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Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Nikos A. Salingaros
Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
Dr. Alexandros A. Lavdas
Institute for Biomedicine, Eurac Research, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Via Galvani 31, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
Dr. Michael W. Mehaffy
Sustasis Foundation, White Salmon, WA 98672, USA
Dr. Ann Sussman
The Human Architecture + Planning Institute, Inc., 43 Bradford Street, Concord, MA 01742, USA

Architectures, Materials and Urban Design

Abstract submission deadline
closed (1 August 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (15 October 2022)
Viewed by
46173

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

A new era of adaptive design has opened up, with a recently developed mathematical framework now being justified by neuroscience experiments. Combining tools coming from biophilia, design patterns, and fractals, new buildings and spaces can be shaped to a create healing environments. The same rules can be used to humanize and renovate older structures when their time comes for periodic repair and upgrade. This Special Issue will focus on the results of Christopher Alexander and those of many other researchers who identified the necessary qualities for structures to have a positive emotional impact on people. The design toolkit also includes most traditional architectures from all over the world. By extending those tried-and-tested design toolkits into new territories, the mathematical toolkit empowers innovative practitioners to create never-before-seen buildings. Importantly, new designs, if they follow the new guidelines, will share the same high degree of adaptivity as the best-loved heritage buildings.

The human brain is a social engagement system hardwired for attachment. Recent research uses biometrics, including eye-tracking emulation software, to document the characteristics of successful built environments. Instrumentation reveals how fixation points draw the human gaze pre-attentively (unconsciously) to provide these requisite attachments. By contrast, unsuccessful geometries stress the nervous system because they cannot define adequate fixation points. The fragmentation of urban space in the 21st century is a consequence of buildings lacking measurable human qualities surrounding open spaces. Design trends responsible for cutting social engagement include the elimination of fixation points for stylistic reasons. An increasingly palpable reality of the city is as a place in which humans do not belong. Short-sighted planning processes are producing a new fragmented spatial order that is aggravating socio-urban inadequacies. The analysis of urban needs requires new methods of analysis that utilize the latest scientific tools made available in recent years.

This Topic welcomes contributions on how to change the basic epistemology of design. The goal is to abandon an abstract, visual approach, to instead embrace adaptivity connected with human needs and the natural environment. We need to reorient design away from fashionable, but energivorous, buildings and urban developments (driven by short-term real-estate speculation) towards evidence-based thinking. We should be skeptical about technological solutions that try to maintain the Industrial–Modernist model as a design paradigm. Some of those proposals are useful only as add-ons to solutions grounded in low-cost practices, while others deceptively continue today’s unsustainable practices.

Sustainable urban systems are widely talked about but not yet implemented. Three problems prevent this: (i) a very poor understanding of the system dynamics that permit a city to function in a more sustainable manner; (ii) an architectural approach to planning, which focuses almost exclusively on individual buildings instead of a connected urban fabric; (iii) the belief that we can solve the problems of sustainability through technology alone. Encouraged by industrial society and a superficial, formal approach to design, these factors work against long-term sustainability. We have to learn to optimize the energy and network flows that drive a city. True sustainability can only arise by implementing low-tech, low-cost, low-maintenance solutions.

Prof. Dr. Nikos A. Salingaros
Dr. Alexandros A. Lavdas
Dr. Michael W. Mehaffy
Dr. Ann Sussman
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • architecture
  • design
  • patterns
  • urbanism
  • urban design
  • complexity
  • neuroscience
  • eye-tracking
  • fractals
  • symmetry
  • cognitive neuroscience
  • neuroaesthetics

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Architecture
architecture
- - 2021 19.6 Days 1000 CHF
Buildings
buildings
3.324 3.8 2011 16.2 Days 1800 CHF
Land
land
3.905 3.2 2012 13.6 Days 2000 CHF
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF
Urban Science
urbansci
- - 2017 14.4 Days 1200 CHF

Preprints is a platform dedicated to making early versions of research outputs permanently available and citable. MDPI journals allow posting on preprint servers such as Preprints.org prior to publication. For more details about reprints, please visit https://www.preprints.org.

Published Papers (37 papers)

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Article
From Maslow to Architectural Spaces: The Assessment of Reusing Old Industrial Buildings
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112033 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
In many cases, the purpose of reusing old industrial buildings is to serve the public. Converting a building that had a particular function and is unfamiliar to the public to a civic building is a great challenge. Significantly, the public’s curiosity towards a [...] Read more.
In many cases, the purpose of reusing old industrial buildings is to serve the public. Converting a building that had a particular function and is unfamiliar to the public to a civic building is a great challenge. Significantly, the public’s curiosity towards a special-purpose industrial building alone is not enough to give the building a long life following its conversion and regeneration. To be sustainable in public life, the design of reused old industrial buildings should also meet the needs of the public. It is important to realise, however, that everyone’s needs are different. This paper will therefore analyse whether Abraham Maslow’s (1943) famous psychological theory, the Hierarchy of Needs, which not only summarized the content of human needs, but also divided them into levels, can be applied to the reuse of former industrial buildings. The paper translates this into the field of architecture to develop an assessment framework for the reuse of old industrial buildings. This assessment framework is able to combine mathematical models for quantitative assessment of future projects, and uses Shanghai 1933 Old Millfun, China as a case study for its demonstration. This provides an evaluation of a completed project and identifies challenges for further development, as well as providing guidance for future adaptive reuse projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Material Classification and Reuse Framework Based on the Reverse Dismantling of Architectural Design: A Case Study in TCCLab
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 14809; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214809 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 278
Abstract
After natural resources are mined, they are stored in cities in the form of urban minerals through the construction of buildings. However, buildings have many negative impacts on nature from the time they are constructed and used to the end of their life [...] Read more.
After natural resources are mined, they are stored in cities in the form of urban minerals through the construction of buildings. However, buildings have many negative impacts on nature from the time they are constructed and used to the end of their life cycles when they are demolished and discarded. At present, many researchers have conducted research on the recycling of buildings, including the whole life cycle of buildings, the value assessment of the construction waste, the recycling boundary of the construction waste, and the way building waste could be reused. These studies all need to discuss the types of construction waste and their total volume. Urban mining uses GIS data (top-down) and the same type of building material per unit area (bottom-up) to provide a broad calculation method for the construction waste, but it fails to accurately obtain the exact amount of each material of the building. From the perspective of architectural design, the same type of buildings tend to have different spaces and structures due to factors such as the site, orientation, and function. These all affect the way construction waste is reused. This paper aims to create a framework for the reuse of construction waste to improve the accuracy and diversity of the reuse of construction waste in the future. The main purpose of this article is to provide a more accurate assessment of the material which is contained in a building. Using a 48-year-old office building in the Taiwan Contemporary Culture Laboratory (TCCLab) as the research case study, the paper compares the data calculated by different methods and verifies the difference between the bottom-up and the disassembly classification method proposed in this study. According to the architectural design principles, the authors first carried out a 3D digital modeling of the office building (including the building structure) using a forward construction sequence and then they proposed the framework of the material classification and the reuse of the reinforced concrete (RC) of the office building using the method of reverse disassembly, hoping to provide a reference for the reuse of construction waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
An Assessment of the Relation between Architectural and Structural Systems in the Design of Tall Buildings in Turkey
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101649 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Many professionals from several disciplines need to cooperate in designing and constructing tall buildings since their design and construction require more complex systems and technologies in terms of structure, installation, facade, vertical circulation and fire systems compared to low-rise buildings. The architects who [...] Read more.
