Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 121967

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Poznań University of Technology, ul. Jacka Rychlewskiego 2, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
Interests: project engineering and management; decision making; integral design and management; sustainability; research methods in CE and architecture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Poznań University of Technology, Poznań, Poland
Interests: requirements engineering in architectural design; BIM technology in architectural design; sustainable architecture and infrastructure; prefabrication and modular building; research methods and techniques applied in architecture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Interests: social housing; architectural design; the identity of architecture concerning fragile and marginal territories

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Architecture and engineering generate much excitement. New design techniques and methods and implementation results stimulate the interest of researchers, designers, and the public. It is common knowledge that interesting solutions exist at the border of architecture and engineering. We would like to invite you to share your creative and engineering accomplishments. After all, borderline issues are attractive and inspiring.

In the current Special Issue, we pay attention not only to the engineering of architecture itself, but also to beauty, creativity, social aspects in architecture and engineering, and to interior design—thus, not only to cubature architecture.

The problem area at the border of beauty and engineering, or the border of art and technology, is multidimensional. In this issue, we list a few subject groups.

Please note the whole range of evolving design paradigms, including open-source architecture (OSArc) based on imagination, and shaping the universalization of infrastructure. Note the importance of knowledge, including examples of the use of evidence-based design, intelligence-based design, design thinking method, as well as the ways in which quality assessment methods, such as post-occupancy evaluation (POE), building performance evaluation (BPE) are applied in architecture. To what extent are they related to the designer’s creativity?

Presentations of experiences of the use of, among others, integral design and management, BIM and building life cycle modeling (BLCM), 3D to 7D modeling, parametric design, and advanced visualization will be welcome. Digital support for decision-making processes in architecture and civil engineering already has a long-standing tradition worthy of presentation.

As part of sustainability, we suggest paying attention to architectural revitalization and bioclimatic architecture. Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), circular economy (including circular building), building life cycle, and reducing energy consumption in buildings are inextricably linked with those issues.

In the area of interior architecture, we can expect articles in the realm of virtual reality and parametric methods, sustainable and recycling materials in interior design, flexibility, responsibility, experiences in interior architecture, and light and color in interior design.

Two threads are also worth highlighting: the designer’s place in the chain linking architecture, engineering, construction, and operation and maintenance; and public participation in architectural design.

Prof. Dr. Oleg Kapliński
Prof. Dr. Agata Bonenberg
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Bonenberg
Prof. Marco Lucchini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Art
  • Construction engineering
  • Cubature architecture
  • Interior architecture
  • Process design
  • Design paradigms
  • Cost–benefit analysis
  • Digitization in architecture and civil engineering

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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9 pages, 525 KiB  
Editorial
Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering
by Oleg Kapliński
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101609 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
The current Special Issue is a synthetic overview of 21 published articles. The contact point of architecture–art–engineering is multidimensional, and therefore, this synthesis of works takes into account three criteria: (a) research subject indication, (b) research problem identification, and (c) sublimation of the [...] Read more.
The current Special Issue is a synthetic overview of 21 published articles. The contact point of architecture–art–engineering is multidimensional, and therefore, this synthesis of works takes into account three criteria: (a) research subject indication, (b) research problem identification, and (c) sublimation of the research techniques and instrumentality used. Research problems, scientific values, and utility values have been highlighted. This synthetic tripartite is intended to make it easier for the reader to find an interesting subject and instrumentality. As the topics of the articles overlap, guided by the dominant values of each article, five subject groups have been sublimated. These are: structural aspects and design, digitization, architectural heritage, aesthetics and emotions vs. engineering, and interior architecture. The characteristic values of each subject group are presented. The indicated new design and research tools do not separate but combine the subject industries; they connect the entities of the investment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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Research

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18 pages, 11046 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design and Verification of Informal Learning Spaces (ILS) in Chinese Universities Based on Visual Perception Analysis
by Yuzhen Chen, Jinxiu Wu, Yamei Zou, Wei Dong and Xin Zhou
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101495 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
As the focus on higher education in China gradually shifts from rapid development to an emphasis on quality, the need for campus environments to become facilitators of education has gained increasing attention. The accelerated development of information technology has also led to tremendous [...] Read more.
