Therefore, this article aims to uncover the main factors influencing internal knowledge transfers in MNCs—including intra-unit knowledge transfers and transfers between units, namely, conventional, horizontal, and reverse knowledge transfers. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to synthesize the content of 85 articles. From a set of 1439 papers, only 85 related to knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing were considered. Based on an inductive thematic approach, eight different research categories and 97 topics were identified. Four different internal knowledge transfers (intra knowledge transfer (IKT), horizontal knowledge transfer (HKT), conventional knowledge transfer (CKT), and reverse knowledge transfer (RKT)) are compared across eight thematic categories and 97 topics. According to the results obtained, the depth of the topics analyzed varies, as does the variety of categories, with RKT being more deeply analyzed than IKT. There is a clear dominance of vertical knowledge transfer (CKT + RHT) over HKT. The exercise of power (e.g., size, knowledge base) still dominates CKT and RKT in most of the studies analyzed, which are traditionally affected by the characteristics of MNCs, HQs and subsidiaries. The debate on HKT is affected by the classical perspectives of power-based relations (e.g., expatriates, size, knowledge base) among subsidiaries. Although important, intra-unit knowledge transfer is greatly influenced by characteristics. Full article
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25 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Reconfiguration of Technological and Innovation Capabilities in Mexican SMEs: Effective Strategies for Corporate Performance in Emerging Economies
by Luis Enrique Valdez-Juárez, Elva Alicia Ramos-Escobar and Edith Patricia Borboa-Álvarez
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010015 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3580
Abstract
Latin American SMEs currently have serious financial and technological limitations. These problems have generated poor progress in technological digitization, innovation management, and corporate performance. The purpose of this research is to first analyze the direct effect that digitalization has on the management of [...] Read more.
Latin American SMEs currently have serious financial and technological limitations. These problems have generated poor progress in technological digitization, innovation management, and corporate performance. The purpose of this research is to first analyze the direct effect that digitalization has on the management of innovation and corporate performance of Mexican SMEs. Secondly, the moderating effect that technological barriers have on the digitization, innovation, and results of the corporate performances of Mexican SMEs is examined. This study compiles information from a sample of 4121 managers of SMEs in the service trade and manufacturing sector. The information collection technique was through a personal interview (online questionnaire) addressed to the owner and/or manager of the SMEs through the LimeSurvey Professional platform. The fieldwork was carried out during the months of January to July of the year 2022. The structural equations model (SEM) was used for data analysis, specifically with the statistical technique of analysis of variance through the partial least square (PLS). The findings revealed that digitization has positive and significant effects on innovation management and corporate performance. In addition, the results indicate that the barriers to digitalization as a moderating variable have been impeding development and digital transformation and reducing the results of innovation and corporate performance of Mexican SMEs. This study contributes to the development of dynamic capabilities theory. Full article
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16 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
From Easter Eggs to Anti-Police Sentiment: Maintaining a Balance in Policing during the Three Pandemic Lockdowns in England and Wales
by Jenny Fleming and Jennifer Brown
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010014 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The three lockdown periods across 2020–2021 due to COVID-19 had significant consequences for police. Pandemic lockdown experiences were explored based on online interviews with 25 officers of varied ranks and from across five regions in England and Wales. The analysis demonstrates the existence [...] Read more.
The three lockdown periods across 2020–2021 due to COVID-19 had significant consequences for police. Pandemic lockdown experiences were explored based on online interviews with 25 officers of varied ranks and from across five regions in England and Wales. The analysis demonstrates the existence of two counter-prevailing dynamics in the working world of police in England and Wales across the three lockdown periods. Changing government directives, deteriorating relationships between the police and the public and senior officers’ sensitivity to the needs of the workforce, were foci of concern and discussion. On reflection, officers acknowledged that relationships between senior management and police improved over the three lockdowns. However, officers found it difficult to balance the demands of the profession and the claims of the state while seeking to retain policing by consent with an increasingly fractious public unsettled by restrictions to their freedom of movement and government activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Ways To Address Diversity Issues)
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4 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
New Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education: Introduction
by Tõnis Mets, Inna Kozlinska, Mervi Raudsaar and Iuliia Trabskaia
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010013 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Entrepreneurship education (EE) plays an essential role in developing the competencies of modern knowledge-based societies and economies, the so-called 21st-century competencies (OECD 2018) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education)
21 pages, 406 KiB  
Article
The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Eastern Cone of Lima as a Predictor of Competitiveness and Sustainable Development
by Jesús Fernando Bejarano Auqui, Adriana Ruiz Berrio, Raúl Rodríguez Antonio and Beatriz Estefany Aguado
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010012 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Great changes and contradictions have occurred in the economy in recent years, forcing entrepreneurs to seek solutions to increase competitiveness, maintain growth and implement mechanisms that can create permanent solutions in the future, thus promoting development. In this context, the aim of this [...] Read more.
