Topic Editors

Dr. Anna Visvizi
1. Institute of International Studies (ISM), SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodległości 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland
2. Effat College of Business, Effat University, Jeddah 21551, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Wadee Alhalabi
1. Department of Computer Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2. Department of Computer Sciences, Dar Alhekma University, Jeddah 22246, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Shahira Assem Abdel Razek
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Delta University for Science and Technology, International Coastal Road, Gamasa City, Mansoura, Dakhliya, Egypt
Dr. Paolo Gerli
The Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, Craiglockhart Campus, Edinburgh EH14 1DJ, UK
Dr. Orlando Troisi
Department of Management & Information Technology, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy

Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages

Abstract submission deadline
closed (28 February 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 April 2022)
Viewed by
31785

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Smart cities research has established itself as one of the most vibrant of inter- and multidisciplinary study today. Research in this field is driven by the realization that advances in sophisticated information and communication technology (ICT), on the one hand, create the opportunity to alleviate several challenges that progressive urbanization creates, and on the other hand, may substantially contribute to well-being of cities’ residents. Certainly, critical voices exist and these should be noted. Smart villages remain a niche concept, the related debate is still nascent, and the research agenda still open. Similarly, as in the case of the smart cities research, the smart villages debate is driven by the question of how and in which ways ICT can improve well-being in rural areas. Even if wise substantial differences between both strands of research exist, the broadly conceived imperative of sustainability is common in both debates. By bringing together these two debates, the objective of this Topic is twofold, i.e., to encourage research on smart cities and smart villages, respectively, and, while doing so, to reflect on the possibility of building bridges between the two debates.

The Editors of this Topic encourage submissions addressing, but not limited to, the following topics and issues:

  • Smart cities/villages research: new concepts, new approaches, new developments;
  • Smart cities/villages services and applications: supply and demand, issues, developments;
  • Smart cities/villages: regulatory frameworks and the delivery of the best quality of services and applications;
  • Smart cities/villages and migration: issues, challenges, opportunities;
  • Smart cities: democracy, governance, representation, participation;
  • Smart villages: issues of governability, growth, and development;
  • Smart cities/villages: leisure, tourism, art, culture, and heritage;
  • Smart cities/villages: public policy considerations;
  • Smart cities/villages: infrastructure development and utility;
  • Smart cities/villages: managerial approaches;
  • Smart cities/villages: energy sustainability;
  • Smart cities/villages: policies, policymaking, data-driven decision-making;
  • Smart cities/villages: specificity and applicability to the Global South and Global North contexts;
  • Smart cities/villages in times Covid-19 and beyond;
  • Exploring smart cities/villages' resilience through service theories and other approaches.

Prof. Dr. Anna Visvizi
Dr. Wadee Alhalabi
Dr. Shahira Assem Abdel Razek
Dr. Paolo Gerli
Dr. Orlando Troisi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • smart cities
  • smart villages
  • ICT
  • well-being
  • sustainability
  • resilience
  • growth
  • development

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.349 7.4 2009 19.9 Days 2500 CHF
Smart Cities
smartcities
- 5.5 2018 14.9 Days 1200 CHF
Urban Science
urbansci
- - 2017 14.4 Days 1200 CHF
Buildings
buildings
3.324 3.8 2011 16.2 Days 1800 CHF

Preprints is a platform dedicated to making early versions of research outputs permanently available and citable. MDPI journals allow posting on preprint servers such as Preprints.org prior to publication. For more details about reprints, please visit https://www.preprints.org.

Published Papers (36 papers)

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Article
Adaptive Responses to Water, Energy, and Food Challenges and Implications on the Environment: An Exploratory Study of Harare
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10260; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610260 - 18 Aug 2022
Abstract
Urban water, energy, and food (WEF) challenges are among the main barriers to poverty reduction and are some of the central targets of sustainable development goals (SDGs). SDGs seek to improve livelihoods in a sustainable manner through adequate and equitable distribution of the [...] Read more.
Urban water, energy, and food (WEF) challenges are among the main barriers to poverty reduction and are some of the central targets of sustainable development goals (SDGs). SDGs seek to improve livelihoods in a sustainable manner through adequate and equitable distribution of the resources. In southern Africa, the scarcity of the resources has escalated due to increased pressure from urbanisation and climate change. This paper focuses on problems of the adaptive strategies that the communities are using in response to WEF challenges as well as the environmental implication of these choices. This article is based on qualitative research methods constituting interview guides administered to 6 city council officials, 2 NGO representatives, 35 households, and 1 Harare residents’ association. Observations were undertaken, and review of secondary data was also done to collect information. Data were collated into a narrative, which was then exposed to qualitative content analysis. Findings reveal the use of underground water in both low- and high-income areas. Firewood and charcoal are preferred for cooking in the low-income suburbs, with gas dominating in the high-income areas. Mobile tuckshops, extensive backyard farming, and open-space agriculture were the prevalent sources of food. Inaccessibility and lack of affordability are some of the identified WEF challenges. Overdependence on underground water lowers the water table, increasing the ecological footprint. Uncontrolled urban agriculture exposes available water sources to pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Systematic Review
Public Awareness, Lifestyle and Low-Carbon City Transformation in China: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10121; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610121 - 15 Aug 2022
Abstract
Low-carbon city transformation is an important action area of China’s 14th Five-Year Plan (2021–2025) that aims to reach peak CO2 emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Responding to global climate change is not only a national responsibility but also [...] Read more.