Many professionals from several disciplines need to cooperate in designing and constructing tall buildings since their design and construction require more complex systems and technologies in terms of structure, installation, facade, vertical circulation and fire systems compared to low-rise buildings. The architects who design tall buildings have to know the architectural and structural design considerations of tall buildings and their interrelations well. This study is expected to reveal the status of tall buildings completed in Turkey and help designers understand architectural forms, floor plans, core planning and structural systems of tall buildings. For this purpose, the factors affecting architectural and structural design were examined, and the relation between the architectural–structural system was revealed for tall buildings completed in Turkey. In order to study architectural and structural considerations, 230 constructed tall buildings in Turkey were selected and analyzed in detail. According to the results of the study, it is seen that the prismatic form is widely used as the building tower form in Turkey, the shear-frame system as the structural system, the residential function as the building function, the single symmetrical central core as the building core, and the rectangular plan as the building floor plan alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Research-Integrated Pedagogy with Climate-Responsive Strategies: Vernacular Building Renovation Design
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091294 - 23 Aug 2022
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Following the rapid development and urbanization in China over recent decades, sustainable renovation of urban residences has become an important issue. This study aimed to develop an architectural teaching program integrating the study of local climate, vernacular buildings, climate-responsive design strategies, and simulation [...] Read more.
Following the rapid development and urbanization in China over recent decades, sustainable renovation of urban residences has become an important issue. This study aimed to develop an architectural teaching program integrating the study of local climate, vernacular buildings, climate-responsive design strategies, and simulation tools. A local house in a high-density neighborhood in Guangzhou, China, in a hot-humid climate area was selected for renovation in this teaching program. Investigations of the urban neighborhood development, the construction and climate-responsive characteristics of the vernacular houses, long-term thermal environment characteristics, and sustainable design strategies were conducted before the design project began. The guidelines of Active House combining passive strategies and active technologies were incorporated into the concept design. The students’ works represented their understanding of the characteristics of a hot-humid climate, responsive strategies for the local buildings, preliminary methodologies of micro-climate analysis, and technologies supporting sustainable building design. Thus, this program provided a valuable approach to the appropriate pedagogy for a research-integrated design studio within the context of sustainable architectural education development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
A Study on the Trends of Acceptance Criteria of the Relocation of Architectural Heritages and Priority Values of Monuments in Seoul
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8404; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148404 - 08 Jul 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Relocation of architectural heritage at home and abroad has been permitted only in cases where it is ‘only as a last resort, if protection cannot be achieved by any other means’, but this standard is not specifically set, causing confusion. Against [...] Read more.
Relocation of architectural heritage at home and abroad has been permitted only in cases where it is ‘only as a last resort, if protection cannot be achieved by any other means’, but this standard is not specifically set, causing confusion. Against this background, this study looked at the allowable standards for relocation of all architectural heritage cases relocated within Seoul. The acceptance criteria for relocation could be divided into two categories: for urban development or for restoration. Riegl’s monument value system was borrowed in order to determine under what values of the times the permission of such a move was permitted. As a result, from the 1960s to the 1990s, structures of architectural heritage were recognized as objects of conservation, but the original site (land) was not. Additionally, at this time, the ‘values of the present’ of the architectural heritage (includes both the structure and the site) was given priority over the ‘values of the past’ of it. It is after the 1990s that the ‘values of the past’ of the site have been recognized, and as it becomes closer in recent years, the relocation of architectural heritage tends to be carried out only to restore its original site. In this study, by analyzing the case of Seoul, it was revealed in what cases the relocation of architectural heritage was allowed, and the value priorities that acted on the background were analyzed. This study is representative in that Seoul is the capital and largest city of Korea. In addition, this study examines the change in perception, values, and paradigm of each cultural heritage that has been shown by various national institutions (Cultural Heritage Administration, President, Seoul Metropolitan Government) from the 1960s to the present by analyzing the criteria for permission for the act of moving. It allows interpretation and comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
A Methodical Framework for Sustainable Architectural Design: Housing Practice in the Middle East
Land 2022, 11(7), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071019 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
In developing countries where sustainable housing design receives insufficient theoretical and practical efforts, decisions about appropriate sustainable design strategies are often made in ignorance of situational and contextual issues and isolation from local practices. The study attempts to provide a design framework that [...] Read more.
In developing countries where sustainable housing design receives insufficient theoretical and practical efforts, decisions about appropriate sustainable design strategies are often made in ignorance of situational and contextual issues and isolation from local practices. The study attempts to provide a design framework that comprises various design models for sustainable housing, enabling architects worldwide to broaden their sustainability practices in the architectural field. The study employs the grounded theory method to transform theory into viable housing design models for architects in various regions, particularly the Middle East, who will be able to trace the regional models and select design approaches and strategies in response to local situations. The research is divided into three stages. Guy and Farmer’s six logics are linked with methodical sustainable design approaches through comparative analysis to develop design models that will be chased in sustainable housing practices. The models are introduced in the next phase within a design framework and, finally, verified through Middle Eastern practices. The framework, which has been verified by tracking sustainable housing models in the design practices of Middle Eastern countries, can be used by applying the design models individually or by combining more than one model to create more responsive sustainable design practices in the housing field. The novelty of the study is that the developed framework transforms theoretical models into viable options for designers and scholars around the world, as well as enabling architects and developers in Middle Eastern cities to easily and practically trace regional design models and to select appropriate design approaches and strategies in an integrative manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Evaluation of Land-Use Layout of the Rail Station Area Based on the Difference in Noise Sensitivity to Rail Transit, Taking a Suburb of Tokyo as an Example
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7553; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137553 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Rail transit has been deemed a sustainable means of transportation, but its agglomeration effect and the noise therefrom create conflict. Generally, such conflict can be solved by designing the architecture and facilities of rail transit using noise-reduction methods. However, relevant studies have pointed [...] Read more.