As the focus on higher education in China gradually shifts from rapid development to an emphasis on quality, the need for campus environments to become facilitators of education has gained increasing attention. The accelerated development of information technology has also led to tremendous changes in both teaching and learning methods, with informal learning taking on an increasingly important role. Furthermore, the development of human sensing technology, especially visual perception technology, has brought in new opportunities for the research and optimization of informal learning spaces (ILSs) in universities. This paper focuses on the ILS in Chinese universities by exploring optimal design approaches based on visual perception analysis. Through research and field investigation, this paper proposes revised theoretical research of classifications and spatial elements of ILS in universities more applicable to the architectural study of space. This paper also explores practical optimal design methods with two case studies and makes experiments with wearable eye trackers to study the users’ perception in these spaces before and after optimization. The optimal design is made from the aspects of physical space, facilities, and environment. Visual perception experiments and quantitative analysis were used to obtain a higher level of experimental accuracy than the previous studies and thus to study the real feeling of users in spaces. By these means, the effect of the optimized design was verified and the relation between users’ perceptions and the spatial environments was explored for further improvements to optimal design methods. This article can provide theoretical and practical references for campus space optimization research and design, especially for ILS on university campuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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36 pages, 9885 KiB  
Article
Application of Glass Structures in Architectural Shaping of All-Glass Pavilions, Extensions, and Links
by Anna Jóźwik
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081254 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 9789
Abstract
This article covers the issues of applying structural glass in shaping all-glass architectural objects. Glass, as a transparent material, is a source of inspiration for new architectural solutions. With the development of technology and the increasing knowledge of glass’s mechanical and strength properties, [...] Read more.
This article covers the issues of applying structural glass in shaping all-glass architectural objects. Glass, as a transparent material, is a source of inspiration for new architectural solutions. With the development of technology and the increasing knowledge of glass’s mechanical and strength properties, the possibility of using the material for construction purposes has also been acknowledged. Structural elements and building envelope elements can create a uniform material structure of all-glass objects. This observation contributed to the analysis presented in the article. The research was mainly aimed at investigating the architectural and structural-related conditions in shaping all-glass structures in buildings. In this paper, we specify criteria and typology in terms of the applied design solutions. The criteria investigated in the study included functional-spatial aspects, the form, and the structure. All-glass objects were divided into pavilions, extensions, and links in terms of functional and spatial aspects. Architectural forms were specified and characterised as cubic, cuboid, cylindrical, and free-forms. Regarding structural solutions, frames, grillages, beam-wall, and plate-wall systems were indicated as the main load-bearing structures implemented in the buildings under study. The results have been obtained to describe the architectural and structural shaping of all-glass objects. One of the main results of the work is the indication between functional-spatial aspects, the form, and the structure. This correlation confirms the close relationship in architecture between art and engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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20 pages, 1531 KiB  
Communication
Apparent Destruction Architectural Design for the Sustainability of Building Skins
by Magdalena Celadyn and Waclaw Celadyn
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081220 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Technical durability and aesthetical longevity of building skins are among the fundamental demands of sustainable architecture in terms of building fabric’s physical changes due to deterioration. This concept paper presents a design concept intended to fill the existing gap related to the limited [...] Read more.
Technical durability and aesthetical longevity of building skins are among the fundamental demands of sustainable architecture in terms of building fabric’s physical changes due to deterioration. This concept paper presents a design concept intended to fill the existing gap related to the limited durability of buildings and non-existing design methods for its effective extension. The study concentrates on the anticipation and assimilation of disintegration processes occurring in time into the architectural design methodology to promote the design techniques focused on the visual expression of the coexistence of nature and the artificial in the function of time. This study investigates the building’s enclosure as an active boundary through which the building’s interaction with the natural environment occurs, as well as a regulator of the building’s energy performance and a factor conditioning their durability. The consideration of formal and esthetical deconstruction in architectural design is followed by the analyses of some relevant examples of completed buildings and cultural determinants underlying this issue. The proposed Apparent Destruction Architectural Design (ADAD) concept addresses the time-dependency of the building skins’ physical properties manifested by the deterioration, destruction and re-figuration of the building’s fabric. This design concept offers a solution to the disturbing problem of architecture’s impermanence enhances the issue of sustainability of the building’s fabric in time, becomes a means to search for the unconventional comprehension and vision of architecture, as well as to reframe the architectural design toward its compliance with sustainability postulates through the aesthetic concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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23 pages, 8324 KiB  
Article
Historical Cultural Layers and Sustainable Design Art Models for Architectural Engineering—Took Public Art Proposal for the Tainan Bus Station Construction Project as an Example
by Wan-Fang Liu, Chun-Ta Tzeng and Wen-Chang Kuo
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081098 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
The concept of “historic buildings” is cultural with evolutionary characteristics, mainly constructed in the category of historical culture and people’s living settlements. “Public art” is an artistic asset with aesthetic attributes in urban living spaces. It contains two connotations, “cultural landscape” and “cultural [...] Read more.