Great changes and contradictions have occurred in the economy in recent years, forcing entrepreneurs to seek solutions to increase competitiveness, maintain growth and implement mechanisms that can create permanent solutions in the future, thus promoting development. In this context, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the perception of the entrepreneurial ecosystem is a significant predictor of the perception of competitiveness and sustainable development in the Peruvian case. For this, a structural equation model was tested using data obtained from a convenience sampling method (n = 240) along with a 32-item scale, which was adapted and validated using an exploratory factor analysis. Participants of this study were actors from the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the eastern cone of Lima, 79.1% of whom were entrepreneurs and businessmen (6.2% from the industrial sector, 50.5% from the commercial sector and 22.4% from the service sector); the remaining 20.9% of the sample corresponds to university professors, students, directors and advisors of incubators and accelerators. Findings of this study suggest that the perception of these actors of the entrepreneurial ecosystem has a significant effect on its perception of competitiveness and sustainable development. Full article
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15 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
The Epic Game of Creating a Successful Gamified Co-Creation Strategy
by João M. Lopes, Sofia Gomes, Nélia Santos, Hugo Cussina, Isabel Vieira, Maria Escudeiro, Lissandra Maio and Yolanda Magalhães
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010011 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
This paper aims to explore consumer engagement with online retailers through gamification, the use of game mechanics, and co-creation. A qualitative methodology was used through an exploratory case study approach. The interviews were conducted with 30 Portuguese consumers. It was found that the [...] Read more.
This paper aims to explore consumer engagement with online retailers through gamification, the use of game mechanics, and co-creation. A qualitative methodology was used through an exploratory case study approach. The interviews were conducted with 30 Portuguese consumers. It was found that the majority of respondents do not consider online shopping as a substitute for other entertainment activities. Respondents stressed that in online shopping, the important thing is personal satisfaction and their needs. According to the Hexad model, these characteristics fit the free spirit gamer, the Barttle model the explorer and the BrainHex model the seeker. As far as co-creation is concerned, the results indicate that most of the interviewees do not value the tools that exist on the retailers’ websites which allow them to create their own product. This study provides recommendations for retailers to implement a successful co-creation gamification strategy. Companies need to include gaming elements to enhance the retail experience and increase sales. In turn, this can increase competitive pressures among retailers by improving the services and products they offer. This paper provides empirical support for the current dearth of qualitative studies on the role of gamification and co-creation in the online retail experience. Many of the findings of this study are not in line with existing literature, allowing the conclusion that gamification alone is no longer enough to engage the online retail consumer with products and brands, requiring co-creation for the effective engagement of this consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
22 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Assessing Academics’ Third Mission Engagement by Individual and Organisational Predictors
by Verena Karlsdottir, Magnus Thor Torfason, Ingi Runar Edvardsson and Thamar Melanie Heijstra
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010009 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
In recent years, the coming of the entrepreneurial university has brought about a third role in academia, which involves greater visible exchange of academics with society and industry. In this paper, the authors investigate to what extent individual and organisational factors influence the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the coming of the entrepreneurial university has brought about a third role in academia, which involves greater visible exchange of academics with society and industry. In this paper, the authors investigate to what extent individual and organisational factors influence the propensity of academics to engage in different types of Third Mission (TM) activities. This study is based on a large-scale survey of academics in Iceland regarding engagement in socio-economic activities. The results indicate that “soft” activities such as community activities and external teaching and training can be better predicted by individual factors, while hard activities such as applied contract research and commercialisation can be better predicted by organisational factors. Overall, academics are most likely to participate in community-related activities. Hereby, academics from the STEM and health disciplines, with work experience outside of academia and who are open to new experiences are more likely to be engaged in applied contract research and commercialisation. Academics belonging to disciplines other than STEM and health sciences and those that on an average publish more peer-reviewed articles are more likely to disseminate their knowledge to a wider audience outside of academia through public science communication. Gender, rank, and teaching do not affect TM participation, but openness, performance, or discipline do. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Entrepreneurship)
23 pages, 1307 KiB  
Article
The Content Scope of Airline Sustainability Reporting According to the GRI Standards—An Assessment for Europe’s Five Largest Airline Groups
by Martin Rüger and Sven Ulrich Maertens
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010010 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4376
Abstract
The aviation industry is facing pressure from stakeholders to transform towards greater sustainability. From a managerial and marketing perspective, not only the actual implementation and achievements of sustainability measures, but also their communication to stakeholders is likely to be crucial—and in many cases [...] Read more.