Rail transit has been deemed a sustainable means of transportation, but its agglomeration effect and the noise therefrom create conflict. Generally, such conflict can be solved by designing the architecture and facilities of rail transit using noise-reduction methods. However, relevant studies have pointed out the limitations of such methods from the perspective of enforceability and social justice. Specifically, extensive monitoring of noise is difficult, and the cost of noise reduction is mostly borne by the surrounding residents. Thus, another question has been raised: Can we apply a land-use layout that takes into account the difference in sensitivity to rail noise of different types of land so as to weaken the negative impact of rail noise? In this paper, we adopted various methods of the characteristic price method, progressive multivariate regression analysis method and noise simulation method, and adopted the suburban rail transit system in Japan as the research object to analyze the impact of rail noise on the price of residential land within 200 m of the rail line. Additionally, we investigated the impact of the accessibility to the station site on the price of commercial and residential land within 800 m of the rail line. We also established the evaluation model on this basis. Lastly, we conducted a further discussion on the evaluation model by studying the re-development project of Tokyo’s Futako Tamagawa Station. The major conclusions in this paper are the following: rail noise is negatively related to the price of residential land within 200 m of the rail line; the price of commercial land within 800 m of the station site is negatively related to the station’s accessibility; and the price of residential land is unrelated to the station’s accessibility. According to the results of the analysis of Tokyo’s Futako Tamagawa Station, designing and arranging commercial land that is insensitive to rail noise in the area surrounding the rail line and using commercial buildings as a shield for the residential land behind them will be beneficial for weakening the negative impact of noise and maximizing the use of the commercial value generated by the station’s accessibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Exploring the Influence of the Visual Attributes of Kaplan’s Preference Matrix in the Assessment of Urban Parks: A Discrete Choice Analysis
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7357; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127357 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
A significant majority of the literature on natural environments and urban green spaces justifies the preferences that people have for natural environments using four predictors defined by Kaplan’s preference matrix theory, namely coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery. However, there are no studies implicitly [...] Read more.
A significant majority of the literature on natural environments and urban green spaces justifies the preferences that people have for natural environments using four predictors defined by Kaplan’s preference matrix theory, namely coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery. However, there are no studies implicitly focusing on the visual attributes assigned to each of these four predictors. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of nine visual attributes derived from the four predictors of Kaplan’s matrix on people’s preferences in the context of urban parks. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain responses from a sample of 396 students of Golestan University. Students randomly evaluated their preferences towards a set of potential scenarios with urban park images. The results of a random parameter logit analysis showed that all of the attributes of complexity (variety of elements, number of colors, and organization of elements) and one attribute each of coherence (uniformity), mystery (visual access), and legibility (distinctive elements) affect students’ choices for urban parks, while one attribute each of mystery (physical access) and legibility (wayfinding) did not affect the choices. Furthermore, the results indicated a preference for heterogeneity of the attributes. The findings of this study can provide instructions for designing parks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Application Research of a Biomass Insulation Material: Eliminating Building Thermal Bridges
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 6983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14126983 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Building joints always lead to water leakage, wind penetration, and thermal bridges, which especially cannot be ignored in prefabricated buildings. Thus, in order to solve this problem, we propose a novel and feasible insulating element with a multi-layered structure, which can realize waterproof [...] Read more.
Building joints always lead to water leakage, wind penetration, and thermal bridges, which especially cannot be ignored in prefabricated buildings. Thus, in order to solve this problem, we propose a novel and feasible insulating element with a multi-layered structure, which can realize waterproof and thermal insulation at the same time. Its performance was evaluated by experiments and scenario analysis, including its water resistance, moisture resistance, cohesiveness, fire resistance, weatherability, thermal insulation, etc. The research results show that, compared with building foundation materials, the proposed building element obtained satisfactory performance: water absorption was reduced from 35.7% to 18.5%; moisture absorption from 7.0% to 2.1%; and weatherability and fire resistance performance were good. The proposed novel insulating element can be applied in prefabricated buildings, and the research can open up new ideas for other related insulating elements with more advanced and better performance which focus on solving problems caused by cold or hot bridges and building joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Review
A Review of Physical and Digital Mock-Up Applications in Healthcare Building Development
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060745 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Mock-up simulation is a design or human factor research method to help designers identify key design issues and factors of a product or environment. This paper discusses physical mock-up (PMU) and digital mock-up (DMU) applications in healthcare building development through a narrative literature [...] Read more.
Mock-up simulation is a design or human factor research method to help designers identify key design issues and factors of a product or environment. This paper discusses physical mock-up (PMU) and digital mock-up (DMU) applications in healthcare building development through a narrative literature review. The following questions are addressed in this paper: what would the purposes of using PMU or DMU simulations be? At which phase of a hospital design would a PMU or DMU simulation be used? What methods can be used to conduct PMU and DMU simulations? The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these two mock-up methods and highlights the importance of clinical staff’s involvement in mock-up simulations. It gives recommendations for the design practitioners or project managers of healthcare building development recommendations to implement these two mock-up methods in healthcare building development projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Systematic Review
Conceptual Framework to Support Personalized Indoor Space Design Decision-Making: A Systematic Literature Review
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060716 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
COVID-19 has forced people to spend more time indoors due to lockdown and social distancing, and clients demand personalized indoor spaces designed to increase individual satisfaction indoors. Consequently, various fourth industrial revolution technologies have been applied to support construction spaces to satisfy those [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has forced people to spend more time indoors due to lockdown and social distancing, and clients demand personalized indoor spaces designed to increase individual satisfaction indoors. Consequently, various fourth industrial revolution technologies have been applied to support construction spaces to satisfy those clients lacking architectural knowledge and experience by reflecting individual tendencies and perceptions to build personalized indoor spaces. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how users evaluate the space according to behaviors and emotions felt in the space. A systematic review is performed to integrate significant categories from multiple disciplines to investigate the various decision-making aspects. In this study, 124 papers were selected, applying the PRISMA checklist to conduct a systematic literature review with scientometric analysis to propose a conceptual framework by reflecting the research trend related to indoor space decision-making. Accordingly, research on indoor space decision-making is increasing with pursuing convergence with various fields of study. The research is focused on the following four clusters: indoor space components, human tendencies, technology, and spatial evaluation. The framework proposed by integrating these trends could be utilized by clients as a practical tool to support people-centered indoor space decision-making post-COVID-19. Moreover, a framework should be developed to expand effectiveness in indoor spaces through convergence and collaboration research with psychology, physiology, and the medical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Student Experience and Satisfaction in Academic Libraries: A Comparative Study among Three Universities in Wuhan
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050682 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 953
Abstract
In recent years, the spatial renovation of university libraries in various countries has focused on readers’ needs and followed the trend to develop learning spaces as a primary spatial form. In this study, we reviewed six spatial dimensions affecting student users’ learning experience. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the spatial renovation of university libraries in various countries has focused on readers’ needs and followed the trend to develop learning spaces as a primary spatial form. In this study, we reviewed six spatial dimensions affecting student users’ learning experience. Specifically, we built a theory- and practice-based conceptual analysis framework to measure users’ satisfaction with recent spatial renovations at three university libraries in Wuhan, China. We used SPSS statistical software to conduct multiple linear regression analyses of spatial satisfaction. The findings show that five spatial dimensions significantly affect students’ satisfaction with library space, namely, service facility availability, quality of interior design, physical environment elements, spatial diversity, and learning space controllability. Service facility availability is the most critical factor affecting spatial satisfaction. In this study, we present empirical, evidence-based space elements that enhance user satisfaction with library spaces, and provide targeted design suggestions for future library space renovation and the optimization of space allocation and expansion of space services at university libraries in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Mode of Transport and Inequity in a Least Developed Country: The Case of Vientiane, Lao PDR
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5959; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105959 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 805
Abstract
In 1986, Laos opened its doors to the global market. With new economic policy mechanisms in place, the country has developed dramatically over the years. The rapid growth brought forth opportunities as well as challenges. This study analyzes traffic congestion in Vientiane, the [...] Read more.