The concept of “historic buildings” is cultural with evolutionary characteristics, mainly constructed in the category of historical culture and people’s living settlements. “Public art” is an artistic asset with aesthetic attributes in urban living spaces. It contains two connotations, “cultural landscape” and “cultural route”, which form an artistic symbol of urban architectural space at the same time. Along with the progress of an urban renewal plan, a local culture characterized the urban landscape, making architecture a tool used to convey cultural identity spatially. Two coexisting issues can be seen through the accumulated structure and long-term changes of historic buildings, a region’s appearance, and the content of the traditional architectural styles—cultural value preservation and modern urban renewal—which ferment and generate decision-making discussion of design subtly in every corner of a city. This study examines the extant literature and the design model of public art landscape setting to construct a design model that balances the cultural value of historic buildings, and the landscape of public art has been proposed as a result of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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25 pages, 11356 KiB  
Article
The Third Solar Decathlon China Buildings for Achieving Carbon Neutrality
by Bin Li, Weihong Guo, Xiao Liu, Yuqing Zhang and Luca Caneparo
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081094 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
This research explored buildings for carbon neutrality to solve the global warming problem in the Third Solar Decathlon China (SDC). The methods were derived from subjective and objective evaluation aspects based on the competition rules. Then, the results of the concepts, technologies, and [...] Read more.
This research explored buildings for carbon neutrality to solve the global warming problem in the Third Solar Decathlon China (SDC). The methods were derived from subjective and objective evaluation aspects based on the competition rules. Then, the results of the concepts, technologies, and prospects of 15 buildings were output. The conclusion was summarized after a discussion as follows: (1) Solving global warming through carbon neutrality is widely required and research into this issue is required now. (2) Research methods were determined via five subjective and five objective contests with multiple sub-contests. (3) Fifteen buildings’ concepts, technologies, and prospects were determined regarding the carbon neutrality aspect. (4) A good architectural design concept was needed before building for carbon neutrality. (5) This research summarized the current development of architecture concepts and technologies in academia and industry. (6) Thirty-five kinds of active and passive technologies were determined, where PV as an active method and modular assembly as a passive method were the most used in this competition. (7) The technologies used with a low frequency, such as wind turbine, Stirling engine, hydrogen fuel cell, UHPC, PCM, and SST walls technologies, also need further attention. (8) The prospect of carbon neutrality, especially for energy production in residential buildings, may shift people’s passive acceptance of carbon neutrality to active energy production. (9) Using ANP to produce the SDC ranking may be considered for more scientific investigations to demonstrate the carbon neutrality effect. (10) The limitations will continue to be researched in the future. Finally, this research aimed to make a contribution to solving the global warming for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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21 pages, 4218 KiB  
Article
Creative Thinking in the Architecture Design Studio: Bibliometric Analysis and Literature Review
by Eun Joo Park and Sanghee Lee
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060828 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4863
Abstract
It is increasingly important for researchers and educators to find effective ways to stimulate students’ creativity. In design education, the specificity of design, defined as open-ended problems and ill-defined problems, provides a special opportunity to improve creativity. Nevertheless, design education itself encounters other [...] Read more.
It is increasingly important for researchers and educators to find effective ways to stimulate students’ creativity. In design education, the specificity of design, defined as open-ended problems and ill-defined problems, provides a special opportunity to improve creativity. Nevertheless, design education itself encounters other issues concerning creativity, such as not specifying in detail what creative design pedagogy should be. Thus, a comprehensive review of existing studies is needed to guide research in this field better. We used bibliometric analysis to provide information on literature statistics of the 658 articles published in design research–related journals between 1982 and 2022. An in-depth review of the 36 selected articles revealed the existing research on the design studio to investigate creativity from three perspectives: (1) creativity criteria and evaluation, (2) idea generation and development, and (3) pedagogy in the design studio. This study provides a roadmap for global educators and researchers focusing on pedagogy that enhances students’ creativity in the design studio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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16 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
The Interior Experience of Architecture: An Emotional Connection between Space and the Body
by Keunhye Lee
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030326 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 20242
Abstract
This paper provides a phenomenological understanding of interior space to explore the emotional connection between space and experience. It focuses on the significant aspects of interior space, considering how people experience interior space and which aspects improve the quality of spatial and emotional [...] Read more.
