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Buildings, Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 169 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): When acoustically designing a space, two essential requirements must be met to guarantee acoustic comfort; these are good sound insulation and controlled reverberation time. These requirements are usually met using two independent solutions, one for sound insulation and another for acoustic conditioning. This work presents the study of a solution that meets both requirements simultaneously with materials available on the market. The complete solution is evaluated on a laboratory scale by conducting tests in a reverberation chamber and in a transmission chamber for small samples and with in situ tests in a radio studio. View this paper.
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Article
Study on a Novel Variable-Frequency Rolling Pendulum Bearing
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020254 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Seismic isolation is a technique that has been widely used around the world to decouple the superstructure from the ground motions during earthquakes. However, the attention of seismic isolation is mostly focused on the protection of the building structures. Acceleration-sensitive devices or equipment, [...] Read more.
Seismic isolation is a technique that has been widely used around the world to decouple the superstructure from the ground motions during earthquakes. However, the attention of seismic isolation is mostly focused on the protection of the building structures. Acceleration-sensitive devices or equipment, which are in desperate need of seismic protection, are still not fully emphasized. Meanwhile, the stiffness and frequencies of the conventional rolling- and sliding-type isolation bearings demonstrate an upward trend as the isolation layer displacement increases, which may bring self-centering and resonance issues. Thus, a novel variable-frequency rolling pendulum bearing is developed for the protection of acceleration-sensitive equipment. The rolling-type isolation bearing is selected to enhance the self-centering capacity, and additional viscous dampers are incorporated to improve the system damping. Moreover, the theoretical formulas of several typical variable-frequency rolling pendulum bearings are derived and presented to figure out the dynamic characterization of the device. The isolation efficiency of the proposed device under different parameters is also validated using shake table tests. Test results demonstrate that the newly proposed devices show excellent isolation performance at reducing both acceleration and displacement responses. Finally, the numerical model of this isolation system is proposed in detail. The simulated results, including relative acceleration responses, relative displacement responses and movement locus of the upper plates, are consistent with test results, which demonstrates this simplified model could be used for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Response of Structures)
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Article
Improved Data-Driven Stochastic Subspace Identification with Autocorrelation Matrix Modal Order Estimation for Bridge Modal Parameter Extraction Using GB-SAR Data
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020253 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 354
Abstract
With the advantage of non-contact measurement, ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has been widely used to obtain the dynamic deflection of various bridges. Data-driven stochastic subspace recognition (Data-SSI), a popularized time-domain technique, is commonly used for modal parameter identification of bridges. To improve [...] Read more.
With the advantage of non-contact measurement, ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has been widely used to obtain the dynamic deflection of various bridges. Data-driven stochastic subspace recognition (Data-SSI), a popularized time-domain technique, is commonly used for modal parameter identification of bridges. To improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the Data-SSI method for bridge modal parameter estimation using GB-SAR, this paper proposes an improved Data-SSI method. First, boxplot data filtering is applied to screen out the error points to generate a Hankel matrix. Second, the Hankel matrix compression method is presented to reduce the ill-conditioned vectors in the column vectors of the Hankel matrix to improve calculation efficiency. Finally, the exact modal order (EMO) modal estimation algorithm based on the autocorrelation matrix is adopted to reduce the generation of false modes and improve the calculation efficiency. The results of simulation and field experiments show that the natural frequency values for the improved Data-SSI method are 2.3208 and 2.3189 and the damping ratio coefficient values are 8.10 and 8.08, under windows 1 and 2, respectively. The operation times using the improved Data-SSI method are 2.02 s and 7.61 s under windows 1 and 2, respectively. This proves that the proposed improved Data-SSI method has higher accuracy and computational efficiency. Full article
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Article
Structural Identification of a 90 m High Minaret of a Landmark Structure under Ambient Vibrations
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020252 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 398
Abstract
This paper presents the operational modal analysis of a 90-m-high RC minaret of an iconic mosque considered as a landmark of the city. The minaret was monitored for three days with 11 tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. The purpose of the study was to observe [...] Read more.
This paper presents the operational modal analysis of a 90-m-high RC minaret of an iconic mosque considered as a landmark of the city. The minaret was monitored for three days with 11 tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. The purpose of the study was to observe the behavior, develop a representative finite element (FE) model, and establish baseline data for health monitoring studies. The modal properties were extracted using three operational modal analysis techniques (OMA): Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD), Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI), and Natural Excitation Technique with Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (NExT-ERA). The first 10 identified modes were below 7 Hz. Eight modes out of the ten were bending-dominant, while the remaining two were torsion-dominant. A FE model was also developed in ETABS to ascertain and compare the response of the structure with the identified results. From the FE model, the modes corresponding to the first ten identified modes were considered for comparison with the identified frequencies from ambient monitoring. The maximum 7.71% error was observed between the experimental and numerical frequencies. The error was minimized by using the manual updating the material properties and adding the weight of nonstructural elements. The variation of identified modal frequencies with ambient temperature was observed to be linearly dependent to a reasonable degree. A general trend of decreasing identified frequencies was observed with the rise in temperature. Full article
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Article
Body CoM Acceleration for Rapid Analysis of Gait Variability and Pedestrian Effects on Structures
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020251 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Knowledge of body motion features and walk-induced effects is of primary importance for the vibration analysis of structures, especially low-frequency slabs and lightweight and/or slender systems, as well as for clinical applications. Structurally speaking, consolidated literature procedures are available for a wide set [...] Read more.