In 1986, Laos opened its doors to the global market. With new economic policy mechanisms in place, the country has developed dramatically over the years. The rapid growth brought forth opportunities as well as challenges. This study analyzes traffic congestion in Vientiane, the capital, with a focus on transport mode choices and inequity among commuters. Due to the lack of a reliable database in Laos, the initial step entailed collecting a set of origin–destination data. A total of 498 samples were randomly processed in the data survey, consisting of personal data, household conditions, and travel behaviors. To identify the flow of transport and mode choices, descriptive analysis and a multilevel logit model were employed. The findings reveal the insufficiency of public transit in Vientiane. The preferred modes of transport are motorbikes and private cars. Commuters who use private cars lie in the higher income group, while the low-income group consists of residents who use motorbikes. In addition, the low-income group takes longer to commute as compared to the high-income group. Overall, the lack of public mode choices encourages the use of private cars, leading to critical inequality between low and high-income groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Development of Bioclimatic Passive Designs for Office Building in Burkina Faso
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074332 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
This article focuses on adopting effective and affordable bioclimatic building design strategies in Ouagadougou, in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. A model representing a standard office building and relevant parameters were input in EnergyPlus, and scenarios were analyzed to evaluate the effect [...] Read more.
This article focuses on adopting effective and affordable bioclimatic building design strategies in Ouagadougou, in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. A model representing a standard office building and relevant parameters were input in EnergyPlus, and scenarios were analyzed to evaluate the effect of natural ventilation, window shading, dehumidification with night ventilation, and evaporative cooling with night ventilation on thermal comfort and energy consumption. First, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55 adaptive comfort model was used to compare discomfort hours and interior temperatures between a conventional office design and improved models using passive approaches. The simulations further tested the reduction in energy cooling demand and energy consumption. The results demonstrated that natural ventilation was the most effective passive cooling technique, helping to reduce the annual discomfort hours by 40% and the annual energy consumption by 30%. Combining passive strategies is the best scenario, with a year of office occupancy resulting in just 617 h of discomfort, a 42% reduction in the annual energy cooling demand, and a 43% reduction in the annual energy consumption. The simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of affordable passive design solutions applicable even in existing office buildings and their significance for the sustainable development of fast-urbanizing Sub-Saharan countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Review
Solar Performance Metrics in Urban Planning: A Review and Taxonomy
Buildings 2022, 12(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12040393 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Metrics are instrumental in design assessments. Solar performance metrics help designers to evaluate solar access in cities. Metrics should be used early in the urban planning stages in order to enable sustainable urban development with greater access to solar energy. Currently, solar assessments [...] Read more.
Metrics are instrumental in design assessments. Solar performance metrics help designers to evaluate solar access in cities. Metrics should be used early in the urban planning stages in order to enable sustainable urban development with greater access to solar energy. Currently, solar assessments at this design stage are limited in practice; established methods or routines are lacking, and so are suitable metrics. This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a critical overview of solar metrics commonly used in building performance assessments. The review defines key metric formulation principles—valuation, time constraint, and normalisation—which should be considered when designing a performance indicator. A new taxonomy of solar performance metrics is provided. Metric definitions, suitability, and limitations are discussed. The findings highlight the need for reliable, low-complexity metrics and adequate methods for early solar assessments for urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Effect of Environmental Planning on Elderly Individual Quality of Life in Severe Cold Regions: A Case Study in Northeastern China
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3522; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063522 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 948
Abstract
With the development of urbanization and the ageing population, the improvement of the urban environment and the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly in cities with a cold climate have become critical issues to be addressed. However, only a few studies have [...] Read more.
With the development of urbanization and the ageing population, the improvement of the urban environment and the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly in cities with a cold climate have become critical issues to be addressed. However, only a few studies have focused on this aspect. According to a review of the literature, the contents of the built environment (BE) in severe cold regions are defined as thirteen key factors of four categories (density, environmental aesthetics, outdoor environment, and accessibility) and the QOL of old people consists of three aspects (residential, health, and social satisfaction). This study explores how BE variables are associated with the QOL of older adults by using ordered logit and gologit2 models. The data consist of the results of 1945 questionnaires from field surveys in 11 different residential areas, across two cities in northeastern China. The results show: (1) Walkability in winter, distance to a public park of 400–1000 m, outdoor shelters and seating, less than five buses available, and a mixture of evergreen and deciduous trees are five of the most important variables of BE that have a significant positive impact on QOL compared with other climatic regions; (2) “Pocket parks” and pedestrian walkway safety are appropriate approaches to improve wellbeing under local economic conditions. For public transportation, metro and rail transit systems are encouraged, and some rules are needed to reduce the number of buses in harsh weather conditions; (3) Compared with spatial distribution in other climates, the scope of a 15 min city should be less than 1km in severe cold areas. From the findings, we conclude that there are six possible pattern languages to improve the urban environment, and they can provide information for further study on environmental planning in severe cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Meeting Design Supporting Sustainability in Early Planning Practice: A Combination of ‘Hard and Soft’ Characteristics
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063159 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 825
Abstract
While research on the sustainable built environment has acknowledged the need to integrate multidisciplinary perspectives in the early planning phases, few studies have focused on early-phase meetings and how these can support such co-creation of sustainability. In this study, a set of “characteristics” [...] Read more.
While research on the sustainable built environment has acknowledged the need to integrate multidisciplinary perspectives in the early planning phases, few studies have focused on early-phase meetings and how these can support such co-creation of sustainability. In this study, a set of “characteristics” for collaborative meetings integrating multidisciplinary perspectives was tested in 16 meetings that took place in the early phase. An action research insider perspective was used, where a researcher was also the facilitator of these 16 meetings. The cases provide insights into the early-phase processes where the building industry can achieve sustainable impacts on the built environment. This was exemplified by two of the cases becoming demonstration projects in terms of sustainability. Empirical material was gathered through discussions and surveys with meeting participants and was analyzed through the lens of the meeting design characteristics. The findings show that processes with ‘soft’ interpersonal characteristics (expressing emotions, tempo change during dialogue, engaging in social interaction, moving the body) support the development of a shared understanding of sustainability that integrates multidisciplinary perspectives. For larger groups and in digital meetings, a combination of ‘soft’ (interpersonal) and ‘hard’ (digital communication tools and platforms) characteristics were found to be supportive, especially when the meeting time was limited. This research suggests a revision of the design of multidisciplinary early-phase meetings towards including social, emotional, bodily, and collaborative exercises supported by digital tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
“Świdermajer”, the Architecture of Historic Wooden Summer Villas in the Polish Landscape: A Study of Distinctive Features
Land 2022, 11(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11030374 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The article covers the results of the study of a historical wooden holiday architectural ensemble called Świdermajer, located on the outskirts of Warsaw in Poland. The fashion for traveling and resting within natural surroundings emerged in the 19th century, contributing to the popularization [...] Read more.