Low-carbon city transformation is an important action area of China’s 14th Five-Year Plan (2021–2025) that aims to reach peak CO2 emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Responding to global climate change is not only a national responsibility but also an individual responsibility and very much depends on societal participation and acceptance. While many scholars argue that public participation would be critical to low-carbon cities developing in China, there is apparently a lack of sufficient research on the level of public participation. This systematic review aims to summarize the current related research about public awareness on low-carbon city transformation in China, and learn about the challenges and barriers of public attitude and behaviour towards the low-carbon lifestyle. This study reveals that: (1) although most scholars discussed the conception and policies of low-carbon cities, research methods, the theoretical foundation and the number of cities targeted for research are limited; (2) a public’s attention to low-carbon cities mainly focus on a low-carbon life, and there is a clear gap between low-carbon awareness and behaviour; and (3) although scholars had different opinions about the factors that affect low-carbon behaviour, most of them agree that education and government policy have an influence on the populations’ low-carbon behaviour in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Building Green Smart City Capabilities in South Sumatra, Indonesia
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7695; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137695 - 24 Jun 2022
Abstract
Information and communication technology is currently developing rapidly. It has created a great number of opportunities for governments worldwide to meet the demands of the public in providing services including environmentally friendly public services for the community and citizens. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Information and communication technology is currently developing rapidly. It has created a great number of opportunities for governments worldwide to meet the demands of the public in providing services including environmentally friendly public services for the community and citizens. This study aims to present a case study on public services of South Sumatra government programs in order to develop a green smart city concept by combining smart city and green IT concepts which aim to align and incorporate green IT components, including pollution prevention, product stewardship, and clean technology into conceptual variants, essential elements, and strategic principles. A smart city is an innovative and modern concept utilising technology to facilitate and provide public information and to improve environmentally friendly public services through smart applications. South Sumatera is one of the provinces in Indonesia that has been implementing a smart city to provide environmentally friendly public services through the command centre. It is used to monitor an entire government agency’s activities and communicates with the public. To fulfil the aims of the study, this study identifies the comprehensive environmentally friendly public services through Natural Resource-Based View Theory perspectives. In addition, this study deploys in-depth interviews with sources or informants as a form of data search and direct observation. The number of informants used as research respondents consisted of several elements of the government, including the executive, legislative, and implementing agencies. The study reveals that the South Sumatera Government has several environmentally friendly public services that could be deployed to prevent pollution and reduce the emission in their activities. Further, the government in South Sumatra has product and service stewardships and invests in clean technology to minimise the adverse impacts of their activities on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
Review
Digital Twins for Intelligent Green Buildings
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060856 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
At present, the integration of green building, the intelligent building industry and high-quality development are facing a series of new opportunities and challenges. This review aims to analyze the digital development of smart green buildings to make it easier to create contiguous ecological [...] Read more.
At present, the integration of green building, the intelligent building industry and high-quality development are facing a series of new opportunities and challenges. This review aims to analyze the digital development of smart green buildings to make it easier to create contiguous ecological development areas in green ecological cities. It sorts out the main contents of Intelligent Green Buildings (IGB) and summarizes the application and role of Digital Twins (DTs) in intelligent buildings. Firstly, the basic connotations and development direction of IGB are deeply discussed, and the current realization and applications of IGB are analyzed. Then, the advantages of DTs are further investigated in the context of IGB for DT smart cities. Finally, the development trends and challenges of IGB are analyzed. After a review and research, it is found that the realization and application of IGB have been implemented, but the application of DTs remains not quite integrated into the design of IGB. Therefore, a forward-looking design is required when designing the IGBs, such as prioritizing sustainable development, people’s livelihoods and green structures. At the same time, an IGB can only show its significance after the basic process of building the application layer is performed correctly. Therefore, this review contributes to the proper integration of IGB and urban development strategies, which are crucial to encouraging the long-term development of cities, thus providing a theoretical basis and practical experience for promoting the development of smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Sustainable Innovative Mobility Solutions Preferred by Inhabitants of Rural Areas—The Case of Lithuania and Poland
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6603; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116603 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The research problem discussed in the paper covers innovative mobility solutions in rural areas. This study aims to identify the specifics of innovative mobility solutions expected by inhabitants of rural areas based on the example of selected regions in Lithuania and Poland. The [...] Read more.
The research problem discussed in the paper covers innovative mobility solutions in rural areas. This study aims to identify the specifics of innovative mobility solutions expected by inhabitants of rural areas based on the example of selected regions in Lithuania and Poland. The research was conducted between 2019 and 2021 in two rural regions: Druskininkai and Birštonas in Lithuania, as well as the Hajnowski district and the area of the Bialowieza Forest in Poland. The quantitative methodology was used, i.e., survey research. The research confirmed the proposed concept and showed relatively many innovative mobility solution proposals in both regions. Another method used in the study was correspondence analysis, which was performed to assess the strength of the correlation between the proposed innovative solutions and the age and education of the respondents. Comparisons were also made with the use of Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Cramér’s V statistical method. Among the options presented, organisational innovation—the synchronisation of timetables of various means of transport—was met with great interest in Poland and Lithuania alike. The introduction of electric bikes was considered the most desirable product innovation. Solutions that require the ability to use a mobile application are accepted, especially by young people and individuals with university-level education. The results of the research include transport solution models that are expected to improve the mobility of residents of rural areas. This comparative approach concerning slightly different rural regions in two neighbouring countries ought to be deemed a new approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Review
A Review of Future Household Waste Management for Sustainable Environment in Malaysian Cities
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6517; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116517 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, Malaysia has faced environmental challenges caused by municipal solid waste, especially household waste, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among all the household waste, plastic and paper are the most unmanaged waste that cause environmental issues. Several recycling associations in Malaysia have [...] Read more.
In recent years, Malaysia has faced environmental challenges caused by municipal solid waste, especially household waste, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among all the household waste, plastic and paper are the most unmanaged waste that cause environmental issues. Several recycling associations in Malaysia have carried out their practices for better waste sustainability and management to curb the increasing amount of household waste. However, the effectiveness is still vague in achieving smart and effective household waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate Malaysia’s household waste management, mainly in three significant municipalities in Malaysia, namely Kuala Lumpur, Penang, and Melaka, in becoming a resilient and sustainable city by addressing two main research questions: (1) What are the key factors for ensuring the more successful moves for future household waste management in cities? and (2) How do each of the three municipalities of Malaysia cities address their waste issues based on the key factors from RQ1? This paper reviewed 13 waste management articles and explores the potential of the four factors of waste management from the perspective of technology and data, economy, social, and governance. The discussed factors and models contributed to an integrated future-proofing framework that focuses on smart waste tracking, a gamified awareness education, and strict policies to control waste management are the way forward for the future of smart cities household waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Smart Services in Smart Cities: Insights from Science Mapping Analysis
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6506; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116506 - 26 May 2022
Abstract
Against the backdrop of the expanding debate on smart cities, the objective of this paper is to examine to what extent and to what end the connection between smart services and smart cities has been explored in the literature, and what to make [...] Read more.