Knowledge of body motion features and walk-induced effects is of primary importance for the vibration analysis of structures, especially low-frequency slabs and lightweight and/or slender systems, as well as for clinical applications. Structurally speaking, consolidated literature procedures are available for a wide set of constructional solutions and typologies. A basic assumption consists in the description of walking humans’ effects on structures through equivalent deterministic loads, in which the ground vertical reaction force due to pedestrians depends on their mass and motion frequency. However, a multitude of additional parameters should be taken into account and properly confirmed by dedicated laboratory studies. In this paper, the focus is on the assessment of a rapid analysis protocol in which attention is given to pedestrian input, based on a minimized sensor setup. The study of gait variability and related effects for structural purposes is based on the elaboration of single Wi-Fi sensor, body centre of mass (CoM) accelerations. A total of 50 walking configurations was experimentally investigated in laboratory or in field conditions (for more than 500 recorded gaits), with the support of an adult volunteer. Parametric gait analysis is presented considering different substructure conditions and motion configurations. Body CoM acceleration records are then used for the analysis of a concrete slab, where the attention is focused on the effects of (i) rough experimental body CoM input, or (ii) experimentally derived synthetized gait input. The effects on the structural side of rough experimental walk time histories or synthetized experimental stride signals are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions)
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Article
Automated Layout Design Approach of Floor Tiles: Based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) via Parametric Design (PD) Platform
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020250 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology has been widely used in the construction industry in recent years. However, to date, it still cannot sufficiently meet the requirements of construction practitioners in terms of the layout design of floor tiles. Recently, the BIM-based Parametric Design [...] Read more.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology has been widely used in the construction industry in recent years. However, to date, it still cannot sufficiently meet the requirements of construction practitioners in terms of the layout design of floor tiles. Recently, the BIM-based Parametric Design (PD) platform has presented considerable potential in automatically generating and optimizing floor tile layout design. In this paper, we propose a workflow to generate and optimize the layout design of floor tiles globally. To develop the workflow, we first formalize the design algorithm of floor tiles according to the trade know-how cutting and planning rules. Then, we combine the design algorithm with an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to generate and optimize the layout design for floor tiles automatically while minimizing material wastage. A prototype system is established in the ArchiCAD (BIM) and Grasshopper (PD platform) software. An apartment room tiling layout is used to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Compared with the existing design methods, the proposed approach (1) reduces the material waste rate by 14.58% and 11.46%; and (2) improves the calculation efficiency and reduces the required computation time by 17.3 s to 50.0 s. Moreover, this research improves the existing design algorithm, enabling the BIM- and PD-based approaches to be used reliably in optimizing floor tile planning with arc-shaped boundaries. The outcomes are summarized in order to provide valuable insights in terms of floor tile waste reduction for further sustainable construction practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
An Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Limestone Fines in Manufactured Sands on the Performance of Magnesia Ammonium Phosphate Mortar
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020249 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Magnesium ammonium phosphate cement (MAPC) prepared with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4, ADP) and dead-burned Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a new type of rapid patch repair material for concrete structures. In order to reduce the material costs of [...] Read more.
Magnesium ammonium phosphate cement (MAPC) prepared with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4, ADP) and dead-burned Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a new type of rapid patch repair material for concrete structures. In order to reduce the material costs of MAPC mortar, manufactured limestone sands, being a more widely-available resource with lower cost, was investigated in this study as an alternative to quartz sands for the preparation of MAPC mortar. The limestone fines in manufactured sands were found to be the key factor that influences properties of MAPC mortar by causing bubbling and volume expansion before hardening. As a result, the mechanical strength of MAPC mortar decreased with the increasing content of limestone fines due to increased porosity. According to microstructure analysis, the mechanism of these negative effects can be inferred as the reaction between limestone fines and ADP with the gas generation of CO2 and NH3. This reaction mainly occurred during a short period before setting while most limestone fines remained unreactive in the hardened MAPC mortar. Based on the above detailed experimental findings on the effects of limestone fines in manufactured sand on the properties of MAPC mortar, this paper pointed out that effective defoaming methods for inhibiting bubbling was the key to the utilization of manufactured sands in preparation of high performance MAPC mortar. Full article
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Article
Rethinking Art Museum Spaces and Investigating How Auxiliary Paths Work Differently
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020248 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
It has been recognized that one of the key issues in designing museums is the interaction between the layout of space and the layout of objects, and spatial configurations are strongly related to didactic narratives, social implications, and curatorial intentions. However, it has [...] Read more.