This paper provides a phenomenological understanding of interior space to explore the emotional connection between space and experience. It focuses on the significant aspects of interior space, considering how people experience interior space and which aspects improve the quality of spatial and emotional experience. I have argued that the interior experience offers effective ways of stimulating emotional experience to create spatial perception as a way of understanding architecture. Interior experience can be developed through: (a) stimulating a lived body; (b) emphasizing materiality; and (c) generating emotional connection. This allows people to develop an awareness of the sensual aspects of the interior space and improve the quality of their emotional experiences. I have drawn upon representative case studies about spatial experience to explore how they use materiality to stimulate sensory effects and how the multi-sensory space connects with emotional experience, which is one of the fundamental aspects of this paper. I found that an integrated body and materiality are fundamental elements that are needed to enrich the spatial experience, even in an abstract dimension of the work without architectural form. Thus, this paper contributes to the understanding and knowledge of the relationship between interior space and experience with respect to improving the quality of the emotional experience in order to develop spatial experience and considering how experience intervenes in interior space to create a multi-sensory space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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19 pages, 5512 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Color Preferences for Elderly Depression in the United Arab Emirates
by Chuloh Jung, Naglaa Sami Abdelaziz Mahmoud, Gamal El Samanoudy and Nahla Al Qassimi
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020234 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4742
Abstract
The elderly are more prone to develop depression from physical, psychological, and economic changes, and 25.7% of the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) elderly population suffer from depression. Color therapy is a widely accepted treatment to solve the depressive symptoms of the elderly. The [...] Read more.
The elderly are more prone to develop depression from physical, psychological, and economic changes, and 25.7% of the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) elderly population suffer from depression. Color therapy is a widely accepted treatment to solve the depressive symptoms of the elderly. The color preference of the Seniors’ Happiness Centre—in Ajman UAE—a residential space for the elderly, could improve the quality of life, including depression symptoms. This paper explored the relationship between the color preference of the resident bedroom space and the depressive symptoms. As a methodology, using color images as stimuli, the physiological and psychological responses of the 86 elderly participants to the proposed color preference of the resident bedroom interiors—observed through a viewing box to simulate 3D space perception—were compared and analyzed to investigate the relationship between the color preference and depression by a survey with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement. The results showed that the elderly’s preference for warm colors is higher than that of cold colors, and each room needs a different color scheme because the elderly, 65 and above, have different visual characteristics. There was no significant difference between the left and right alpha wave values of the prefrontal cortex of the participant group. The main reason is that the brain waves are minute electrical signals and appear different from person to person. The color scheme on one side of the wall with increased saturation seemed to improve depressive symptoms effectively. It was found that psychologically, healthy elderly reacted positively to the single-color scheme of the Blue cool color, but elderly with depression reacted well to the contrast color scheme of the Blue-Yellow/Red cool color. This study will serve as critical data to propose more color preferences for the Seniors’ Happiness Center suitable for the elderly by studying the response to more diverse colors in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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13 pages, 8671 KiB  
Article
Preferences of the Facade Composition in the Context of Its Regularity and Irregularity
by Michał Malewczyk, Antoni Taraszkiewicz and Piotr Czyż
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020169 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3881
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the preferences of Polish society towards building facades depending on the degree of the composition regularity of the facade elements. The subject matter is inspired by the authors’ observations in relation to the current architectural [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the preferences of Polish society towards building facades depending on the degree of the composition regularity of the facade elements. The subject matter is inspired by the authors’ observations in relation to the current architectural trends. The purposefulness of the conducted research results from several issues. Firstly, the reports of psychology and neurosciences clearly indicate the universality of certain preferences towards visual attributes of objects (e.g., in relation to abstract symmetric patterns), resulting from biological conditions. Secondly, residential, multi-family architecture is by definition designed for a wide group of anonymous users whose expectations must be met. One of the dimensions of the above-mentioned expectations is the visual dimension, partially dependent on the composition of the facade. In the course of the conducted research, it is shown that facades with a regular composition are assessed as more attractive than those with irregular compositions. Moreover, irregular facades evoked a negative effect of a significantly greater force than the positive effect in the case of regular facades. The above-described discoveries shed, in the authors’ opinion, a completely new light on the contemporary work of architects. It is extremely important to adapt the visual dimension of architecture to the expectations of its recipients, while taking care of its values and quality as a field of art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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24 pages, 26093 KiB  
Article
Design of Islamic Parametric Elevation for Interior, Enclosed Corridors to Optimize Daylighting and Solar Radiation Exposure in a Desert Climate: A Case Study of the University of Sharjah, UAE
by Aref Maksoud, Emad Mushtaha, Zaid Al-Sadoon, Hala Sahall and Ahmed Toutou
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020161 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
This study used innovative computational design tools to improve a corridor’s visual and environmental conditions, such as solar radiation exposure and optimal daylighting, at the University of Sharjah’s (UoS) campus in the United Arab Emirates. The research methodology used computational design software to [...] Read more.