The aviation industry is facing pressure from stakeholders to transform towards greater sustainability. From a managerial and marketing perspective, not only the actual implementation and achievements of sustainability measures, but also their communication to stakeholders is likely to be crucial—and in many cases even legally required. This research evaluates the scope of sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting of Europe’s five largest airline groups for or from the year 2019, just prior the COVID-19 crisis. For this, dedicated sustainability reports and non-financial statements of Air France-KLM, easyJet, International Airlines Group, Lufthansa Group and Ryanair are evaluated and compared in a qualitative content analysis, using the Standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) as reference categories. The results indicate that the sustainability publications differ by airline business model, as the two low-cost carriers report less content in non-financial statements only, without publishing any standalone sustainability reports. Independent of the business model, most airlines surprisingly neglect the economic dimension of sustainability. The airline sector could improve its sustainability marketing by reporting both their economic, environmental, and social impacts and achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainability in Hospitality and Tourism Management)
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16 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Critical Success Factors of Franchising Firms: A Study on Franchisors and Franchisees
by Mohd Hizam-Hanafiah, Mohd Faizal Abdul Ghani, Rosmah Mat Isa and Hamizah Abd Hamid
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010008 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 10428
Abstract
The franchising sector demands a high level of assurance and commitment. This is because creating entrepreneurial value is at the core of any franchising strategy. However, little is understood about what causes franchised businesses’ critical success factors, particularly in developing nations like Malaysia. [...] Read more.
The franchising sector demands a high level of assurance and commitment. This is because creating entrepreneurial value is at the core of any franchising strategy. However, little is understood about what causes franchised businesses’ critical success factors, particularly in developing nations like Malaysia. Hence, this study aims to identify the critical success factors in franchising business firms. The characteristics of franchisors and franchisees that can contribute to the franchise system’s success in Malaysia were discovered using a focus group method by inviting franchisors and franchisees who are already running their businesses. In addition, Perbadanan Nasional Berhad (PERNAS) and the Malaysian Franchise Association (MFA), together with academicians, were also invited as a part of the focus group discussion. The findings show that three critical success factors emerged from this study, the franchisor’s capability, interconnection with franchisees, and constant innovation. These three elements demonstrated that there is still room for a more significant expansion. Therefore, anyone considering joining a franchise should know it is an option. Additionally, this research helps produce a valuable model of the franchising business process that regulators, franchisors, and franchisees can use as a guide. Finally, this study also offers directions for further research. Full article
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12 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Impact of Work–Life Balance on Working Women in the Banking Sector
by Sania Khan, George Thomas, Bisharat Ali Kunbhar and Noha Hamdy Mostafa Mohamed
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010007 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5373
Abstract
In every organization, employees deal with increasing job pressures. In recent years, women have faced even greater difficulties in such circumstances. This study proposed to investigate how work–life balance (WLB) affects the personal lives of working women in the banking industry of Larkana [...] Read more.