Against the backdrop of the expanding debate on smart cities, the objective of this paper is to examine to what extent and to what end the connection between smart services and smart cities has been explored in the literature, and what to make of it. It is argued that smart services, including demand- and innovation-driven service development, constitute an essential part of the broad concept of smart city. Viewed in this way, smart services serve as one of the key levers through which smart cities grow, develop, and build their resilience. By placing the analysis in the broader context of the smart city as smart service system, this paper sheds light on the still underexplored fields of research and suggests how they could be examined. For the purpose of the analysis, the Science Mapping (SciMat) method is employed as it allows to quantify and to visualize research output featured in Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), thus aiding the analysis. The added value of this paper is two-fold, i.e., (i) the SciMat analysis identifies the key dimensions of the nascent smart services in smart cities debate, and consequently, (ii) allows for suggesting topics that should be further investigated to detect the drivers for cities’ growth, resilience, and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Bi-Level Planning Model for Urban Energy Steady-State Optimal Configuration Based on Nonlinear Dynamics
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6485; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116485 - 25 May 2022
Abstract
With the rapid development of social economy, energy consumption has continued to grow, and the problem of pollutant emissions in various energy sources has gradually become the focus of social attention. Cities account for two-thirds of global primary energy demand that make urban [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of social economy, energy consumption has continued to grow, and the problem of pollutant emissions in various energy sources has gradually become the focus of social attention. Cities account for two-thirds of global primary energy demand that make urban energy systems a center of sustainable transitions. This paper builds a bi-level planning model for steady-state optimal configuration to realize the reasonable planning of the urban energy structure. The first level mainly analyzes the steady-state relationship between energy systems, the second level is based on the steady-state relationship of multiple energy sources to minimize the construction and operating costs of urban energy systems and pollutant emissions. Nonlinear system dynamics and the Improved Moth Flame Optimization Algorithm (IMFO) algorithm are implemented to solve the model. In addition, this paper uses instances to verify the application of a planning model in a certain city energy system in China. Under the premise of ensuring the stability of the urban energy system, two energy planning programs are proposed: mainly coal or mainly high-quality energy. The coal planning volumes are used as the basis for sub-scenario planning and discussion. Lastly, this paper proposes a series of development suggestions for different planning schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Determination of Empirical Environmental Indices for the Location of Cemeteries—An Innovative Proposal for Worldwide Use
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106284 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cemeteries are a source of environmental contamination, as they hold hundreds of human corpses in different stages of decomposition. Therefore, the current research developed a new tool, which is easily applied, to determine the potential environmental contamination generated by current cemeteries within their [...] Read more.
Cemeteries are a source of environmental contamination, as they hold hundreds of human corpses in different stages of decomposition. Therefore, the current research developed a new tool, which is easily applied, to determine the potential environmental contamination generated by current cemeteries within their ecosystems. The linear equations developed, with a number of variables between 10 and 3, allow for obtaining empirical indices to evaluate the suitability of a site, regardless of the geographical area in which it is located, through a variety of sources. In order to obtain the equations and, therefore, the indices, a hierarchy was performed using the Saaty matrix. With such a matrix, different ranges of affectation were established for each variable and relative values were assigned that cover all probabilities quantitatively, from the least probable to the most likely. With the linear equations, three verification runs were conducted, obtaining satisfactory results compared with the location map of cemeteries obtained in previous studies. These equations will constitute a tool of fundamental use for local governments, which will allow for the evaluation of existing cemeteries and use of the methodology described in preliminary analysis, to save resources and have a starting point for an efficient land use plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Enhancing the Replication Potential of Smart Lighting Projects
Smart Cities 2022, 5(2), 608-632; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5020032 - 03 May 2022
Abstract
To address major threats to the sustainability and quality of life in urban settings, many municipalities have started exploring routes toward smarter cities to, for example, lower their energy consumption and carbon footprint. These explorations, in the form of living labs or other [...] Read more.
To address major threats to the sustainability and quality of life in urban settings, many municipalities have started exploring routes toward smarter cities to, for example, lower their energy consumption and carbon footprint. These explorations, in the form of living labs or other pilot projects, often suffer from major problems in scaling up the initial try-outs. In this study, we identify the mechanisms that facilitate the diffusion of smart city solutions, which are developed with public funds but typically lack dedicated resources to spur the diffusion of these solutions within the same municipality as well as toward other municipalities. We introduce the construct of embedded replication potential, defined as the capacity of an original project to be either scaled up locally or replicated elsewhere. Subsequently, empirical findings from a study of smart lighting projects in several municipalities in northwestern Europe serve to develop a checklist-based tool for assessing the embedded replication potential of an initial project. This tool can also be used to assess the replication potential of other smart city projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Review
Criteria for Smart City Identification: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4448; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084448 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
The transition towards greater smartness is an emerging trend in the development of modern cities. This transition manifests itself in the widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs), cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and other technological tools aimed at improving the [...] Read more.
The transition towards greater smartness is an emerging trend in the development of modern cities. This transition manifests itself in the widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs), cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and other technological tools aimed at improving the level of city smartness. Although numerous studies have focused on the smart city (SC) phenomenon, knowledge about empirical criteria that can be used to define a city as “smart” and to measure the degree of a city’s “smartness” remains limited. The present study aims to bridge this knowledge gap by a systematic literature review of recent studies, in which various empirical criteria are used for SC identification. The study helps to identify a total of 48 SC identification metrics, which are further split into three main categories—smart digital technology, living conditions, and environmental (ecological) sustainability. Among these groups of criteria, the “smart digital technology” group of metrics appears to be the most popular, while criteria pertinent to “ecological sustainability” are applied considerably less often. As the study also reveals, only about half of the criteria used by empirical studies for SC identification actually relate to urban residents’ needs, with the rest being general technological measures. Therefore, for a balanced SC assessment, we suggest a ranking system based on the nine most important metrics, which equally represent all the main aspects of the SC phenomenon while placing an emphasis on the improvement of the quality of life of local residents. The proposed system is applied to several major cities across the globe to demonstrate its use and usefulness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Rural Tourism Competitiveness and Development Mode, a Case Study from Chinese Township Scale Using Integrated Multi-Source Data
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4147; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074147 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 5
Abstract
Tourism has been seen and adopted as a vital means for achieving rural economic and social revitalization worldwide without harming sustainable development principles. For China, the evaluation of rural tourism competitiveness at the township level is essential for planning and developing the tourism [...] Read more.