This study used innovative computational design tools to improve a corridor’s visual and environmental conditions, such as solar radiation exposure and optimal daylighting, at the University of Sharjah’s (UoS) campus in the United Arab Emirates. The research methodology used computational design software to develop two sets of codes. The first set was dedicated to conducting environmental study simulations that assessed the corridor’s performance and classified site-dependent parameters such as sun path analysis and wind rose diagrams, and pattern-dependent parameters such as solar radiation analysis and shadow study diagrams. The second code set generated Islamic geometric patterns, following the design scheme of the University. Varying typologies were produced using the two parameters to change the pattern’s porous size, shape, and gradient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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26 pages, 8448 KiB  
Article
Unknown Suns: László Hudec, Antonin Raymond and the Rising of a Modern Architecture for Eastern Asia
by Anamaria Andreea Anghel, Joseph Cabeza-Lainez and Yingying Xu
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020093 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to disclose the strenuous efforts of László Hudec in China and Antonin Raymond in Japan and India to create a modern architectural stance by heralding an incipient space syntax. At the turn of the 19th century, for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to disclose the strenuous efforts of László Hudec in China and Antonin Raymond in Japan and India to create a modern architectural stance by heralding an incipient space syntax. At the turn of the 19th century, for dynastic, political and economic reasons, Eastern Asia had very little modern architecture. It is a surprising fact that, out of happenstance, two European architects, Antonin Raymond and László Hudec, had to intervene to remedy this situation, to the point of becoming 20th century icons in Japan and China. Their fruitful careers spanned over thirty years and included locations like Tamil Nadu and the Philippines. The oriental territories were not an easy ground for the bold architectural achievements that they produced. Despite faraway strangeness and uncountable personal losses, in revolutions and wars, which eventually forced them both to leave for the United States of America and never to return, they were successful in the manner of establishing a broad avenue for modern Asian architecture which is still recognizable today thanks to their systematic approach. However, theirs is an endangered heritage and the intention of this article is to offer a just remembrance of the way in which such actions could be performed, how they predated by many years a syntactic approach to architectural composition and why their legacy should be preserved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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28 pages, 21244 KiB  
Article
Architectural Characteristics of Different Configurations Based on New Geometric Determinations for the Conoid
by Joseph Cabeza-Lainez
Buildings 2022, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12010010 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4432
Abstract
The aim of this article is to orient the evolution of new architectural forms offering up-to-date scientific support. Unlike the volume, the expression for the lateral area of a regular conoid has not yet been obtained by means of direct integration or a [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to orient the evolution of new architectural forms offering up-to-date scientific support. Unlike the volume, the expression for the lateral area of a regular conoid has not yet been obtained by means of direct integration or a differential geometry procedure. In this type of ruled surface, the fundamental expressions I and II, for other curved figures have proved not solvable thus far. As this form is frequently used in architectural engineering, the inability to determine its surface area represents a serious hindrance to solving several problems that arise in radiative transfer, lighting and construction, to cite just a few. To address such drawback, we conceived a new approach that, in principle, consists in dividing the surface into infinitesimal elliptic strips of which the area can be obtained in an approximate fashion. The length of the ellipse is expressed with certain accuracy by means of Ramanujan’s second formula. By integrating the so-found perimeter of the differential strips for the whole span of the conoid, an unexpected solution emerges through a newly found number that we call psi (ψ). In this complex process, projected shapes have been derived from an original closed form composed of two conoids and called Antisphera for its significant parallels with the sphere. The authors try to demonstrate that the properties of the new surfaces have relevant implications for technology, especially in building science and sustainability, under domains such as structures, radiation and acoustics. Fragments of the conoid have occasionally appeared in modern and contemporary architecture but this article discusses how its use had been discontinued, mainly due to the uncertainties that its construction posed. The new knowledge provided by the authors, including their own proposals, may help to revitalize and expand such interesting configurations in the search for a revolution of forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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10 pages, 2113 KiB  
Article
Digital Simulation for Buildings’ Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Urban Neighborhoods
by Yingyi Zhang and Chang Liu
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110541 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2992
Abstract
Buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort influences environment quality and human behavior in urban neighborhoods. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) has been broadly applied to the study of buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort in urban areas. However, complex environmental conditions in climate-sensitive urban areas can [...] Read more.
Buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort influences environment quality and human behavior in urban neighborhoods. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) has been broadly applied to the study of buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort in urban areas. However, complex environmental conditions in climate-sensitive urban areas can make UTCI assessment complicated and ineffective. This paper introduces digital techniques into buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort analysis for the improvement of the urban habitant environment. A digital simulation system is generated to facilitate the analysis procedure for buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort assessment in urban neighborhoods. The analysis addresses the research question: “Can digital simulation techniques provide a modeling system to assess buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort continuously and effectively?” Methods include a case study of neighborhoods in Beijing, qualitative and quantitative analysis based on digital processes, and parametric modeling. The results indicate that digital simulation techniques and tools have the capability to support the analysis of buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort by providing three-dimensional models, algorithm-based analysis, and visual simulation. The findings include a critique of digital simulation as applied to architecture study and insights on potentially improving buildings’ outdoor thermal comfort through human–computer interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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19 pages, 4633 KiB  
Article
Application of Advanced Building Techniques to Enhance the Environmental Performance of Interior Components
by Magdalena Celadyn and Waclaw Celadyn
Buildings 2021, 11(7), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11070309 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3815
Abstract
This paper discusses the impact of advanced building techniques, in tune with selected building materials and their physical attributes, applied to complete constitutive interiors components on these components’ environmental performance and aesthetics. There is an understanding of technological practices as essential for the [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the impact of advanced building techniques, in tune with selected building materials and their physical attributes, applied to complete constitutive interiors components on these components’ environmental performance and aesthetics. There is an understanding of technological practices as essential for the effective management of the design process; still, the creative introduction of advanced building techniques is not commonly recognized by interior architects. The objective of the research is to indicate the possible multidimensional consequences of the analysis of materials’ physical attributes and the consistent application of advanced building techniques to complete interior components. The basis for this study formed the design concepts of aesthetic functionalism, place attachment, and a content-context model of the association between interior components and the building fabric. Some theoretical frameworks were used for a qualitative evaluation of interior components of selected cultural facilities completed in the last decade in Poland. The performance of these components was measured in the function of applied innovative building techniques and specified building materials. Research findings have proved the impact of building techniques on the performance of interior components as instruments to increase interior functional use, formal uniformity, and aesthetic cohesion of buildings and their inner spaces, as well as the scale of multisensorial effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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32 pages, 35841 KiB  
Article
Contemporary Odeon Buildings as a Sustainable Environment for Culture
by Kazimierz Leonard Butelski
Buildings 2021, 11(7), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11070308 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3574
Abstract
The subject of this study is contemporary odeons in Poland, where 11 covered amphitheaters (odeons) have been built since 2005. The odeons were selected from a wider collection of 57 functioning amphitheaters. The study collected data on location, form, function, and construction. The [...] Read more.
The subject of this study is contemporary odeons in Poland, where 11 covered amphitheaters (odeons) have been built since 2005. The odeons were selected from a wider collection of 57 functioning amphitheaters. The study collected data on location, form, function, and construction. The data sources included the literature, archival research, design documentation, and competition entries. Descriptive and graphical comparative analyses of the phenomena, based on the statistics for completed structures and on design experiments in the case of unbuilt structures, were the two main research methods used in this study. The emergence and development directions of the typology of open cultural spaces from amphitheaters to odeons are presented in a global and regional context. Their interrelationships, affecting form and function, were also analyzed. The influence of high-end materials that were used to create these complex, large-scale spatial structures, and their impact on the environment, has been presented. The contemporary roofs covering the entertainment and stage complex were analyzed in relation to environmental factors, determining the location of the odeons. The functional aspects of these buildings and their cultural significance on a local, regional and global scale were discussed. The odeon in Biała Podlaska, built in 2019, was chosen as a case study to show, in detail, the complexity of the formation of contemporary odeons. In the discussion on the direction of the further evolution of open spaces for culture, an example of an unrealized competition design proposal of mobile roofing forms for the eighteenth-century amphitheater in the Royal Baths Park in Warsaw, Poland, was presented. The conclusions emphasize the environmental, spatial, functional, social and economic values of the establishment and functioning of contemporary odeons as open spaces of culture that are compliant with the principles of sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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30 pages, 6861 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Avant-Garde Art on Brutalist Architecture
by Wojciech Niebrzydowski
Buildings 2021, 11(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11070290 - 4 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 10837
Abstract
Brutalism was an architectural trend that emerged after World War II, and in the 1960s and 1970s, it spread throughout the world. The development of brutalist architecture was greatly influenced by post-war avant-garde art. The greatest impact on brutalism was exerted by such [...] Read more.