The article covers the results of the study of a historical wooden holiday architectural ensemble called Świdermajer, located on the outskirts of Warsaw in Poland. The fashion for traveling and resting within natural surroundings emerged in the 19th century, contributing to the popularization of a new model of spending free time. It had an impact on the development of a new type of architecture, including the “Swiss style”, today representing an extremely picturesque European architectural heritage integrated into the landscape. The area of Otwock is one of a very few of such places in Poland, where the entire complexes of suburban wooden holiday buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century have survived. This paper aims to show an overview of a development of the local wooden building trend on the “Otwock Line” within its historical and social background. The main goal of the study focuses on identifying the characteristic features of the architectural wooden local style. As a final outcome of the study, the article presents the method applied for the recording and assessment of historic wooden summer villas. The conducted study confirmed the distinctiveness of the phenomenon represented by cultural values and, at the same time, its strong links with the Alpine style of architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Automated Layout Design Approach of Floor Tiles: Based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) via Parametric Design (PD) Platform
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020250 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology has been widely used in the construction industry in recent years. However, to date, it still cannot sufficiently meet the requirements of construction practitioners in terms of the layout design of floor tiles. Recently, the BIM-based Parametric Design [...] Read more.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology has been widely used in the construction industry in recent years. However, to date, it still cannot sufficiently meet the requirements of construction practitioners in terms of the layout design of floor tiles. Recently, the BIM-based Parametric Design (PD) platform has presented considerable potential in automatically generating and optimizing floor tile layout design. In this paper, we propose a workflow to generate and optimize the layout design of floor tiles globally. To develop the workflow, we first formalize the design algorithm of floor tiles according to the trade know-how cutting and planning rules. Then, we combine the design algorithm with an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to generate and optimize the layout design for floor tiles automatically while minimizing material wastage. A prototype system is established in the ArchiCAD (BIM) and Grasshopper (PD platform) software. An apartment room tiling layout is used to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Compared with the existing design methods, the proposed approach (1) reduces the material waste rate by 14.58% and 11.46%; and (2) improves the calculation efficiency and reduces the required computation time by 17.3 s to 50.0 s. Moreover, this research improves the existing design algorithm, enabling the BIM- and PD-based approaches to be used reliably in optimizing floor tile planning with arc-shaped boundaries. The outcomes are summarized in order to provide valuable insights in terms of floor tile waste reduction for further sustainable construction practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Performance Comparison of Different Building Shapes Using a Wind Tunnel and a Computational Model
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020144 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
A building-integrated wind turbine (BIWT) is an alternative way to assess renewable energy. BIWTs produces their own energy without relying on fossil fuels. However, only a few researchers have studied BIWTs. Greater wind velocity (V) results in greater potential energy (P). The aerodynamic [...] Read more.
A building-integrated wind turbine (BIWT) is an alternative way to assess renewable energy. BIWTs produces their own energy without relying on fossil fuels. However, only a few researchers have studied BIWTs. Greater wind velocity (V) results in greater potential energy (P). The aerodynamic design has an important role to play in increasing wind velocity and reducing turbulence intensity. CFD simulations taken from previous research have revealed that round-shaped buildings increase velocity up to 30%. This study focuses on the wind response of square and top-rounded-shaped building models, and their optimization based on variations in wind velocity. Wind tunnel studies were conducted to study wind flow around the building, followed by a computer simulation to verify the results. In a wind tunnel, three BIWT models (1:150 in scale) located in Seoul, South Korea (terrain B), were evaluated. The results of the study show that the streamline should be followed when installing wind turbines on rectangular rooves with flat surfaces. This method allows wind speed to be elevated significantly, when compared to a turbine at a higher height. In addition, round corners can produce wind velocity that is up to 34% greater than sharp corners beside a building. In summary, this paper presents a five-step analysis framework that can be used by researchers who wish to analyze BIWTs through wind tunnel experiments and CFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Evaluation of Public Service Facilities in 19 Large Cities in China from the Perspective of Supply and Demand
Land 2022, 11(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020149 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
The equalization of urban public service facilities is important to the daily lives of urban residents. Spatial quantification of the supply and demand of public service facilities can reveal relationships between supply and demand agents and provide a foundation for the planning of [...] Read more.
The equalization of urban public service facilities is important to the daily lives of urban residents. Spatial quantification of the supply and demand of public service facilities can reveal relationships between supply and demand agents and provide a foundation for the planning of urban public service facilities. This study proposed a comprehensive framework to assess the current state of supply (accessibility of facilities) and demand (population carrying pressure) of various public services in cities and determine patterns between different public service facilities. This framework contains three elements: (a) multi-scale spatial quantification of the matching of supply and demand, (b) spatial matching of supply and demand, and (c) spatial clustering analysis of the supply and demand balance. This study analyzed 19 major cities in China from a supply and demand perspective and examined implications for matching the supply and demand of public service facilities. The results indicated that education service facilities had the most appropriate supply and demand relationship. Areas where public service facilities had a good matching of supply and demand demonstrated a strong pattern of clustering. There were significant differences in the level of matching of the supply and demand of public service facilities among various regions in China. The limitations of the framework and future directions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Upcycling Systems Design, Developing a Methodology through Design
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020600 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Design has an important role in shaping the modes of production, consumption and disposal. Decisions made early in the product, service and system development influence the majority of the environmental impact and social consequences. With sustainability emerging as the major challenge of our [...] Read more.