Tourism has been seen and adopted as a vital means for achieving rural economic and social revitalization worldwide without harming sustainable development principles. For China, the evaluation of rural tourism competitiveness at the township level is essential for planning and developing the tourism industry as a basic administration and economic unit, but there is not enough research due to the lack of applicable data and systematic methods. Therefore, this study constructed a town-level rural tourism competitiveness evaluation and development mode classification model based on the modified Michael Porter’s Diamond Model using integrated multi-source data. By taking the 1806 township units in Henan Province, China as examples, we conclude four different modes based on the level of the comprehensive score and industrial internal balance (i.e., balanced development mode with multiple advantages, related and supporting industries driving mode, ecological resource-led mode, and rural landscape experience mode). Policy suggestions for the optimization of the rural tourism industry for Henan are discussed based on the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
The Success of Information Systems and Sustainable Information Society: Measuring the Implementation of a Village Financial System
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 3851; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14073851 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to advance the information society literature research by examining and developing the adoption of information systems within the Village Financial System (SISKEUDES) to improve the sustainable information society (SIS). The models include the DeLone and McLean model [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to advance the information society literature research by examining and developing the adoption of information systems within the Village Financial System (SISKEUDES) to improve the sustainable information society (SIS). The models include the DeLone and McLean model and trust theory, which involves eight variables: system information quality, information quality, service quality, trust in government organizations, trust in technology, usage, user satisfaction, net benefits, and sustainable information society. A survey questionnaire was used, and data was collected from SISKEUDES users in Bali, Indonesia, which were statistically analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS) to understand the phenomena of Information System (IS) adoption and sustainable information society. The research findings reveal that system information quality, information quality, and trust in technology have a significant impact on usage and user satisfaction, whereas service quality and trust in government organizations do not have such an effect. The usage and user satisfaction variables have a significant effect on net benefits, and they have a significant effect on the sustainability of the SIS. This study’s findings can provide e-government practitioners with deeper insights into how to overcome problems with user satisfaction and increase trust in mandatory e-government services in realizing SIS and the “smart village”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Research on the Input–Output Model of the Rural Agricultural Eco-Economic System Based on Emergy Theory
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 3717; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14073717 - 22 Mar 2022
Abstract
Based on the Wassily W. Leontief input–output model, this paper constructs an emergy input–output model of an agricultural eco-economic system based on emergy theory. This model overcomes three limitations of the traditional input–output model. First, the conversion rate of ecological energy is used [...] Read more.
Based on the Wassily W. Leontief input–output model, this paper constructs an emergy input–output model of an agricultural eco-economic system based on emergy theory. This model overcomes three limitations of the traditional input–output model. First, the conversion rate of ecological energy is used to solve the problem posed by the fact that the material input–output table cannot be directly combined due to the different measurement units of different substances. Second, it transforms the research object from a pure economic system to an eco-economic system by adding resources and environmental factors. Third, this paper solves the problem posed by the fact that the value input–output model is greatly affected by inflation, and uses the model to analyze the input–output of Zoumajie town in Shuangfeng City, Hunan Province, China, by unifying dimension (solar energy value). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Spatial Analysis of Economic Activities as a Tool for Effective Urban Policies
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 276-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5010017 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The economic activities of each city greatly shape and predict their development as well as make them more competitive both locally and globally. In the last two decades, as part of the international economic crisis, Greece has been at the center of changes [...] Read more.
The economic activities of each city greatly shape and predict their development as well as make them more competitive both locally and globally. In the last two decades, as part of the international economic crisis, Greece has been at the center of changes that have resulted in the closure of thousands of businesses. This significantly affected Greek cities by changing their economic profile and robustness via the spatial distribution of their economic activities. Economic geography, as a sector that examines the geographical distribution of economic activities, is an important methodological base for analysing business locations and urban spatial processes. This paper aims to analyse, through a combination of economic geography theories and spatial analysis methods, the spatial patterns of economic activities and to identify urban areas that are resilient in difficult times of crisis. Thus cities that have the ability, via the proposed analysis/methodological framework, to control and evaluate their economic profile and prospects, can be transformed into smart cities by adopting ad hoc urban renaissance and resilient policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Decision-Making Tool for the Selection of Priority Areas for Building Rehabilitation in Barcelona
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020247 - 21 Feb 2022
Abstract
The promotion of rehabilitation is an urgent necessity in today’s consolidated cities, both due to the need to update their buildings to achieve habitability and safety standards that are required nowadays, as well as to stop the deterioration of buildings in vulnerable environments, [...] Read more.
The promotion of rehabilitation is an urgent necessity in today’s consolidated cities, both due to the need to update their buildings to achieve habitability and safety standards that are required nowadays, as well as to stop the deterioration of buildings in vulnerable environments, where paradoxically the obtainment of economic resources to invest in building maintenance and upgrade is scarcer. Decision making on the delimitation of areas in which the need to invest is higher is extremely complex and often relies on large secondary data studies that are contrasted with local stakeholders’ intuition and knowledge on the ground. Usually, rehabilitation aids are directed to relatively large areas, where a certain need may be found. However, these areas are often excessively wide and specific needs that would require special focus can be diluted in the whole. The current trend of area-based and site-specific rehabilitation programs calls for precise and focused data studies and methodologies. The research presented here provides a methodology for the selection of priority areas to promote rehabilitation in the context of Barcelona’s vulnerable neighborhoods. The selection methodology combines primary and secondary data with a very high level of disaggregation that identifies where the needs are greatest, and it also provides a tool that is still based on primary disaggregated data for the delimitation of areas. The results obtained highlight specific priority areas such as parts of the Raval, Carmel and Besòs-Maresme neighborhoods within larger zones that had been previously defined as vulnerable. The proposed methodology seeks to provide tools to foster evidence-based decision making, thus improving both the understanding of reality and its spatial distribution through data mining techniques and data visualization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Models for Supporting Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Design
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 206-222; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5010013 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 6
Abstract
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new approach in transportation systems that allows users to use different transport services as a single option, by using digital platforms and with integrated design. In MaaS many actors can be identified: MaaS operators, MaaS companies, [...] Read more.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new approach in transportation systems that allows users to use different transport services as a single option, by using digital platforms and with integrated design. In MaaS many actors can be identified: MaaS operators, MaaS companies, MaaS users, citizens, system manager/planner. In order to be able to design the system in an integrated way, it is necessary to identify comprehensive methodologies that make it possible to reach sustainability targets in a context where the decisions to be taken are shared between several operators and affect users and citizens. In this paper, the methods to be adopted for the design of an integrated transport service system have been studied. The main aim of this paper concerns the specification of transport system models for estimating the effects of decision-makers’ actions on MaaS. The consolidated design methodologies of transport networks have been extended in the context of the MaaS. The paper reports a methodology that can be used and describes the main models to be used, which derive from consolidated specifications in the field of transport systems engineering. The methodologies have to be integrated into Intelligent and Communication Technology systems to build the Intelligent Transport System in the MaaS environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Research on Comfort Evaluation Model of Urban Residents’ Public Space Lighting Integrating Public Perception and Nighttime Light Remote Sensing Data
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030655 - 29 Jan 2022
Abstract
With the development of a sustainable lifestyle, people are paying more and more attention to the comfort of their own living environment, including public space lighting, which is immediately accessible to residents. The demand on its quality and comfort has thus gained attention [...] Read more.