It has been recognized that one of the key issues in designing museums is the interaction between the layout of space and the layout of objects, and spatial configurations are strongly related to didactic narratives, social implications, and curatorial intentions. However, it has not yet been examined thoroughly how museums work from a spatial perspective. Apart from the layout of objects, spatial configurations play an important role in creating various walking sequences, ranging from main routes to auxiliary paths. Art museums in particular can be characterized by such deviations generated by the auxiliary path, but they are hardly understood from this aspect. Therefore, this study aims to explore the auxiliary paths and examine how they work through in-depth theoretical analysis based on space syntax. By analyzing four art museums in terms of isovist attributes, syntactic measures, spatial sequences, and possible trails, it has been concluded that in the cases of the Uffizi Gallery and the Moderna Museet, spatial sequences work conservatively, so that auxiliary paths are channeled back to the gathering space. This is because the walking experience is strongly correlated with visual syntactic features such as connectivity, integration, and intelligibility. Conversely, walking sequences in the case of the Centre Pompidou and the Alte Pinakothek work generatively, and auxiliary paths are rarely related to the gathering space because the walking experience is strongly concerned with visual geometric properties such as isovist area/perimeter and occlusivity. Full article
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Article
Decision-Making Tool for the Selection of Priority Areas for Building Rehabilitation in Barcelona
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020247 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The promotion of rehabilitation is an urgent necessity in today’s consolidated cities, both due to the need to update their buildings to achieve habitability and safety standards that are required nowadays, as well as to stop the deterioration of buildings in vulnerable environments, [...] Read more.
The promotion of rehabilitation is an urgent necessity in today’s consolidated cities, both due to the need to update their buildings to achieve habitability and safety standards that are required nowadays, as well as to stop the deterioration of buildings in vulnerable environments, where paradoxically the obtainment of economic resources to invest in building maintenance and upgrade is scarcer. Decision making on the delimitation of areas in which the need to invest is higher is extremely complex and often relies on large secondary data studies that are contrasted with local stakeholders’ intuition and knowledge on the ground. Usually, rehabilitation aids are directed to relatively large areas, where a certain need may be found. However, these areas are often excessively wide and specific needs that would require special focus can be diluted in the whole. The current trend of area-based and site-specific rehabilitation programs calls for precise and focused data studies and methodologies. The research presented here provides a methodology for the selection of priority areas to promote rehabilitation in the context of Barcelona’s vulnerable neighborhoods. The selection methodology combines primary and secondary data with a very high level of disaggregation that identifies where the needs are greatest, and it also provides a tool that is still based on primary disaggregated data for the delimitation of areas. The results obtained highlight specific priority areas such as parts of the Raval, Carmel and Besòs-Maresme neighborhoods within larger zones that had been previously defined as vulnerable. The proposed methodology seeks to provide tools to foster evidence-based decision making, thus improving both the understanding of reality and its spatial distribution through data mining techniques and data visualization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
An Effective Fault Detection Method for HVAC Systems Using the LSTM-SVDD Algorithm
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020246 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 455
Abstract
Fault detection in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can effectively prevent equipment damage and system energy loss, and enhance the stability and reliability of system operation. However, existing fault detection strategies have not realized high effectiveness, mainly due to the time-delay characteristics [...] Read more.
Fault detection in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can effectively prevent equipment damage and system energy loss, and enhance the stability and reliability of system operation. However, existing fault detection strategies have not realized high effectiveness, mainly due to the time-delay characteristics of HVAC system faults and the lack of system-fault operation data. Therefore, aiming at the time delay of system faults and the lack of actual system-fault operation data, this paper proposes a fault detection method that combines a system simulation model and an intelligent detection algorithm. The method first uses the Modelica modeling language to build a scalable simulation model of the system to obtain fault data that are not easily accessible in practice. The long short-term memory-support vector data description (LSTM-SVDD) algorithm is then applied to detect faults in real time by dynamically adjusting the fault residuals according to the absolute difference between the predicted and actual values. The experimental results show that the LSTM-SVDD method improves the average detection accuracy by 9.675% and 9.85% over the classical LSTM network and the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) method, respectively, under different fault levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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Article
My Fault or Default—Household Behaviors Living in a Climate-Smart Building
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020245 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Decreasing climate impact of households is a concern for many actors. One way to address this challenge is to focus on household behaviors related to energy use and consumption. Another is to construct climate-smart houses that encourage households to utilize smart functions that [...] Read more.