Brutalism was an architectural trend that emerged after World War II, and in the 1960s and 1970s, it spread throughout the world. The development of brutalist architecture was greatly influenced by post-war avant-garde art. The greatest impact on brutalism was exerted by such avant-garde trends as art autre, art brut, and musique concrète. Architects were most inspired by the works of such artists as Jackson Pollock, Jean Dubuffet, Pierre Schaeffer, Eduardo Paolozzi, and Nigel Henderson. The main aim of the research was to identify and characterize the most important ideas and principles common to avant-garde art and brutalist architecture. Due to the nature of the research problem and its complexity, the method of historical interpretative studies was used. The following research techniques were employed: analysis of the literature, comparative analysis, multiple case studies, descriptive analysis, and studies of buildings in situ. The research found the most important common ideas guiding brutalist architects and avant-garde artists: rejection of previous principles and doctrines; searching for the rudiments; mirroring the realities of everyday life; glorification of ordinariness; sincerity of the material, structure, and function; use of raw materials and rough textures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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15 pages, 5635 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Widespread Use of Corten Plate on the Acoustics of the European Solidarity Centre Building in Gdańsk
by Wojciech Targowski and Andrzej Kulowski
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030133 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3227
Abstract
This paper describes the relationship between a strong architectural vision that is difficult to balance, and user expectations in terms of acoustics. The focus is on the use of corten steel as the dominant finishing material on façades and interiors to achieve an [...] Read more.
This paper describes the relationship between a strong architectural vision that is difficult to balance, and user expectations in terms of acoustics. The focus is on the use of corten steel as the dominant finishing material on façades and interiors to achieve an expressive, symbolic message through program-based design. The architectural premises justifying the adopted solutions are presented, especially the universality and homogeneity of the material. Against this background, the influence of corten steel on the acoustics of the two largest rooms of the European Solidarity Center, which are the winter garden and the multi-purpose hall, was discussed. Remedial steps have been taken to reduce the greatest acoustic inconveniences resulting from the widespread use of metal sheet as a finishing material in rooms, i.e., excessive reverberation and a low degree of sound dispersion. A positive result for the acoustic conditions achieved in the winter garden was the presentation of a large body of classical music in the building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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19 pages, 8582 KiB  
Article
Medieval Bourgeois Tenement Houses as an Archetype for Contemporary Architectural and Construction Solutions: The Example of Historic Downtown Gdańsk
by Antoni Taraszkiewicz, Karol Grębowski, Karolina Taraszkiewicz and Jarosław Przewłócki
Buildings 2021, 11(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11030080 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7398
Abstract
The basic urban tissue of medieval European cities consisted of brick townhouses. In the cities of northern Europe, these tenements were characterised by a block based on an elongated rectangular plan, covered with a gable roof with a ridge oriented perpendicularly to the [...] Read more.
The basic urban tissue of medieval European cities consisted of brick townhouses. In the cities of northern Europe, these tenements were characterised by a block based on an elongated rectangular plan, covered with a gable roof with a ridge oriented perpendicularly to the street. The side walls of the tenement house were common for both neighbours and constituted a basic structural element. The gable façades were not loaded with ceilings, providing freedom in shaping them. The aim of this work is to determine the reasons why this method of shaping tenement houses in historical city centres has survived to the present day, becoming an archetype for contemporary architectural and construction solutions, despite the passage of time, numerous historical events, war damage, changing architectural styles, fashions and building techniques and technologies. The historical centre of Gdańsk has become the research material in this paper, where by means of such methods as historical source material analysis (iconographic), observation (operationalisation of preserved historical objects), comparative analysis of completed contemporary investments, and 3D modelling of structural systems, an attempt has been made to determine the main factors determining contemporary architectural and structural solutions. The reason for the extraordinary durability of this type of construction model can be found in the enormous rationality and efficiency of this solution. It allows for very intensive use of land, easy access of all front elevations to the main communication routes, cheapness of construction resulting from small spans and use of common structural walls for the neighbouring buildings, ease of shaping gable elevations, and fire safety. Aesthetic considerations are probably also important here, although it should be assumed that their significance began to grow only in the second half of the 19th century. However, it seems that the most important factor which made the model of the mediaeval bourgeois tenement house become an archetype for contemporary architectural and construction solutions is the timeless message contained in this model, a specific code allowing it to be unambiguously identified as a form of urban house—a place of safe living and at the same time a visible sign of the rich history of European cities, an element creating their cultural and spatial identity, a component of the living, constantly transforming urban fabric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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17 pages, 17153 KiB  
Article
A Simple Framework for the Cost–Benefit Analysis of Single-Task Construction Robots Based on a Case Study of a Cable-Driven Facade Installation Robot
by Rongbo Hu, Kepa Iturralde, Thomas Linner, Charlie Zhao, Wen Pan, Alessandro Pracucci and Thomas Bock
Buildings 2021, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010008 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5765
Abstract
Single-task construction robots (STCRs) have become a popular research topic for decades. However, there is still a gap in the ubiquitous application of STCRs for onsite construction due to various reasons, such as cost concerns. Therefore, cost–benefit analysis (CBA) can be used to [...] Read more.