With the development of a sustainable lifestyle, people are paying more and more attention to the comfort of their own living environment, including public space lighting, which is immediately accessible to residents. The demand on its quality and comfort has thus gained attention recently. However, there is still a lack of related research on public space lighting comfort evaluation models that combine nighttime light remote sensing data and field measurement data, and link lighting attributes with the comfort of residents. This research uses nighttime light remote sensing data to select typical test areas, measures the lighting data of the survey points on the spot, develops an intelligent WeChat applet that collects public perception data, analyzes different lighting parameters, and builds a public space lighting comfort model based on the structural equation model analysis method. The results show that the factor that the areas with high light intensity are more comfortable than the areas with low light intensity. In areas with high light intensity, people pay more attention to the uniformity, security and comfort of the light, while in areas with low light intensity or high blue light, people’s perception of glare will be more obvious. This research can provide a basis for the intelligent optimization of public space lighting from the perspective of public preference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Technical Note
GNSS Aided Long-Range 3D Displacement Sensing for High-Rise Structures with Two Non-Overlapping Cameras
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14020379 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Image-based displacement measurement techniques are widely used for sensing the deformation of structures, and plays an increasing role in structural health monitoring owing to its benefit of non-contacting. In this study, a non-overlapping dual camera measurement model with the aid of global navigation [...] Read more.
Image-based displacement measurement techniques are widely used for sensing the deformation of structures, and plays an increasing role in structural health monitoring owing to its benefit of non-contacting. In this study, a non-overlapping dual camera measurement model with the aid of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is proposed to sense the three-dimensional (3D) displacements of high-rise structures. Each component of the dual camera system can measure a pair of displacement components of a target point in a 3D space, and its pose relative to the target can be obtained by combining a built-in inclinometer and a GNSS system. To eliminate the coupling of lateral and vertical displacements caused by the perspective projection, a homography-based transformation is introduced to correct the inclined image planes. In contrast to the stereo vision-based displacement measurement techniques, the proposed method does not require the overlapping of the field of views and the calibration of the vision geometry. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate the feasibility and correctness of the proposed method, heralding that it has a potential capacity in the field of remote health monitoring for high-rise buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Urban Form Dynamics and Modelling towards Sustainable Hinterland Development in North Cianjur, Jakarta–Bandung Mega-Urban Region
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020907 - 13 Jan 2022
Abstract
The urban form is the physical configuration of a city, developed over time and space. Urban form can be considered at different scales, from region to neighborhood, each carrying a different focus. North Cianjur serves as the hinterland and one of the conurbation [...] Read more.
The urban form is the physical configuration of a city, developed over time and space. Urban form can be considered at different scales, from region to neighborhood, each carrying a different focus. North Cianjur serves as the hinterland and one of the conurbation corridors of the Jakarta–Bandung Mega-Urban Region, meaning that the balance between its function as an environmental buffer area and the destination of urban growth needs to be planned carefully. This paper explores the dynamics in North Cianjur and employs several model scenarios as a planning intervention using landscape dynamic tools and land-change modeling, with three scenarios employed: Business as Usual (BAU), Spatial Planning Policy (SPP), and Urban Containment (UCT). The result show that North Cianjur has transformed into a polycentric region with two urban zones, a peri-urban zone, and a rural zone in the northernmost part of the region. Urban form trends show a sprawling built-up pattern outside urban zones, and a compacted trend in urban zones due to expansion from the Jakarta and Bandung Metropolitan Area. UCT models appear to be the most optimal for implementation in North Cianjur, representing a way to accommodate urban growth and expansion inside the urban center while still maintaining regional sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Ecological Security Pattern of Urban Agglomerations in Yangtze River Delta Based on LUCC Simulation
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14020296 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Urbanization has not only promoted economic development, but also significantly changed land use and development strategy. The environmental problems brought by urbanization threaten ecological security directly. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce changes in land use when constructing an ecological security pattern. This [...] Read more.
Urbanization has not only promoted economic development, but also significantly changed land use and development strategy. The environmental problems brought by urbanization threaten ecological security directly. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce changes in land use when constructing an ecological security pattern. This study takes the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, one of the most economically developed regions in China, as the research area. Based on its land use status, the Cellular Automata–Markov model was used to predict the quantitative change and transfer of land-use types in 2025, and three types of land-use patterns were simulated under different scenarios. Combined with the pressure–state–response model, the Entropy TOPSIS comprehensive evaluation model is used to evaluate the three phases in the years of 2005, 2010, and 2015, and the results indicated that the safety level dropped from 85.45% to 82.94%. Five spatial associations were obtained from the spatial autocorrelation analysis using GeoDA, and the clustering distribution of the three phases was roughly the same. Based on the requirements of “Natural Growth” scenario, “Urban Sprawl” scenario, and “Ecological Protection” scenario, the transfer matrix of the various land-use types were modified rationally. The results of scenario simulations illustrated that the level of urbanization was inversely proportional to the level of ecological security. The surrounding cities in the northern part of Taihu Lake were developing rapidly, with low levels of ecological security. The hilly cities in the southern part, in contrast, developed slowly and had a high level of ecological security. Based on the temporal and spatial changes in the ecosystem, an ecosystem optimization model was proposed to determine the ecological functional areas. The nature of each functional area provided the basis to formulate urban construction and management plans and achieve sustainable urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Site Selection for Smart Community Demonstration Projects
Smart Cities 2022, 5(1), 22-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5010002 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Definition and imagination of an ideal city can be traced back to the origin of garden city in UK about 100 years ago. Since then, many different names and topics have been proposed and smart city is the one most recently proposed. Starting [...] Read more.