Decreasing climate impact of households is a concern for many actors. One way to address this challenge is to focus on household behaviors related to energy use and consumption. Another is to construct climate-smart houses that encourage households to utilize smart functions that reduce emissions. This article examines the link between these two strategies and investigates how living in a climate-smart house affects household behaviors, by conducting interviews with households before and after they moved into a climate-neutral house. Results indicate that overall, emissions decrease after the move, mostly due to the features of the building itself rather than changes in behavior. Unintended effects were also observed, calling into question which strategy is most effective in reducing a household’s climate footprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Housing and Real Estate Economics)
Article
Seismic Risk Assessment for Elements of the Electric Network in Romania
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020244 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
This study is focused on the assessment of the seismic risk for elements of the electric network (thermoelectric powerplants and substations) in Romania. Firstly, the main elements of the electric network analyzed in this study are briefly presented. Thermoelectric powerplants account for about [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the assessment of the seismic risk for elements of the electric network (thermoelectric powerplants and substations) in Romania. Firstly, the main elements of the electric network analyzed in this study are briefly presented. Thermoelectric powerplants account for about 30% of the electricity production capacity and for about 40% of electricity production. The damage to the electric network in Romania caused by the Vrancea 1977 seismic event is presented in this study. The seismic fragility of thermoelectric powerplants as recommended by the SYNER-G project is evaluated in relation to the damage observed after the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquake of March 1977. The impact of anchoring the components of substations and of powerplants on the seismic risk metrics is also evaluated using fragility parameters from the literature. The analyses show that the impact of anchoring the components on the seismic risk metrics is less important for substations than for thermoelectric powerplants. In addition, it was observed that the level of seismic risk is larger in the case of electric substations as compared to powerplants. Full article
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Article
A Study on the Measurement of Unregulated Pollutants in Korean Residential Environments
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020243 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
This study investigated the pollution caused by unregulated chemical substances in Korean residential environments. A TA tube was used for indoor air collection, and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of chemical substances. According to the results of this study, 13 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the pollution caused by unregulated chemical substances in Korean residential environments. A TA tube was used for indoor air collection, and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry was used for the analysis of chemical substances. According to the results of this study, 13 substances out of the 16 analyzed chemicals were detected and, among them, the concentrations of phenol, α-pinene, and limonene within the indoor air were high. The average concentration of phenol was 32.7 µg/m3. α-pinene and limonene were detected, of which the highest concentrations were as 598.2 µg/m3 and 652.5 µg/m3, respectively. The maximum concentrations of these three substances exceeded the levels of the lowest concentration of interest. Notably, α-pinene and limonene were released from the wood itself. Wood has been widely used indoors as a natural building material and as furniture. Therefore, it was considered that this was the reason for the high the concentrations of the two substances in indoor air. However, we do not argue that the usage of wood should be reduced because of the results obtained in this study. Instead, we sµggest that it is important to reduce the emissions of α-pinene and limonene throµgh the processing of the wood, extending its drying period, and determining the most appropriate time of use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality)
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Article
Analysis of Structural Layouts of Geodesic Dome Structures with Bar Filler Considering Air Transportation
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020242 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The results are presented from a study of three-layer geodesic dome structures with bar fillers under their own weight. An algorithm was developed for selecting the type of structural layout used and the reference parameters chosen in terms of the technological, strength, and [...] Read more.
The results are presented from a study of three-layer geodesic dome structures with bar fillers under their own weight. An algorithm was developed for selecting the type of structural layout used and the reference parameters chosen in terms of the technological, strength, and weight characteristics. The results of this analysis aim to make it easier for designers to determine the optimal reference parameters in the initial stage of the designing of geodetic hemispherical dome structures, the construction of which is planned to be carried out in remote areas with harsh climatic conditions. Due to the lack of sufficient ground transport infrastructure, cargo delivery to these regions is currently possible only with the help of air transport. The importance of this study rests on the lack of adequate methods for the determination of the reference parameters for geodesic hemispherical dome structures at an early stage of design. In particular, it is common for the issues regarding the transportation of structural elements as well as those that involve ensuring the strength and the technological characteristics of the structure to not be considered simultaneously. This study owes its relevance to the rapid development of the uninhabited territories of the Russian Federation in the context of the global ecological crisis caused by anthropogenic impact on the environment. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Different Modifying Methods on Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cellular Geopolymers as Thermal Insulation Materials for Building Structures
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020241 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Geopolymers represent a new class of inorganic materials that have great potential for practical application due to the properties of used raw materials, as well as the peculiarities of the cementitious matrix structure formed during the geopolymerization process. Cellular geopolymer specimens were produced [...] Read more.
Geopolymers represent a new class of inorganic materials that have great potential for practical application due to the properties of used raw materials, as well as the peculiarities of the cementitious matrix structure formed during the geopolymerization process. Cellular geopolymer specimens were produced in this study using class F fly ash product, which is characterized by low reactivity during geopolymerization. Several standard methods, as well as microstructural studies were applied to evaluate the effect of the following factors on the physical-mechanical and thermophysical characteristics of cellular geopolymers: the use of various mineral modifying components for synthesis of geopolymer systems; high-temperature treatment; the introduction method of alkaline activator. It was observed that “ageing” an aqueous alkali solution for 24 h before mixing with fly ash and foam agent was able to provide a boost of compressive strength of cellular geopolymer specimens up to about 2.5 times, while decreasing the average density by about 28% for all experimental mixes, except for PC-modified mixes. Additionally, high-temperature treatment at 600 °C enables an enhanced strengthening effect of pore structure in cellular geopolymer matrix up to 1.5 times. This phenomenon is especially pronounced for the mixes with 24 h “aged” alkaline solution with exception for PC-modified mixes; for those, high-temperature treatment at 600 °C leads to strength decrease up to 40%. The introduction method of alkaline activator and high-temperature treatment showed a controversial effect on thermal conductivity coefficient depending on the mineral modifying component used for the synthesis of cellular geopolymers. The proposed method for calculation of total porosity of cellular structure of geopolymers as a polycomponent material demonstrated a high degree of correlation with the R2 value of at least 0.96 between the average density and the calculated total porosity. However, a low degree of correlation with R2 not exceeding 0.29 was observed for the measured nanoporosity, regardless of the introduction method of alkaline activator and high-temperature treatment. Full article