In every organization, employees deal with increasing job pressures. In recent years, women have faced even greater difficulties in such circumstances. This study proposed to investigate how work–life balance (WLB) affects the personal lives of working women in the banking industry of Larkana city, Pakistan. The information was gathered via a standardized questionnaire from 266 female bank employees in Larkana. The ANOVA results showed that a good WLB generally had a beneficial impact on working women’s personal lives. While prolonged working hours (PLWH) had a detrimental impact on women’s personal lives (PL), income packages (SP) and marital status (MS) had beneficial effects. A successful work–life balance in the banking industry will increase female employees’ commitment and productivity, and our study concluded that any positive work–life policies and practices offered by banking companies present additional benefits. This study offers essential intriguing facts and empirical evidence on this little-studied region in the city of Larkana. Moreover, our study emphasizes the practical ramifications of WLB for working women and organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Development)
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20 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Impact of Mentoring on Women’s Work-Life Balance: A Grounded Theory Approach
by Parvaneh Bahrami, Saeed Nosratabadi, Khodayar Palouzian and Szilárd Hegedűs
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010006 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3254
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to model the impact of mentoring on women’s work-life balance. Indeed, this study considered mentoring as a solution to create a work-life balance of women. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews with both mentors and mentees of Tehran [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to model the impact of mentoring on women’s work-life balance. Indeed, this study considered mentoring as a solution to create a work-life balance of women. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews with both mentors and mentees of Tehran Municipality were conducted and the collected data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. Findings provided a model of how mentoring affects women’s work-life balance. According to this model, role management is the key criterion for work-life balancing among women. In this model, antecedents of role management and the contextual factors affecting role management, the constraints of mentoring in the organization, as well as the consequences of effective mentoring in the organization are described. The findings of this research contribute to the mentoring literature as well as to the role management literature and provide recommendations for organizations and for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Development)
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15 pages, 812 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Relationship between Green Transformational Leadership, Green Human Resource Management Practices, and Employees’ Green Behavior
by Afriyadi Cahyadi, Diah Natalisa, József Poór, Badia Perizade and Katalin Szabó
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010005 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3779
Abstract
Building on theories of Corporate Sustainability, Triple Bottom Line, and Natural Resource-Based View, this study aims to predict the positive relationship between green transformational leadership, green human resource management practices, and employees’ green behavior. It applies a quantitative approach to analyze 252 data [...] Read more.
Building on theories of Corporate Sustainability, Triple Bottom Line, and Natural Resource-Based View, this study aims to predict the positive relationship between green transformational leadership, green human resource management practices, and employees’ green behavior. It applies a quantitative approach to analyze 252 data collected from the customers who are prospective employees of small and medium enterprises in Budapest. An online questionnaire was sent to 252 samples with the Snowball sampling method for about a month in Hungary. Based on a structural equation modeling analysis, green transformational leadership and green human resource management practices positively influence employees’ green behavior. Green human resource management practices mediate the relationship between green transformational leadership and employees’ green behavior. Small and medium enterprises should consider solving the green behavioral problems of their employees by promoting the green concept in leadership and human resource management practices. Such initiatives contribute to sustainability in small and medium enterprises. Full article
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17 pages, 763 KiB  
Article
Impact of Inclusive Leadership on Innovative Work Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Crafting
by Yinping Guo, Junge Jin and Sang-Hyuk Yim
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010004 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5610
Abstract
The study aims to examine the mediating role of job crafting between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The data were collected from 314 workers employed in China’s small and medium-sized industries. The data collection was done through survey design. The data analysis [...] Read more.
The study aims to examine the mediating role of job crafting between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The data were collected from 314 workers employed in China’s small and medium-sized industries. The data collection was done through survey design. The data analysis was done using Spss 26.0 and through structural equation modeling by Mplus 8. Inclusive leadership was found to be related to job crafting and innovative work behavior of the employees. Job crafting was found to be mediating between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The study delineated the link mechanism between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. Studying inclusive leadership in the context of Chinese culture is a powerful complement to inclusive leadership theory. This paper provides the managers of SMEs with significant managerial insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively motivate employees’ innovative work behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leadership Effectiveness and Development)
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8 pages, 620 KiB  
Communication
Organizational Change: Considering Truth and Buy-In
by Jason A. Hubbart
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010003 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8396
Abstract
Organizational change initiatives are often undertaken to update major business structural components or practices to meet the evolving needs of a changing industry. Unfortunately, explicit emphasis on the importance of truth and buy-in is missing from most, if not all, change initiatives. Including [...] Read more.