Definition and imagination of an ideal city can be traced back to the origin of garden city in UK about 100 years ago. Since then, many different names and topics have been proposed and smart city is the one most recently proposed. Starting from 2000, more and more countries have developed various demonstration projects for the promotion of smart city in order to provide total solution for the promotion of sustainable development and social welfare. In fact, some of them have been successfully carried out. Some researchers in Taiwan argue that the current mechanism by which government subsidies are allocated for smart city demonstration projects warrants improvement. A comprehensive literature review determined that the development potential of smart cities should be prioritized in site selection for such demonstration projects. This study developed an evaluation framework on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation methods to enable the identification of suitable smart city demonstration sites. Evaluation criteria were first identified through the Delphi method. Next, the weights of each criterion were derived through the analytic hierarchy process. Furthermore, the capability of the proposed evaluation model was determined through simulation testing. Four demonstration sites are simulated, they are: Taipower Smart Community, Yinlin Technology University campus, Taichung Creative Cultural Park, and Asian New Bay Area in Kaohsiung, It is expected that the research findings in this thesis can be helpful to the future decision for the demo site selection of smart city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Feasibility of Different Weather Data Sources Applied to Building Indoor Temperature Estimation Using LSTM Neural Networks
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13735; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413735 - 13 Dec 2021
Abstract
The use of Machine Learning models is becoming increasingly widespread to assess energy performance of a building. In these models, the accuracy of the results depends largely on outdoor conditions. However, getting these data on-site is not always feasible. This article compares the [...] Read more.
The use of Machine Learning models is becoming increasingly widespread to assess energy performance of a building. In these models, the accuracy of the results depends largely on outdoor conditions. However, getting these data on-site is not always feasible. This article compares the temperature results obtained for an LSTM neural network model, using four types of meteorological data sources. The first is the monitoring carried out in the building; the second is a meteorological station near the site of the building; the third is a table of meteorological data obtained through a kriging process and the fourth is a dataset obtained using GFS. The results are analyzed using the CV(RSME) and NMBE indices. Based on these indices, in the four series, a CV(RSME) slightly higher than 3% is obtained, while the NMBE is below 1%, so it can be deduced that the sources used are interchangeable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Traditional Village Landscape Integration Based on Social Network Analysis: A Case Study of the Yuan River Basin in South-Western China
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13319; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313319 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Traditional rural Chinese landscapes have fragmented from the impact of rapid urbanisation and modernisation. Aiming to address this tough issue, the Chinese central government proposed the Traditional Villages Project, which is top-down traditional village management and conservation policy. A traditional village landscape network [...] Read more.
Traditional rural Chinese landscapes have fragmented from the impact of rapid urbanisation and modernisation. Aiming to address this tough issue, the Chinese central government proposed the Traditional Villages Project, which is top-down traditional village management and conservation policy. A traditional village landscape network (TVLN) can be used to integrate rural landscapes and ensure the unified protection of natural and cultural landscapes. This paper aimed to establish a method of building a TVLN through three main steps: the calculation of the connection strength of traditional villages, calculation of the tie strength between traditional villages, and establishment of a TVLN. The results demonstrated the rich layers and stable structure of the Yuan River Basin’s TVLN, but there was a hidden risk in its stability due to the existence of tangent and isolated points. This TVLN quantitatively examined the characteristics and relationships of traditional villages and provided data support for the approval of traditional villages and protection policy formulation. A TVLN can support the overall conservation of traditional village landscapes, enhance their comprehensive value, and promote the sustainable management and cross-regional protection of traditional village landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Public Participation as a Tool for Solving Socio-Spatial Conflicts of Smart Cities and Smart Villages in the Sustainable Transport System
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(23), 4821; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234821 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The article presents modern international approaches to public participation in Sustainable Transport System planning. It discusses the causes of social conflicts during the implementation of transport infrastructure projects using the example of implementation of several Polish strategic road infrastructure projects. It provides the [...] Read more.
The article presents modern international approaches to public participation in Sustainable Transport System planning. It discusses the causes of social conflicts during the implementation of transport infrastructure projects using the example of implementation of several Polish strategic road infrastructure projects. It provides the assessment of the form, scope, and scale of stakeholders’ involvement in the decision-making process. Among mitigation measures, the authors propose a model solution based on a comprehensive approach to public participation in road infrastructure planning in smart cities and smart villages within a Sustainable Transport System. The proposed idea involves a model of multi-criteria spatial analysis using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) developed in the geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which—apart from technical-functional, environmental, cultural, economic, financial, and social criteria—also encompasses preferences expressed by local community representatives. The model includes eight stages of public participation in the decision-making process, involving all the rungs of a ladder of citizen participation. The presented solution departs from typical social participation methods used in road infrastructure planning processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Framework Proposal for Achieving Smart and Sustainable Societies (S3)
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13034; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313034 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article introduces a Smart and Sustainable Societies (S3) framework, based on what is necessary to achieve the UN agenda by 2030. The proposed model is based on the integration of three smart strategies: (1) water provision that consists of the [...] Read more.
This article introduces a Smart and Sustainable Societies (S3) framework, based on what is necessary to achieve the UN agenda by 2030. The proposed model is based on the integration of three smart strategies: (1) water provision that consists of the use of greywater and rainwater; (2) sanitation provision that comprises the nutrients recovery from excreta and organic solid waste and; (3) resource-oriented agriculture that conceives the use of the water provision system for the production of food with the use of nutrients recovered from the sanitation system. The S3 framework has the potential to increase the well-being, human development, water availability, food safety, poverty alleviation, and healthy environments of societies through the provision of safely managed basic services as well as the recycling of nutrients and water to achieve sustainability at household and community levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Factors Influencing Urban Residents’ Intention of Garbage Sorting in China: An Extended TPB by Integrating Expectancy Theory and Norm Activation Model
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 12985; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132312985 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the deepening of the garbage classification policy strength, making urban household garbage sorting mandatory in China, it is imperative to clarify the key factors affecting the urban residents’ intention to behave in garbage classification. Though it has attracted the attention of researchers, [...] Read more.
With the deepening of the garbage classification policy strength, making urban household garbage sorting mandatory in China, it is imperative to clarify the key factors affecting the urban residents’ intention to behave in garbage classification. Though it has attracted the attention of researchers, there are still several aspects that need to be supplemented and improved. Thus, this study aims to investigate the critical factors affecting the urban residents’ intention of garbage sorting and develop an extended model of planned behavior by integrating expectancy theory (ET) and norm activation model (NAM). Given the positive externalities of urban residents’ garbage sorting behaviors, awareness of consequences and attribution of responsibility are correspondingly interpreted as environmental benefits (EB) and environmental concerns (EC). The sample data of 668 urban residents who lived in four pilot cities of garbage classification in China were collected and adopted to the structural equation modeling (SEM) with bootstrapping estimation method to assess the causal relationship between variables. The results indicated that the expectation (Exp) was a significant positive predictor of garbage sorting intention. Attitude (AT), perceived behavior control (PBC) and subjective norm (SN) positively affected urban residents’ expectation of garbage sorting, with SN having the most significant direct impact. The results also found that the EB has significant influences EC, which strongly influences urban residents’ expectation of garbage sorting. Furthermore, the total effect of EC on Exp is higher than other paths, and the mediating effect of SN on Exp by AT and PBC is greater than other indirect paths, which accounted for about 27.1% of the total effect. Finally, we discuss both theoretical and practical implications, along with recommendations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Reward–Penalty Mechanism Based on Daily Energy Consumption for Net-Zero Energy Buildings
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12838; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212838 - 19 Nov 2021
Abstract
Net-zero energy buildings (ZEB/NZEB) have been greatly encouraged and are considered to be a promising approach for energy conservation as well as environmental protection. However, a lack of incentive mechanisms can hinder the fast development and application of ZEB. This study thus focuses [...] Read more.