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Article
Ductile Moment-Resisting Timber Connections: A Review
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020240 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
In the last two decades, high-rise timber buildings have been built using the glulam truss system, even with limited openings. Moment-resisting timber frames (MRTF) with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections can be an architecture-friendly way to provide a load-carrying system to vertical and horizontal loads [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, high-rise timber buildings have been built using the glulam truss system, even with limited openings. Moment-resisting timber frames (MRTF) with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections can be an architecture-friendly way to provide a load-carrying system to vertical and horizontal loads for timber buildings. In these structures, connections of adequate ductility are crucial to ensure robustness and energy dissipation. This paper presents a review of the main types of timber beam–column moment connections with improved ductility and proposes to carry out a ductility assessment of these connections based on the most relevant ductility factors. Joints have a significant influence on the global performance of MRTF, and the application of ductile connections have improved the mechanical parameters of the timber frame. The reinforced bolted slotted-in steel plate and glued-in rods connections have similar mechanical performance, with high rotation capacity and good ultimate moment, but exhibited different failure modes under cyclic loading. The connections were classified within ductility classes. In general, the glued-in steel rods presented better results because of the high influence of steel profiles in the connection yielding. Despite the excellent mechanical behavior, the reinforced bolted slotted-in steel plate connections presented medium ductility values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Design and Performance of Timber Structures)
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Article
Development of Creep Deformations during Service Life: A Comparison of CLT and TCC Floor Constructions
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020239 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) slabs in residential buildings need additional weight, e.g., in the form of screeds or gravel layers, to fulfill the criterion for the highest impact-sound class. The additional mass is, however, not exploited for the load bearing behavior, but adds additional [...] Read more.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) slabs in residential buildings need additional weight, e.g., in the form of screeds or gravel layers, to fulfill the criterion for the highest impact-sound class. The additional mass is, however, not exploited for the load bearing behavior, but adds additional weight and leads to an increased height of the floor construction. In this study, such a CLT floor construction with a construction height of 380 mm is compared with a composite slab consisting of a CLT plate with a concrete layer on top with a floor construction height of 330 mm. The timber concrete composite (TCC) slab has a different creep behavior than the CLT slab. Thus, the development of the time-dependent deflections over the service life are of interest. A straightforward hybrid approach is developed, which exploits advanced multiscale-based material models for the individual composite layers and a standardized structural analysis method for the structural slab to model its linear creep behavior. The introduced approach allows to investigate load redistribution between the layers of the composite structure and the evolution of the deflection of the slab during the service life. The investigated slab types show a similar deflection after 50 years, while the development of the deflections over time are different. The CLT slab has a smaller overall stiffness at the beginning but a smaller decrease in stiffness over time than the investigated TCC slab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timber Structures: Latest Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives)
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Review
A Review of Mathematical Models of Building Physics and Energy Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Integrated Energy Management Systems
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020238 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
The Energy Management System (EMS) is an efficient technique to monitor, control and enhance the building performance. In the state-of-the-art, building performance analysis is separated into building simulation and control management: this may cause inaccuracies and extra operating time. Thus, a coherent framework [...] Read more.
The Energy Management System (EMS) is an efficient technique to monitor, control and enhance the building performance. In the state-of-the-art, building performance analysis is separated into building simulation and control management: this may cause inaccuracies and extra operating time. Thus, a coherent framework to integrate building physics with various energy technologies and energy control management methods is highly required. This framework should be formed by simplified but accurate models of building physics and building energy technologies, and should allow for the selection of proper control strategies according to the control objectives and scenarios. Therefore, this paper reviews the fundamental mathematical modeling and control strategies to create such a framework. The mathematical models of (i) building physics and (ii) popular building energy technologies (renewable energy systems, common heating and cooling energy systems and energy distribution systems) are first presented. Then, it is shown how the collected mathematical models can be linked. Merging with two frequently used EMS strategies, namely rule-based and model predictive controls, is discussed. This work provides an extendable map to model and control buildings and intends to be a foundation for building researchers, designers and engineers. Full article
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Article
The Mechanism of Influencing Green Technology Innovation Behavior: Evidence from Chinese Construction Enterprises
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020237 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The Green Technology Innovation Behavior (GTIB) of construction enterprises is crucial for promoting green development in the construction industry. In order to clarify the mechanism of action affecting the GTIB of construction enterprises, this paper considers the context of green development in the [...] Read more.
The Green Technology Innovation Behavior (GTIB) of construction enterprises is crucial for promoting green development in the construction industry. In order to clarify the mechanism of action affecting the GTIB of construction enterprises, this paper considers the context of green development in the construction industry based on the vector autoregressive model and constructs a theoretical model of GTIB in construction enterprises. Time series data collected by the Chinese government (2000–2018) were used to analyze the mechanism of action of the factors influencing the GTIB of construction enterprises by EViews 10.0. The results of the paper showed the following: (1) direct government investment has the greatest impact on the GTIB of construction enterprises and has made a positive contribution; (2) the added value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the construction industry has a relatively small impact on the GTIB of construction enterprises; (3) the role of environmental regulation on the GTIB of construction enterprises is non-linear. This paper further broadens the research to the factors influencing the GTIB of construction enterprises. Meanwhile, this paper provides a reference basis for local governments to formulate policies related to the GTIB of construction enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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Article
Ontology-Based Approach Supporting Multi-Objective Holistic Decision Making for Energy Pile System
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020236 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The traditional way of designing energy pile system is mostly single domain/objective oriented, which lacks of means to coherently consider different while relevant factors across domains. The cost for life cycle design, construction and maintenance, return of investment, CO2 emission related sustainable [...] Read more.