Organizational change initiatives are often undertaken to update major business structural components or practices to meet the evolving needs of a changing industry. Unfortunately, explicit emphasis on the importance of truth and buy-in is missing from most, if not all, change initiatives. Including these factors is essential because the acceptance of explanations (truth) for change, resulting in stakeholder buy-in and commitment to change, may be among the most significant challenges to organizational change success. Indeed, the absence of leadership-conveyed truth-telling, and stakeholder truth acceptance, restrains the ability to grow, change, develop and evolve as an organization. Thus, insufficient truth acceptance and buy-in results in deficient stakeholder engagement and a decreased likelihood of organizational change initiative success. Moreover, the benefits of truth acceptance and buy-in stretch well beyond organizational change initiatives and positively influence work performance, commitment, satisfaction, and turnover. Therefore, the concepts of truth and buy-in are multi- and inter-organizational and essential at all levels of an organization. The purpose of this communication is to consider the general role(s) of truth and buy-in in the organizational change process and to serve as a reminder of the importance of explicitly including and achieving both early in the change initiative process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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18 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
Strategic Management of IT Practices in Tourism for Operation and Service Enhancement
by Rubio Sánchez Juan Luis, García Revilla Mercedes Raquel and Martínez Moure Olga
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010002 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
The information technology infrastructure library (ITIL) standard describes processes that should be implemented in Information Technology (IT) departments for proper operations management, which includes human resources management, economic management, and strategic management, among others. This should be especially considered in the business management [...] Read more.
The information technology infrastructure library (ITIL) standard describes processes that should be implemented in Information Technology (IT) departments for proper operations management, which includes human resources management, economic management, and strategic management, among others. This should be especially considered in the business management of industries with no relation to information technologies (IT), such as tourism and hospitality companies. This work aims to present a method to establish the order of adoption of the IT management processes in companies that belong to the tourism industry. We conducted a survey to obtain the necessary data and developed a methodology that is based on an optimization procedure. This procedure generates the optimal sequence of IT tasks to adopt in a generic small company in the tourism industry. The methodology was then applied to a representative tourism company. Through the sequence obtained, it is shown that it is necessary to implement operative processes, and subsequently, strategic processes. A comparative study was developed to find the differences with other authors’ proposals. The most important result we found was the possibility of efficient use of organizations’ information to build an optimized list of IT procedures to improve their administration. The obtained list of processes is specific for each organization, and not dependent on the solutions offered by other authors who proposed a general or underoptimal list of processes. Full article
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19 pages, 993 KiB  
Article
Entrepreneurial Orientation and Open Innovation Promote the Performance of Services SMEs: The Mediating Role of Cost Leadership
by Mahendra Kumar Chelliah, Kalisri Logeswaran Aravindan and Saravanan Muthaiyah
Adm. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
In the 21st century, small and medium service firms face difficulty sustaining their performance. Additionally, the literature on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in SMEs is scarce. Moreover, the role of cost leadership strategy as a mediator lacks researchers’ attention. Therefore, this research aims to [...] Read more.
In the 21st century, small and medium service firms face difficulty sustaining their performance. Additionally, the literature on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in SMEs is scarce. Moreover, the role of cost leadership strategy as a mediator lacks researchers’ attention. Therefore, this research aims to examine the relationship between EO and SMEs performance with the mediating role of cost leadership strategy. Based on the contingency theory, a theoretical model has been drawn. A survey approach with a questionnaire technique has been adapted to achieve the study objectives. The data were collected from 283 service SMEs in three states of Malaysia. The Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was employed to analyze the empirical data. The study findings highlight that risk-taking and open innovation have no direct relationship with SMEs’ performance. However, through the mediation role of cost leadership, risk-taking and open innovation have a significant association with performance. Furthermore, the findings indicate that proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy have a positive and direct relationship with performance, whereas in the presence of cost leadership, competitive aggressiveness has a partial mediating effect. The empirical findings are helpful to policymakers, researchers, and practitioners. Full article
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