Design has an important role in shaping the modes of production, consumption and disposal. Decisions made early in the product, service and system development influence the majority of the environmental impact and social consequences. With sustainability emerging as the major challenge of our times, the creation of novel methodologies, economic models and innovative materials is critical. In this paper, we put forward a new methodology that aims to bridge the ecomodernist business-focused circular economy models with the expressive material driven design (MDD) approach. The ‘design out waste methodology’ (DOWM) bridges existing concepts, methods and practices, creating an innovative design and production process that redefines waste and sets it up as a subject of creative study. The purpose of this process is to help designers understand the importance of evaluating the entire life cycle of a product; it also enables local ‘degrowth’ by shifting our modes of production towards a human scale with local makers exchanging knowledge and expressing themselves through upcycled materials, while simultaneously eradicating the very concept of waste. The methodology has been developed in an iterative research-through-design process that combines experiential and tacit knowledge from local case studies with desk research of emerging case studies in MDD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Explorations of Young People’s Sense of Place Using Urban Design Qualities in Surabaya, Indonesia
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010472 - 02 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
This study aims to assess a sense of place in the context of an Indonesian city through real-time walking experience. With rapid urban development, the cityscape may change, leading to a lack of a sense of place. Here, the sense of place was [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess a sense of place in the context of an Indonesian city through real-time walking experience. With rapid urban development, the cityscape may change, leading to a lack of a sense of place. Here, the sense of place was measured by utilizing individual reactions to different urban design qualities and perceptual qualities during walking. Previous methods on visitors’ evaluation of places, walking experience and photographing, were adapted by adding two more stages: in-depth interviews and a workshop, obtaining participants’ opinions and behaviours. The analysis results showed that the participants experienced the sense of place through physical and non-physical features corresponding to walking speed. While the old buildings and ornament details attracted participants’ attention, this study demonstrated that the two-way interaction with residents also strengthened the sense of place. The major finding was that the participants were concerned about improving pedestrian infrastructure and the conservation of old buildings in the area. With the assistance of in-depth interviews and a workshop, participants’ perspectives were visually reflected in a comprehensive way. This study may be helpful for urban planners to manage the sense of place in historic city centres under the pressure of rapid urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Research on the Protection and Reuse of Industrial Heritage from the Perspective of Public Participation—A Case Study of Northern Mining Area of Pingdingshan, China
Land 2022, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010016 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
With the decline of the big industrial period, many industrial cities in China are facing the problem of urban transformation. Post-industrial economic activities and social life often replace the demand for land and population growth, and the particular type of cultural heritage of [...] Read more.
With the decline of the big industrial period, many industrial cities in China are facing the problem of urban transformation. Post-industrial economic activities and social life often replace the demand for land and population growth, and the particular type of cultural heritage of industrial heritage is often abandoned and decayed. Recent domestic and foreign research has responded to this problem and sought to provide solutions for the protection and reuse of industrial heritage. Despite some progress, the advice and feelings of ordinary citizens are often rarely considered, or how local urban characteristics become the core of urban reconstruction. To solve this problem, the focus of this study is the case study of Pingdingshan City. Pingdingshan is an industrial city with coal as its core industry. Shortly, the problem of industrial heritage will be a severe problem facing the city. The study included research designs and methods for collecting data from field observations, questionnaires, interviews, and literature studies. In the process, researchers have critically considered the importance and implications of public participation in exploring the way in which they are protected and reused through the protection and reuse of industrial heritage. It is particularly worth mentioning that in the reconstruction of the protection and reuse of industrial heritage in Pingdingshan, government officials and enterprises lack sensitivity to local conditions and the views of residents. The study concluded that the protection and reuse of industrial heritage require public participation and that the public’s demands can guide and determine the way industrial heritage is protected and reused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Study of Vortex Systems as a Method to Weakening the Urban Heat Islands within the Financial District in Large Cities
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13206; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313206 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
This paper presents a new concept called the urban vortex system (UVS). The UVS couples a vortex generator (V.G.) that produces updraft by artificial vortex and a vortex stability zone (VSZ) consisting of an assembly of four buildings acting as a chimney. Through [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new concept called the urban vortex system (UVS). The UVS couples a vortex generator (V.G.) that produces updraft by artificial vortex and a vortex stability zone (VSZ) consisting of an assembly of four buildings acting as a chimney. Through this system, a stable, upward vortex flow can be generated. The Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulation was carried out to investigate the flow field in the UVS. The Renormalized Group (RNG) k–ε turbulent model was selected to solve the complex turbulent flow. Validation of the numerical results was achieved by making a comparison with the large-size experimental model. The results reported that a steady-state vortex could be formed when a vapor-air mixture at 2 m/s and 450 K enters the vortex generator. This vortex presented a maximum negative central pressure of −6.81 Pa and a maximum velocity of 5.47 (m/s). Finally, the similarity method found four dimensionless parameters, which allowed all the flow characteristics to be transported on a large scale. The proposed large-scale UVS application is predicted to be capable, with have a maximum power of 2 M.W., a specific work of 3 kJ/kg, buildings 200-m high, and the ability to generate winds of 6.1 m/s (20 km/h) at 200 m up to winds of 1.5 m/s (5 km/h) at 400 m. These winds would cause the rupture of the gas capsule of the heat island phenomenon. Therefore, the city would balance its temperature with that of the surrounding rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Understanding the Informal Morphology of Villages-in-the-City: A Case Study in Hanoi City, Vietnam
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13136; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313136 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
This paper explores the production of space in the villages-in-the-city (ViCs) through a morphological perspective. During the urbanization process, rural villages originally located in the peri-area of a metropolis are eventually merged into the urban landscape. Due to lack of proper planning, these [...] Read more.
This paper explores the production of space in the villages-in-the-city (ViCs) through a morphological perspective. During the urbanization process, rural villages originally located in the peri-area of a metropolis are eventually merged into the urban landscape. Due to lack of proper planning, these villages have faced serious criticism due to informality, self-organized development and sub-standard living conditions, and planning policies tend to focus on demolition rather than on incrementally upgrading ViCs on the same site. In this paper, we focus on the fluidity of spaces in ViCs by drawing on a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam. The key research methods are mapping, observation and visual recording. The findings illustrate how informal urbanism works in ViCs regarding spatial structure, public/private interfaces and incremental upgrading. On a theoretical level, this research helps to enrich the description of the morphological characteristics of ViCs with relation to the effects of rapid urbanization. On a practical level, this study contributes to the ways in which researchers and planners can engage with incremental changes in the integrated village. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Towards a Rural Revitalization Strategy for the Courtyard Layout of Vernacular Dwellings Based on Regional Adaptability and Outdoor Thermal Performance in the Gully Regions of the Loess Plateau, China
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13074; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313074 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
In the context of the Chinese rural revitalization strategy, the unique residential characteristics of local vernacular dwellings formed by profound historical and cultural accumulation, climate characteristics, and residential lifestyle have undergone profound change in the gully regions of the Loess Plateau. Accordingly, the [...] Read more.
In the context of the Chinese rural revitalization strategy, the unique residential characteristics of local vernacular dwellings formed by profound historical and cultural accumulation, climate characteristics, and residential lifestyle have undergone profound change in the gully regions of the Loess Plateau. Accordingly, the contradictions of traditional vernacular dwelling protection, increasing living requirements, and ecological protection have intensified. In this paper, with the aim of optimizing courtyard layout for vernacular dwellings, the thermal performance and regional adaptability of different courtyard layouts were analyzed using Ladybug and Honeybee tools. According to the thermal simulation within the courtyard, the current optimal layout type was determined, and then, several ecological optimization designs were proposed for the further improvement of it. The results revealed that the improved vernacular dwelling model has better regional adaptability, which corresponds to the local living culture and living habits, saves land resources, and provides a better thermal comfort performance. This research not only has a positive function for the protection of local architectural culture, but also plays an essential role in improving residents’ living comfort and living standards. We hope that the research results are meaningful and can be used as a reference for future rural construction in the Loess Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Meshing Sustainability with Satisfaction: An Investigation of Residents’ Perceptions in Three Different Neighbourhoods in Chengdu, China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111280 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Can sustainability and liveability be simultaneously pursued at the neighbourhood level? Adopting neighbourhood satisfaction as a proxy to indicate liveability at the neighbourhood scale, this paper investigated how the residential subjective perception of sustainability factors interacted with neighbourhood satisfaction in the context of [...] Read more.
