Heavy metal pollution is a serious environmental problem as it adversely affects crop production and human activity. In addition, the microbial community structure and composition are altered in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. In this study, using full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by a PacBio RS II system, we determined the microbial diversity and community structure in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Furthermore, we investigated the microbial distribution, inferred their putative functional traits, and analyzed the environmental effects on the microbial compositions. The soil samples selected in this study were heavily and continuously contaminated with various heavy metals due to closed mines. We found that certain microorganisms (e.g., sulfur or iron oxidizers) play an important role in the biogeochemical cycle. Using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis, we predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional categories from abundances of microbial communities and revealed a high proportion belonging to transport, energy metabolism, and xenobiotic degradation in the studied sites. In addition, through full-length analysis, Conexibacter
-like sequences, commonly identified by environmental metagenomics among the rare biosphere, were detected. In addition to microbial composition, we confirmed that environmental factors, including heavy metals, affect the microbial communities. Unexpectedly, among these environmental parameters, electrical conductivity (EC) might have more importance than other factors in a community description analysis.
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