Single-task construction robots (STCRs) have become a popular research topic for decades. However, there is still a gap in the ubiquitous application of STCRs for onsite construction due to various reasons, such as cost concerns. Therefore, cost–benefit analysis (CBA) can be used to measure the net economic benefit of the STCRs, compared to traditional construction methods, in order to boost the implementation of STCRs. This paper presents a simple and practical framework for the economic evaluation of STCRs and conducts a case study of a cable-driven facade installation robot to verify the method. The results show that the cable-driven robot for facade installation is worth investing in in the UK, as well as in the majority of G20 countries. Furthermore, other socioenvironmental implications of STCRs and the limitations of the study are also discussed. In conclusion, the proposed method is highly adaptable and reproducible. Therefore, researchers, engineers, investors, and policy makers can easily follow and customize this method to assess the economic advantages of any STCR systems, compared to traditional construction technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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Review

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15 pages, 276 KiB  
Review
The Decline of Architects: Can a Computer Design Fine Architecture without Human Input?
by Joanna Kołata and Piotr Zierke
Buildings 2021, 11(8), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080338 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5434
Abstract
Architects are required to have knowledge of current legislation, ergonomics, and the latest technical solutions. In addition, the design process necessitates an appreciation of the quality of the space and a high degree of creativity. However, it is a profession that has undergone [...] Read more.
Architects are required to have knowledge of current legislation, ergonomics, and the latest technical solutions. In addition, the design process necessitates an appreciation of the quality of the space and a high degree of creativity. However, it is a profession that has undergone significant changes in recent years due to the pressure exerted by the development of information technology. The designs generated by computer algorithms are becoming such a serious part of designers’ work that some are beginning to question whether they are more the work of computers than humans. There are also increasing suggestions that software development will eventually lead to a situation where humans in the profession will become redundant. This review article aims to present the currently used, implemented, and planned computer technologies employed in the design and consider how they affect and will affect the work of architects in the future. It includes opinions of a wide range of experts on the possibility of computer algorithms replacing architects. The ultimate goal of the article is an attempt to answer the question: will computers eliminate the human factor in the design of the future? It also considers the artificial intelligence or communication skills that computer algorithms would require to achieve this goal. The answers to these questions will contribute not only to determining the future of architecture but will also indicate the current condition of the profession. They will also help us to understand the technologies that are making computers capable of increasingly replacing human professions. Despite differing opinions on the possibility of computer algorithms replacing architects, the conclusions indicate that, currently, computers do not have capabilities and skills to achieve this goal. The speed of technological development, especially such technologies as artificial superintelligence, artificial brains, or quantum computers allows us to predict that the replacement of the architect by machines will be unrealistic in coming decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)

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17 pages, 69677 KiB  
Project Report
The Canopy: A Lightweight Spatial Installation Informed by Graphic Statics
by Shuaizhong Wang, Federico Bertagna, Patrick Ole Ohlbrock and Davide Tanadini
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071009 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
This paper illustrates the design and fabrication process of the temporary installation The Canopy, developed as part of the fib Symposium on Conceptual Design of Structures 2021. The geometry of the perforated hanging membrane that forms The Canopy is the result of [...] Read more.
This paper illustrates the design and fabrication process of the temporary installation The Canopy, developed as part of the fib Symposium on Conceptual Design of Structures 2021. The geometry of the perforated hanging membrane that forms The Canopy is the result of seamless integration between the disciplines of architecture and structural design, which was one of the driving inputs for the entire process. Particularly, the use of geometry-based models and graphic statics allowed activating the interplay between these disciplines. This was the key to balancing the relationship between architectural spaces and structural requirements, and to informing the multifaceted design exploration of The Canopy from conceptual design to construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture: Integration of Art and Engineering)
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