The traditional way of designing energy pile system is mostly single domain/objective oriented, which lacks of means to coherently consider different while relevant factors across domains. The cost for life cycle design, construction and maintenance, return of investment, CO2 emission related sustainable requirements, and so on also need to be considered, in a systematic manner, along with the main functional design objective for loading capacity and robustness. This paper presents a novel multi-objective holistic approach for energy pile system design using ontology based multi-domain knowledge orchestration, which can holistically provide the designers with across domain factors regarding financial, safety, and environmental impact, for smart and holistic consideration during the early design stage. A prototypical ontology-based decision tool has been developed, aiming at the holistic optimization for energy pile system by combining ontology and Semantic Web Rule Language rules. A case study was performed to illustrate the details on how to apply knowledge query to provide a series of design alternatives autonomously by taking different design parameters into account. The method has demonstrated its practicability and scientific feasibility, it also shows the potential to be adopted and extended for other domains when dealing with multi-objective holistic design making. Full article
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Article
Insights into Metal Sheet Novelty Detection via Simulated Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Surface Wave
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020235 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Metal sheets have good performance and have been widely used. Different kinds of defects can be generated during the preparation and service of metal plates, which will cause the structural performance of the metal plates to decline, thus requiring structural health monitoring (SHM). [...] Read more.
Metal sheets have good performance and have been widely used. Different kinds of defects can be generated during the preparation and service of metal plates, which will cause the structural performance of the metal plates to decline, thus requiring structural health monitoring (SHM). This study proposes an electromagnetic ultrasonic (EMUS) surface wave detection technique for metal sheet defects via simulation. The numerical results show that after the excitation parameters of the EMUS transducer are optimized through orthogonal experimental design, the amplitude of the EMUS signal generated is increased by about 80%. The power spectrum density (PSD) of the EMUS response signal is used to detect defects. Compared with the peak-to-peak detection, the accuracy is higher, and the reliability is better. The accuracy of the proposed “central zero-point” method for measuring the time delay of the EMUS signal wave packet is higher than that of the “peak-to-peak amplitude” method and the “vibration starting point” method and is close to the accuracy of the “cross-correlation” method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in NDT: Theories, Techniques, and Engineering Applications)
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Article
Evaluating the Color Preferences for Elderly Depression in the United Arab Emirates
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020234 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The elderly are more prone to develop depression from physical, psychological, and economic changes, and 25.7% of the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) elderly population suffer from depression. Color therapy is a widely accepted treatment to solve the depressive symptoms of the elderly. The [...] Read more.
The elderly are more prone to develop depression from physical, psychological, and economic changes, and 25.7% of the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) elderly population suffer from depression. Color therapy is a widely accepted treatment to solve the depressive symptoms of the elderly. The color preference of the Seniors’ Happiness Centre—in Ajman UAE—a residential space for the elderly, could improve the quality of life, including depression symptoms. This paper explored the relationship between the color preference of the resident bedroom space and the depressive symptoms. As a methodology, using color images as stimuli, the physiological and psychological responses of the 86 elderly participants to the proposed color preference of the resident bedroom interiors—observed through a viewing box to simulate 3D space perception—were compared and analyzed to investigate the relationship between the color preference and depression by a survey with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement. The results showed that the elderly’s preference for warm colors is higher than that of cold colors, and each room needs a different color scheme because the elderly, 65 and above, have different visual characteristics. There was no significant difference between the left and right alpha wave values of the prefrontal cortex of the participant group. The main reason is that the brain waves are minute electrical signals and appear different from person to person. The color scheme on one side of the wall with increased saturation seemed to improve depressive symptoms effectively. It was found that psychologically, healthy elderly reacted positively to the single-color scheme of the Blue cool color, but elderly with depression reacted well to the contrast color scheme of the Blue-Yellow/Red cool color. This study will serve as critical data to propose more color preferences for the Seniors’ Happiness Center suitable for the elderly by studying the response to more diverse colors in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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Article
Towards Sustainable and Smart Cities: Replicable and KPI-Driven Evaluation Framework
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020233 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
Sustainability is pivotal in the urban transformation strategy in order to reach more resource-efficient, resilient and smarter cities. The goal of being a sustainable city should drive the decisions for city interventions, and measuring city progress is a key step for this process. [...] Read more.