Can sustainability and liveability be simultaneously pursued at the neighbourhood level? Adopting neighbourhood satisfaction as a proxy to indicate liveability at the neighbourhood scale, this paper investigated how the residential subjective perception of sustainability factors interacted with neighbourhood satisfaction in the context of three different neighbourhoods in Chengdu, China. This began with a comprehensive literature review to construct the neighbourhood sustainability framework. Then, a total of 510 cross-sectional questionnaire surveys was conducted in Chengdu. Logistic regression was employed to investigate significant associations. The findings revealed that the ‘sense and habit of energy saving’ is the only sustainability factor that is negatively associated with neighbourhood satisfaction in commodity-housing neighbourhood. Compared with intangible factors, tangible or physical sustainability factors are more likely to contribute to improving neighbourhood satisfaction and suppressing moving intention. The study also evidenced the contextual differences of significant associations among danwei, resettlement, and commodity-housing neighbourhoods coexisting in transitional China. This calls for adaptive and contextual rather than standardized, top-down strategies for developing sustainable neighbourhood planning to simultaneously promote sustainability and liveability in Chengdu, China. Finally, a specific contextual framework was provided as policy implications for developing local and adaptive solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Stress Distribution in Microregion of Core–Shell Structure Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110540 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
An in-depth understanding of the effect of cordierite/belite core–shell structure lightweight aggregate (CSLWA) on the mechanical performance of LWA concrete (LWAC) is critical for improving the failure resistance of LWAC. In this study, the stress distribution of the microregion in CSLWA was systematically [...] Read more.
An in-depth understanding of the effect of cordierite/belite core–shell structure lightweight aggregate (CSLWA) on the mechanical performance of LWA concrete (LWAC) is critical for improving the failure resistance of LWAC. In this study, the stress distribution of the microregion in CSLWA was systematically investigated via a finite element analysis to explore its effect on the mechanical properties of LWAC. In detail, the material components, core–shell thickness ratio, porosity and width of interfacial transition zone (ITZ), and absence or presence of interfacial bonding zone (IBZ) were considered during the stress distribution analysis of the microregion of LWAC. The results showed that a reduction in the material components, with a high-elastic modulus in the core, a decrease in the core–shell thickness ratio, and the formation of the core–shell IBZ are beneficial for optimizing the stress distribution of the microregion and alleviating the stress concentration phenomenon of LWAC. Moreover, due to the continuous hydration of belite shell, the ITZ of CSLWA becomes increasingly dense, thus the stress distribution is more uniform than that of ordinary LWAC, indicating that CSLWA exhibits the potential to improve the failure resistance of LWAC. This study helps to develop an understanding of the role played by the core–shell structure in improving the toughness of LWAC, and provides a new solution and methodology for improving the brittleness of LWAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Dimensional Stability of 3D Printed Objects Made from Plastic Waste Using FDM: Potential Construction Applications
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110516 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Construction projects are often challenged by tight budgets and limited time and resources. Contractors are, therefore, looking for ways to become competitive by improving efficiency and using cost-effective materials. Using three-dimensional (3D) printing for shaping materials to produce cost-effective construction elements is becoming [...] Read more.
Construction projects are often challenged by tight budgets and limited time and resources. Contractors are, therefore, looking for ways to become competitive by improving efficiency and using cost-effective materials. Using three-dimensional (3D) printing for shaping materials to produce cost-effective construction elements is becoming a feasible option to make contractors more competitive locally and globally. The process capabilities for 3D printers and related devices have been tightened in recent years with the booming of 3D printing industries and applications. Contractors are attempting to improve production skills to satisfy firm specifications and standards, while attempting to have costs within competitive ranges. The aim of this research is to investigate and test the production process capability (Cp) of 3D printers using fused deposition modeling (FDM) to manufacture 3D printed parts made from plastic waste for use in the construction of buildings with different infill structures and internal designs to reduce cost. This was accomplished by calculating the actual requirement capabilities of the 3D printers under consideration. The production capabilities and requirements of FDM printers are first examined to develop instructions and assumptions to assist in deciphering the characteristics of the 3D printers that will be used. Possible applications in construction are then presented. As an essential outcome of this study, it was noticed that the 3D printed parts made from plastic waste using FDM printers are less expensive than using traditional lightweight non-load bearing concrete hollow masonry blocks, hourdi slab hollow bocks, and concrete face bricks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
The Functions of Housing in Response to Changed Lifestyles in Korean Residential Spaces: A Comparative Analysis of the Cases in Lifestyle and Architectural Magazines
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12079; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112079 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
The housing type of apartments, spread widely across South Korea, has penetrated deep into its domestic housing culture, thanks to their advantages in terms of convenience, resulting from the mass production of industrial capitalism, which prioritizes functionality and efficiency. However, capitalist social structures [...] Read more.
The housing type of apartments, spread widely across South Korea, has penetrated deep into its domestic housing culture, thanks to their advantages in terms of convenience, resulting from the mass production of industrial capitalism, which prioritizes functionality and efficiency. However, capitalist social structures have been undergoing transformation in the 21st century. Under a new paradigm emphasizing creativity over functionality and efficiency, the characteristics of everyday life are also changing. We started with the question of apartment spaces, which featured there are only basic minimum functions with simple combinations of similar rooms, without being able to capture the current changed lifestyle. Therefore, this study focuses on newly emerging lifestyles resulting from this transition of social structures and the characteristics of residential spaces at present, centering on the “function of housing”. Based on these considerations, we aimed to establish the essential function of housing that is prioritized by this era. To this end, we first looked at the changes in the functions of housing before and after modern times. We found that the functions of housing that were complex in traditional society have been differentiated and that houses have changed into a more private space along with the post-modern advent of urban public areas. However, the recent shift in social structure has led to the emergence of new lifestyles, which has also called for new functions of housing. Therefore, in this study, through the analysis of recent lifestyle magazines and architectural magazines, we compared the general public’s and architectural experts’ perspectives on the changed functions of housing and the characteristics of the required residential space. Accordingly, this research analyzed articles containing interviews with residents in lifestyle magazines and articles of architects and critics in architectural magazines. In addition to our previous literatures on changes in “characteristics of residents” and “relationship between individual and family”, this study will ignite discussions on contemporary urban housing from diverse and multi-layered levels as an attempt to achieve sustainable housing where residents’ everyday lives and their residential spaces match. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Effect of Different HVAC Control Strategies on Thermal Comfort and Adaptive Behavior in High-Rise Apartments
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11767; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111767 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 806
Abstract
In the residential sector, householders play an active role in regulating the indoor climate via diverse control measures such as the operation of air-conditioners or windows. The main research question asked in this paper is whether control decisions made by householders are rational [...] Read more.