Net-zero energy buildings (ZEB/NZEB) have been greatly encouraged and are considered to be a promising approach for energy conservation as well as environmental protection. However, a lack of incentive mechanisms can hinder the fast development and application of ZEB. This study thus focuses on the design of a daily reward–penalty mechanism (RPM) by considering the performance of the building, aiming to enable a lower penalty cost for the building where there is a better match between energy consumption and energy generation. The impact of the degree of freedom of the building load (k) is investigated on building performance based on a single-family house located in Shanghai city, China. It is observed that a higher value of k is preferred since the building users can adjust its energy consumption profile to better match with its energy generation. A higher k value enables lower annual energy consumption, lower penalty cost, better stability, and an average daily zero energy level of around 1.0. In addition, four quadratic fit curves are derived to describe the relationship between building performance (i.e., annual energy consumption, the average daily zero energy level, stability, and annual penalty cost) and the degree of freedom. Meanwhile, the uncertainty of ZEB performance is quantified, which provides flexibility for building users in selecting the appropriate degree of freedom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
An Agent-Based Model for 5G Technology Diffusion in Urban Societies: Simulating Two Development Scenarios
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12698; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212698 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although 5G has been deployed in several countries, stakeholders are still hesitant to adopt the technology. Massive investment and collaboration become prerequisites for this technology to be successfully implemented and bring the most benefit. This research discusses the diffusion of 5G technology to [...] Read more.
Although 5G has been deployed in several countries, stakeholders are still hesitant to adopt the technology. Massive investment and collaboration become prerequisites for this technology to be successfully implemented and bring the most benefit. This research discusses the diffusion of 5G technology to personal end-users and industries and simulates the collaboration model. The simulation analyzes key essential indicators for stakeholders, such as the number of adopters, diffusion time, and total revenue. This study follows the pragmatism philosophy and abductive approach, integrating qualitative and quantitative research, resulting in the diffusion model. The qualitative data was obtained through focus groups and semi-structured interviews with key sources, while quantitative data from 437 people were gathered through a questionnaire. The simulation resulted in a 34% improvement in diffusion time, leading to faster investment return for industry players. This study offers an alternative paradigm compared to the diffusion of innovation theory, especially for new technology distribution. Finally, this research suggests that 5G stakeholders adopt the proposed collaboration strategy to achieve better business indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Communication
Earth Observations and Statistics: Unlocking Sociodemographic Knowledge through the Power of Satellite Images
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12640; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212640 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
The continuous urbanisation in most Low-to-Middle-Income-Country (LMIC) cities is accompanied by rapid socio-economic changes in urban and peri-urban areas. Urban transformation processes, such as gentrification as well as the increase in poor urban neighbourhoods (e.g., slums) produce new urban patterns. The intersection of [...] Read more.
The continuous urbanisation in most Low-to-Middle-Income-Country (LMIC) cities is accompanied by rapid socio-economic changes in urban and peri-urban areas. Urban transformation processes, such as gentrification as well as the increase in poor urban neighbourhoods (e.g., slums) produce new urban patterns. The intersection of very rapid socio-economic and demographic dynamics are often insufficiently understood, and relevant data for understanding them are commonly unavailable, dated, or too coarse (resolution). Traditional survey-based methods (e.g., census) are carried out at low temporal granularity and do not allow for frequent updates of large urban areas. Researchers and policymakers typically work with very dated data, which do not reflect on-the-ground realities and data aggregation hide socio-economic disparities. Therefore, the potential of Earth Observations (EO) needs to be unlocked. EO data have the ability to provide information at detailed spatial and temporal scales so as to support monitoring transformations. In this paper, we showcase how recent innovations in EO and Artificial Intelligence (AI) can provide relevant, rapid information about socio-economic conditions, and in particular on poor urban neighbourhoods, when large scale and/or multi-temporal data are required, e.g., to support Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) monitoring. We provide solutions to key challenges, including the provision of multi-scale data, the reduction in data costs, and the mapping of socio-economic conditions. These innovations fill data gaps for the production of statistical information, addressing the problems of access to field-based data under COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Sustainable Cities: Some Reflections on Companies’ Settlements
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12622; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212622 - 15 Nov 2021
Abstract
Urban dynamics in recent years show a tendency that cannot be ignored in terms of the impacts that they induce, with regard to many companies, especially big companies, that are settled in the downtown districts of the main cities, where economic spaces are [...] Read more.
Urban dynamics in recent years show a tendency that cannot be ignored in terms of the impacts that they induce, with regard to many companies, especially big companies, that are settled in the downtown districts of the main cities, where economic spaces are blended with urban spaces. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the sustainability of cities by using the specific perspective of their relationship with the companies’ urban settlements. Some questions in the present work are discussed: What advantages derive from the firms’ settlements in downtown areas? What is the impact on urban geographies? What role does urban policy play in this process? How do cities perceive this large business settlement? To answer to these questions, a model of dynamic equilibrium, referred to as the public–private relationship, is provided. The analysis starts from the context of the city as a commercial space, then identifies the determinants of the establishment of businesses in the city centers and the mediating function of politics in this urban morphogenesis. Case studies from the USA on large companies returning to urban centers complete the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Communication
Evaluating the Dynamic Impact of Theater Performances and Sports Events on Parking Demand in Downtown Pittsburgh
Smart Cities 2021, 4(4), 1391-1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4040073 - 08 Nov 2021
Abstract
The number of drivers using parking facilities (parking demand) in downtown Pittsburgh is highly variable throughout business operating hours, which makes an efficient operation of parking facilities challenging and results in congestion around the facilities. In this study, we applied an [...] Read more.
