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Horizontal Gene Transfer and Its Association with Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Aeromonas spp.

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Laboratorio de Investigación Clínica y Ambiental, Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, Mexico 11340, Mexico
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Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Juárez de México, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 5160, Magdalena de las Salinas, Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico 07360, Mexico
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Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Salvador Díaz Mirón, Col. Casco de Santo Tomas, Mexico 11340, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Bioquímica Microbiana, Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, Mexico 11340, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090363
Received: 21 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Aeromonas)
The evolution of multidrug resistant bacteria to the most diverse antimicrobials known so far pose a serious problem to global public health. Currently, microorganisms that develop resistant phenotypes to multiple drugs are associated with high morbidity and mortality. This resistance is encoded by a group of genes termed ‘bacterial resistome’, divided in intrinsic and extrinsic resistome. The first one refers to the resistance displayed on an organism without previous exposure to an antibiotic not involving horizontal genetic transfer, and it can be acquired via mutations. The latter, on the contrary, is acquired exclusively via horizontal genetic transfer involving mobile genetic elements that constitute the ‘bacterial mobilome’. This transfer is mediated by three different mechanisms: transduction, transformation, and conjugation. Recently, a problem of public health due to implications in the emergence of multi-drug resistance in Aeromonas spp. strains in water environments has been described. This is derived from the genetic material transfer via conjugation events. This is important, since bacteria that have acquired antibiotic resistance in natural environments can cause infections derived from their ingestion or direct contact with open wounds or mucosal tissue, which in turn, by their resistant nature, makes their eradication complex. Implications of the emergence of resistance in Aeromonas spp. by horizontal gene transfer on public health are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; horizontal gene transfer; Aeromonas antimicrobial resistance; horizontal gene transfer; Aeromonas
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Bello-López, J.M.; Cabrero-Martínez, O.A.; Ibáñez-Cervantes, G.; Hernández-Cortez, C.; Pelcastre-Rodríguez, L.I.; Gonzalez-Avila, L.U.; Castro-Escarpulli, G. Horizontal Gene Transfer and Its Association with Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Aeromonas spp.. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 363.

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