In the residential sector, householders play an active role in regulating the indoor climate via diverse control measures such as the operation of air-conditioners or windows. The main research question asked in this paper is whether control decisions made by householders are rational and effective in terms of achieving comfort and energy efficiency. Based on a field study in South Korea, this paper explores how a HVAC control strategy for high-rise apartment buildings can affect occupant comfort and adaptive behavior. Two different control strategies: (1) occupant control (OC), where occupants were allowed to freely operate the HVAC system and (2) comfort-zone control (CC), where the operation of the HVAC system was determined by the researcher, based on a pre-defined comfort zone, were applied to, and tested within the participating households in summer. The impact of the two control strategies on indoor thermal environments, thermal comfort, and occupant adaptive behavior were analyzed. We find that the CC strategy is more energy/comfort efficient than OC because: (1) comfort was be achieved at a higher indoor temperature, and (2) unnecessary control behaviors leading to cooling load increase can be minimized, which have major implications for energy consumption reduction in the residential sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Sustainability in Early Modern China through the Evolution of the Jesuit Accommodation Method
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11729; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111729 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
This article clarifies the often overlooked facts attributed to European missionaries in Asia, especially Jesuits, who acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent, they became harbingers of culture and science more than faith itself [...] Read more.
This article clarifies the often overlooked facts attributed to European missionaries in Asia, especially Jesuits, who acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent, they became harbingers of culture and science more than faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to language, e.g., the Chinese characters (considered to be the sole natural language), geography, cosmology and even governance. Here we try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it. However, in the process, many Jesuits clearly became sinified and eventually acculturated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
The Influence of Strip-City Street Network Structure on Spatial Vitality: Case Studies in Lanzhou, China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111107 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
In the context of China’s recent urbanization, the agglomeration and diffusion of the strip-city spatial network are gradually being reconstructed. The ways in which the street network structure affects the underlying logic of economic and social development is worthy of in-depth consideration. This [...] Read more.
In the context of China’s recent urbanization, the agglomeration and diffusion of the strip-city spatial network are gradually being reconstructed. The ways in which the street network structure affects the underlying logic of economic and social development is worthy of in-depth consideration. This study takes Lanzhou (a typical strip city in China) as a case study, using dynamic, geographic, big data and spatial syntactic-theory models to explore the influence of street network accessibility and structure on the spatial and temporal distribution of strip-city spatial vitality. We use Hotspot Analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) to analyze the dispersal characteristics of street space vitality. In addition, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity characteristics and mechanism of the influence of street accessibility on spatial vitality are evaluated using the spatial Durbin model (SDM). The results show that: the temporal and spatial performance of urban vitality on weekdays and weekends conforms to people’s daily activities, offering similar spatial agglomeration and dispersion effects; accessibility and pedestrian-friendly streets have better urban spatial vitality clustering; street network integration significantly affects the reshaping of urban vitality, but there is apparent temporal heterogeneity in the degree of impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Article
Climate-Based Analysis for the Potential Use of Coconut Oil as Phase Change Material in Buildings
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910731 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
One of the most efficient measures to reduce energy consumption in buildings is using passive thermal comfort strategies. This paper shows the potential of coconut oil as a bio-based phase change material (PCM) incorporated into construction components to improve the thermal performance of [...] Read more.
One of the most efficient measures to reduce energy consumption in buildings is using passive thermal comfort strategies. This paper shows the potential of coconut oil as a bio-based phase change material (PCM) incorporated into construction components to improve the thermal performance of buildings for several climates, due to its environmental advantages, wide availability, and economic feasibility. The thermophysical properties of coconut oil were determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Numerical simulations were conducted in ESP-r, comparing an office space with a gypsum ceiling to one with coconut oil as PCM for 12 climate types in the Köppen–Geiger classification. The results show that coconut oil is a suitable PCM for construction applications under tropical and subtropical climates. This PCM can provide year-round benefits for these climates, even though a higher melting point is needed for optimum performance during hotter months. The highest demand reduction of 32% and a maximum temperature reduction of 3.7 °C were found in Mansa, Zambia (Cwa climate). The best results occur when average outdoor temperatures are within the temperature range of phase change. The higher the diurnal temperature range, the better the results. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of coconut oil in terms of its properties and potential for application in the building sector as PCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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Review
Review of Existing Energy Retrofit Decision Tools for Homeowners
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810189 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Energy retrofit tools are considered by many countries as one of the strongest incentives to encourage homeowners to invest in energy renovation. These tools help homeowners to get an initial overview of suitable retrofit measures. Although a large number of energy retrofit tools [...] Read more.
Energy retrofit tools are considered by many countries as one of the strongest incentives to encourage homeowners to invest in energy renovation. These tools help homeowners to get an initial overview of suitable retrofit measures. Although a large number of energy retrofit tools have been developed to inspire and educate homeowners, energy renovation by individual homeowners is still lagging and the impact of current tools is insufficient as awareness and information issues remain one of main obstacles that hinder the uptake of energy retrofitting schemes. This research extends the current knowledge by analysing the characteristics of 19 tools from 10 different countries. The selected tools were analysed in terms of energy calculation methods, features, generation and range of retrofit measures, evaluation criteria, and indications on financial support. The review indicates that: (1) most toolkits use empirical data-driven methods, pre-simulated databases, and normative calculation methods; (2) few tools generate long-term integrated renovation packages; (3) technological, social, and aesthetic aspects are rarely taken into consideration; (4) the generation of funding options varies between the existing tools; (5) most toolkits do not suggest specific retrofit solutions adapted to traditional buildings; and (6) preferences of homeowners in terms of evaluation criteria are often neglected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
Article
Smart Home Adoption: The Impact of User Characteristics and Differences in Perception of Benefits
Buildings 2021, 11(9), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090393 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
Despite the various benefits offered by smart homes, they have not yet been widely adopted by mainstream users. This study was designed to identify user perceptions in the association between smart home service preference and adoption and to identify factors affecting the adoption [...] Read more.
Despite the various benefits offered by smart homes, they have not yet been widely adopted by mainstream users. This study was designed to identify user perceptions in the association between smart home service preference and adoption and to identify factors affecting the adoption and service preferences of smart homes. In order to achieve the goal of the study, an online survey was conducted among 400 potential users in the Republic of Korea. The main findings are as follows: First, there were considerable needs for the services that can support the independent lives of residents, such as safety and convenience services, among all age groups. Second, the study findings suggested that those who preferred environmental control service most were more likely to become relatively active adopters. Third, a significant association between the preference for smart home services and the intention to use was identified. Finally, the study findings suggested that the number of service preferences and adoption was not directly proportional. The findings reported in this study can improve the overall understanding of the process of adopting smart homes, and can provide important insights into user-centered strategies to promote the adoption of smart home services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
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