Sustainability is pivotal in the urban transformation strategy in order to reach more resource-efficient, resilient and smarter cities. The goal of being a sustainable city should drive the decisions for city interventions, and measuring city progress is a key step for this process. There are many initiatives aiming at defining indicators and assessment procedures, but there is no convergence in the definition of terms and application methodologies, making their real implementation complex. Within mySMARTLife project (GA#731297), a KPI-driven evaluation framework has been defined with the aim of covering the multiple pillars of a smart and sustainable city (i.e., environment, energy, mobility, ICT, citizens, economy, governance) in a holistic way. This methodology also defines the concepts and terms to guide urban planners and/or experts at the time of implementing the framework for any specific city. The evaluation framework has been deployed in the cities of Nantes, Hamburg and Helsinki, and some lessons have been learned, such as the necessity of providing a definition of measurement boundary to avoid biased interpretations. Due to a co-creation strategy, the main issues from the cities have been taken into consideration in order to increase the replicability of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Buildings, Infrastructure and SDGs 2030)
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Article
The Genius loci Issue in the Revalorization of Post-Military Complexes: Selected Case Studies in Legnica (Poland)
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020232 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Barracks built at the turn of the 20th century and in the 1930s in garrison towns in the Western Borderlands of Poland serve as the focal point of their cultural landscape. Traditions, which grew around these structures during three independent periods (pre-war German [...] Read more.
Barracks built at the turn of the 20th century and in the 1930s in garrison towns in the Western Borderlands of Poland serve as the focal point of their cultural landscape. Traditions, which grew around these structures during three independent periods (pre-war German times, the totalitarian post-war period and the contemporary free-market economy), form a continuous narrative of how the military contributed to development and helped shape the sense of local identity. Simultaneously, historic barracks complexes are a dissonant heritage due to the complicated history of these lands, known as the Recovered Territories, which includes a change in nationality, exchange of population and the Iron Curtain. After the army was restructured, many of these barracks were decommissioned and repurposed. Some of the adaptations obscured the barracks’ typological differentiators, which diminished their value as archives of cultural and social history. The study described in this paper conducted by the author helped to identify the features that differentiate military installations from other historic architecture and diagnose which of these features must be preserved in order to maintain the genius loci of the barracks complexes, i.e., their scholastic potential and sentimental value. Based on the acquired knowledge, this paper analyzed two adaptations of barracks in Legnica, one from each period of intensified militarism. This analysis resulted in the formulation of recommendations for future restorations of other barracks that still remain in their original form. Full article
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Article
The Development of a BIM-Based Interoperable Toolkit for Efficient Renovation in Buildings: From BIM to Digital Twin
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020231 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Nowadays, buildings renovation is a subject of special interest since the building and construction sector is the main body responsible for energy consumption and emissions. Hence, it is necessary to concentrate on refurbishment to achieve Europe’s climate neutrality by 2050 according to European [...] Read more.
Nowadays, buildings renovation is a subject of special interest since the building and construction sector is the main body responsible for energy consumption and emissions. Hence, it is necessary to concentrate on refurbishment to achieve Europe’s climate neutrality by 2050 according to European Agenda goals. The BIM4EEB Project, a BIM-based fast toolkit for the efficient renovation of residential buildings, directs the attention toward developing an exhaustive toolkit based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) to be adopted in the renovation of existing residential buildings, to make the flow of information efficient, decreasing intervention working time while improving building performances, quality, and comfort for inhabitants. BIM4EEB is developing a BIM management system connected to an operational and multifunctional toolkit for various architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) stakeholders, integrating a set of tools for improving BIM adoption in renovation environments based on an interoperable flow of information. This paper presents the Horizon2020 Project and the framework used to develop the toolkit. In addition, the first outcomes of the toolkit development are outlined. The validation procedure in real environments has started to demonstrate the efficacy and applicability of the methodology and tools. Although the project is still in progress, benefits connected to the framework and the BIM-based toolkit result in an enhanced building renovation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced BIM Application in Construction and Buildings)
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Article
Experimental Investigation on Cement Mortar Bricks Manufactured with Fennel Wastes
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020230 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Current practices supporting sustainable building design aim at reducing the expenditure of natural resources, such as raw materials, energy and water, in the production of construction supplies. In the current paper water is replaced by fennel centrifugate (FC) for the realization of cement [...] Read more.
Current practices supporting sustainable building design aim at reducing the expenditure of natural resources, such as raw materials, energy and water, in the production of construction supplies. In the current paper water is replaced by fennel centrifugate (FC) for the realization of cement mortar bricks. After having identified the most suitable cementitious pre-mixed over three potential candidates, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the FC bricks are compared to cement mortar bricks, prepared with regular water, by means of bending, compression at ordinary and high temperatures, imbibition and acoustic tests. From compared results, it is noticed that FC bricks have the same imbibition property, but tensile and compression (ordinary and high temperatures) resistances have about 20% less than the control specimen ones. The acoustic tests revealed a better response of FC bricks to the high frequencies greater than 1600 Hz. However, fennel fibres do not provide a manifest advantage, likely due to the small size of the centrifuged fragments that are not able to enhance the product tensile resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings: 10th Anniversary)
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Review
Recent Developments and Challenges of 3D-Printed Construction: A Review of Research Fronts
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020229 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
In the last few years, scattered experiences of the application of additive manufacturing in the construction of buildings using 3D printing with robots or automated equipment have emerged around the world. These use a variety of procedures and suggest relevant advantages for the [...] Read more.