The number of drivers using parking facilities (parking demand) in downtown Pittsburgh is highly variable throughout business operating hours, which makes an efficient operation of parking facilities challenging and results in congestion around the facilities. In this study, we applied an event-based ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model to the parking data set provided from one of the parking facilities, the Theater Square Garage in downtown Pittsburgh. We demonstrated that our model achieved a high R-squared value during time periods when parking demand is highly variable. Using the model, we revealed the dynamic (time-dependent) impact of theater performances and sports events on parking demand. This dynamic information can help facility managers appropriately adjust their operating settings (e.g., the number of staff and fee structure) during surge or vacant time periods accordingly. This model is applicable to various businesses in downtown areas that have increased customer flow from theater performances and sports events, not only parking garages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Innovation in Coping with the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Best Practices from Five Smart Cities in Indonesia
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12072; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112072 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
In relation to innovations which help to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, the best practices of several smart cities become an important input to organize and create strategies for future cities. This research aims to identify the responses of cities to the COVID-19 [...] Read more.
In relation to innovations which help to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, the best practices of several smart cities become an important input to organize and create strategies for future cities. This research aims to identify the responses of cities to the COVID-19 pandemic; analyze their innovation in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic; and create strategies and planning for the future of the cities. This study analyzes aspects such as the use of information and communication technology (ICT), smart city implementation, the biological disaster of the COVID-19 pandemic, the environment, and spatial plans. This research was carried out in five smart cities using a case study. The results indicated that each case had innovations for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. They showed a uniqueness and local innovations adapted to the problems faced in the five case areas. The innovations were demonstrated by the use of ICT-based applications in several public services as part of smart city implementation. The concept of a smart city, which addresses the biological disaster of the COVID-19 pandemic through the existence of ship-based isolation centers and sociotechnical innovations, was then adapted in various cities throughout Indonesia. In terms of the smart environment concept, this is translated through technological and social innovation approaches to improve medical and domestic waste management, public service systems, and the socialization of environmental protection programs in cities during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is allegedly accelerating the implementation of the smart city concept in spatial planning. There is a tendency for the use of public space in the city center to shift to local-scale service centers. Additionally, other activities are increasingly occupying the digital space so that it affects the arrangement of spatial organization and increases the need for ICT infrastructure. The efficient and flexible use of applications for supporting the implementation of smart cities needs to be broadened for the public services provided by both the government and private sectors. Meanwhile, in relation to the dimensions of a smart environment, it is necessary to take into account the waste management as a result of COVID-19. The same case is the aspect of spatial planning in which it is necessary to redesign open spaces for public use. City planning in the future also needs to be capable of the smart mitigation of non-physical disasters, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
Article
Prediction of the Energy Self-Sufficiency Rate of Major New Renewable Energy Types Based on Zero-Energy Building Certification Cases in South Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11552; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011552 - 19 Oct 2021
Abstract
There is an increasing interest in new renewable energy sources for achieving net zero emissions. Consequently, the construction industry has mandated zero-energy building certification (ZEB), through the usage of new renewable energy. However, because of the variations in the energy self-sufficiency rate (ESR) [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest in new renewable energy sources for achieving net zero emissions. Consequently, the construction industry has mandated zero-energy building certification (ZEB), through the usage of new renewable energy. However, because of the variations in the energy self-sufficiency rate (ESR) among the new renewable energy types, incorrect ESR prediction at the design stage may lead to problems. Hence, in this study, the ESR and construction cost are analyzed for each new renewable energy capacity to predict the ESR of photovoltaic (PV), building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV), geothermal, and fuel cell systems. Passive and active technology elements of the ZEB cases in Korea are analyzed, and by establishing a standard model with the average value of each case, the ESR is calculated for each new renewable energy capacity, and the calculation formulas are derived. The results indicate that for the PV and BIPV systems, the rate of ESR increases with the capacity (kWp) and is constant at 0.54% and 0.34%, respectively. However, for the geothermal system and fuel cells, the average ESR is 0.016% and 1.46%, respectively, but as the rate of ESR increase with the capacity (kW) gradually decreases, the calculation formulas are derived with a log graph. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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Article
Threshold Effect of the Internet on Regional Innovation in China
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10797; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910797 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Internet business adoption is an essential determinant of regional innovation which has received little attention in the literature. This paper emphasizes the role and threshold effect of Internet business adoption in increasing regional innovation outputs. We construct a threshold spatial autoregressive model to [...] Read more.
Internet business adoption is an essential determinant of regional innovation which has received little attention in the literature. This paper emphasizes the role and threshold effect of Internet business adoption in increasing regional innovation outputs. We construct a threshold spatial autoregressive model to illustrate the nonlinear positive impact of Internet business adoption on innovation, simultaneously estimating interregional knowledge spillovers. To test threshold effect and interregional knowledge spillover, we use province-level panel data set in China and calculate Moran’s I and LR-like statistics to confirm the nonlinearity and spatial dependence. Within the empirical model, we find a positive relationship between the number of websites owned by local firms and the number of patents filed in that specific region. Our analysis suggests that Internet business adoption has a greater marginal benefit on the innovation of isolate regions. The results also indicate that ignoring interregional knowledge spillover may cause mistakes in the model on regional innovation systems. Policy implications for these results suggest that the government should not only pay attention to Internet development of the whole country but also encourage the reduction of digital divisions among regions Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
Article
A Method for Constructing Geographical Knowledge Graph from Multisource Data
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10602; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910602 - 24 Sep 2021
Abstract
Global problems all occur at a particular location on or near the Earth’s surface. Sitting at the junction of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data, knowledge graphs (KGs) organize, interlink, and create semantic knowledge, thus attracting much attention worldwide. Although the existing KGs [...] Read more.
Global problems all occur at a particular location on or near the Earth’s surface. Sitting at the junction of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data, knowledge graphs (KGs) organize, interlink, and create semantic knowledge, thus attracting much attention worldwide. Although the existing KGs are constructed from internet encyclopedias and contain abundant knowledge, they lack exact coordinates and geographical relationships. In light of this, a geographical knowledge graph (GeoKG) construction method based on multisource data is proposed, consisting of a modeling schema layer and a filling data layer. This method has two advantages: (1) the knowledge can be extracted from geographic datasets; (2) the knowledge on multisource data can be represented and integrated. Firstly, the schema layer is designed to represent geographical knowledge. Then, the methods of extraction and integration from multisource data are designed to fill the data layer, and a storage method is developed to associate semantics with geospatial knowledge. Finally, the GeoKG is verified through linkage rate, semantic relationship rate, and application cases. The experiments indicate that the method could automatically extract and integrate knowledge from multisource data. Additionally, our GeoKG has a higher success rate of linking web pages with geographic datasets, and its exact coordinates have increased to 100%. This paper could bridge the distance between a Geographic Information System and a KG, thus facilitating more geospatial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages)
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