In the last few years, scattered experiences of the application of additive manufacturing in the construction of buildings using 3D printing with robots or automated equipment have emerged around the world. These use a variety of procedures and suggest relevant advantages for the construction industry. In order to identify the different processes and features in development in this field and to guide future research and applications, this article presents a review of the literature on the main aspects involved in the use of 3D printing in the construction sector. The review includes state-of-the-art material mixtures, printing technologies, and potential uses, as well as a novel analysis of building strategies, management systems, and benefits stated about this new approach for construction. It reveals progressive experimentation regarding diverse features, with challenges related to the consolidation of procedures and this technology’s readiness to participate in the building market. Full article
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Article
Research on 3D Defect Information Management of Drainage Pipeline Based on BIM
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020228 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
With the age of pipeline and increase in the volume of urban sewage, the pipeline has different degrees of defects, which can cause safety problems such as road collapse and urban flooding. The service life of drainage pipes is closely related to daily [...] Read more.
With the age of pipeline and increase in the volume of urban sewage, the pipeline has different degrees of defects, which can cause safety problems such as road collapse and urban flooding. The service life of drainage pipes is closely related to daily maintenance and inspection, so it is very important to inspect the defects and monitor the operation of drainage pipes regularly. However, the existing research lacks quantitative detection and intelligent management of pipeline defect information. Therefore, the depth camera is used as the sensor to quantitatively detect the volume and area of the pit on the concrete pipe, and a defect information management platform is constructed in this paper. Firstly, combined BIM model with 3D point cloud, this paper proposes a 3D defect information management platform of drainage pipeline. Then, the depth camera is used to collect the damage data and preprocess the data, and a method for calculating the damage volume and surface area of drainage pipeline based on 3D mesh reconstruction of the defect point cloud is proposed. The verification experiment results show that the error between the quantized volume and the real volume is mostly within 10%, and the maximum error is 17.54%, indicating high accuracy. The drainage pipeline information model is created. Finally, the data is uploaded to the information management platform to realize the visualization and informatization of pipeline defects and the later operation and maintenance requirements of the pipeline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Detection Based on Smartphones in Buildings)
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Article
Local Buckling Development of H-Section Steel Core of Buckling-Restrained Brace
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020227 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 327
Abstract
To enhance the theoretical basis for the half-wavelength evaluation of high-order local buckling of section steel used as inner core of buckling-restrained brace, this paper conducts theoretical and numerical studies on the local buckling development of an H-section steel core of buckling restrained [...] Read more.
To enhance the theoretical basis for the half-wavelength evaluation of high-order local buckling of section steel used as inner core of buckling-restrained brace, this paper conducts theoretical and numerical studies on the local buckling development of an H-section steel core of buckling restrained brace. Firstly, the elastic buckling development of the flange under monotonic compression is theoretically discussed based on the elastic buckling theory of plate and the principle of virtual displacement. The numerical model for the buckling restrained brace with H-section steel core is then established based on Abaqus, and the elastic buckling development of the flange is validated. Finally, further numerical studies are conducted to reveal the elasto-plastic buckling development of the flange and web under cyclic loading. It is found that the local buckling development of the flange and web of the H-section steel core are different from that of the flat plate core of buckling restrained brace. Under cyclic loading, the shortest buckling wave of the flange and web are induced by the buckling of plates on the two sides of the contact point near the ends. It is confirmed that there is no need to consider the lateral support from the restraining members to evaluate the minimum half-wavelength of high-order local buckling for section steel core of buckling-restrained brace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience-Based Structural Seismic Design and Evaluation)
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Article
A Modified Compression Field Theory Based Analytical Model of RC Slab-Column Joint without Punching Shear Reinforcement
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020226 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
RC slab–column structures are widely used because of the advantages of small space occupation for horizontal members, easy construction and good economy. However, slab–column joints are prone to punching shear failures, which deteriorates structural safety. This paper provides an analytical model to predict [...] Read more.
RC slab–column structures are widely used because of the advantages of small space occupation for horizontal members, easy construction and good economy. However, slab–column joints are prone to punching shear failures, which deteriorates structural safety. This paper provides an analytical model to predict the punching shear capacity of the RC slab–column joint. A database of 251 test results is established for the shear punching capacity of slab–column joints without punching shear reinforcement. The performance of existing design codes in predicting the shear resistance of slab–column joints is investigated and compared based on the database. Then, based on the modified compression field theory (MCFT) model, an equation for calculating the punching shear resistance of slab–column joints without punching shear reinforcement is established. The prediction results of the analytical model are enhanced by using the regression analysis method. The model proposed in this paper is based on both reliable theoretical and the summary of a large number of test results, which has higher prediction accuracy than the design codes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty Propagation of Complex Engineering Structures/Systems)
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Review
The Relationship between Wind Pressure and Pressure Coefficients for the Definition of Wind Loads on Buildings
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020225 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Wind induced pressures on buildings are the product of a velocity pressure and a pressure coefficient. The way in which these two quantities are calculated has changed over the years, and Design Codes have been modified accordingly. This paper tracks the evolution of [...] Read more.
Wind induced pressures on buildings are the product of a velocity pressure and a pressure coefficient. The way in which these two quantities are calculated has changed over the years, and Design Codes have been modified accordingly. This paper tracks the evolution of the approach to wind loading of buildings from the practice in the 1950s, mainly referring to the Swiss Code SIA, to the most recent advances including probabilistic methods, internet databases, and advanced modelling of meteorological phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings: 10th Anniversary)
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