Innovation in Structural Analysis and Dynamics for Constructions

A topical collection in Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This collection belongs to the section "Building Structures".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Department of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, 09100 Cagliari, Italy
2. Edificio A, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
Interests: design of reinforced concrete structures and use of recycled construction materials; analyses of extreme load on structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: structural assessment; historic structures; timber structures; masonry structures; scan to fem; seismic risk; drones
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuous development of materials, design concepts, and tools for numerical analysis offers new challenges and scenarios to the research community and designers. The use of materials, innovative or not, and load-bearing components that are particularly sensitive to environmental conditions or severe operational conditions can require dedicated methods and performance indicators for their structural verification. However, especially in recent years, the building and infrastructure fields have been able to take advantage of increasing innovation that takes the form of novel analysis techniques and tools.

In this Topical Collection, we invite contributions that are focused on the latest developments in innovative techniques and solutions for structural analysis applied to constructions. The collection will be of interest to academics and structural and construction engineers but also architects and other professionals involved in the building and construction field.

The submission of original research studies, review papers, and experimental and/or numerical investigations that are focused on the structural performance of building and infrastructure materials, components, and systems is warmly encouraged. Both new projects/applications and interventions on existing structural systems will be of interest for the Topical Collection.

Contributions in the following topics are welcome. However, they need not be limited to this list:

  • Structural dynamic approaches and numerical applications;
  • Linear and nonlinear structural analyses;
  • Characterization of structural materials;
  • Analysis of constructional materials under dynamic loads;
  • Structural health monitoring;
  • Vibration analysis and dynamic characterization;
  • Assessment and retrofit of existing civil structures and infrastructures;
  • Structural performance assessment under natural hazards;
  • Risk and mitigation analysis;
  • Experimental methods and results;
  • Numerical modeling.

Dr. Chiara Bedon
Dr. Flavio Stochino
Dr. Mislav Stepinac
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (15 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

22 pages, 4486 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Analysis of Optimization Algorithms for Finite Element Model Updating on Numerical and Experimental Benchmarks
by Davide Raviolo, Marco Civera and Luca Zanotti Fragonara
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 3010; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123010 - 1 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Finite Element Model Updating (FEMU) is a common approach to model-based Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil structures and infrastructures. Its application can be further utilized to produce effective digital twins of a permanently monitored structure. The FEMU concept, [...] Read more.
Finite Element Model Updating (FEMU) is a common approach to model-based Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil structures and infrastructures. Its application can be further utilized to produce effective digital twins of a permanently monitored structure. The FEMU concept, simple yet effective, involves calibrating and/or updating a numerical model based on the recorded dynamic response of the target system. This enables to indirectly estimate its material parameters, thus providing insight into its mass and stiffness distribution. In turn, this can be used to localize structural changes that may be induced by damage occurrence. However, several algorithms exist in the scientific literature for FEMU purposes. This study benchmarks three well-established global optimization techniques—namely, Generalized Pattern Search, Simulated Annealing, and a Genetic Algorithm application—against a proposed Bayesian sampling optimization algorithm. Although Bayesian optimization is a powerful yet efficient global optimization technique, especially suitable for expensive functions, it is seldom applied to model updating problems. The comparison is performed on numerical and experimental datasets based on one metallic truss structure built in the facilities of Cranfield University. The Bayesian sampling procedure showed high computational accuracy and efficiency, with a runtime of approximately half that of the alternative optimization strategies. Full article
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20 pages, 17511 KiB  
Article
Passive Control of Ultra-Span Twin-Box Girder Suspension Bridges under Vortex-Induced Vibration Using Tuned Mass Dampers: A Sensitivity Analysis
by Seyed Hossein Hosseini Lavassani, Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni, Hamed Alizadeh and Vahidreza Gharehbaghi
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051279 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Suspension bridges’ in-plane extended configuration makes them vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations. Vortex shedding is a kind of aerodynamic phenomenon causing a bridge to vibrate in vertical and torsional modes. Vortex-induced vibrations disturb the bridge’s serviceability limit, which is not favorable, and in the [...] Read more.
Suspension bridges’ in-plane extended configuration makes them vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations. Vortex shedding is a kind of aerodynamic phenomenon causing a bridge to vibrate in vertical and torsional modes. Vortex-induced vibrations disturb the bridge’s serviceability limit, which is not favorable, and in the long run, they can cause fatigue damage. In this condition, vibration control strategies seem to be essential. In this paper, the performance of a tuned mass damper (TMD) is investigated under the torsional vortex phenomenon for an ultra-span streamlined twin-box girder suspension bridge. In this regard, the sensitivity of TMD parameters was addressed according to the torsional responses of the suspension bridge, and the reached appropriate ranges are compared with the outputs provided by genetic algorithm. The results indicated that the installation of three TMDs could control all the vulnerable modes and reduce the torsional rotation by up to 34%. Full article
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25 pages, 6499 KiB  
Perspective
Role of In-Field Experimental Diagnostic Analysis for the Derivation of Residual Capacity Indexes in Existing Pedestrian Glass Systems
by Chiara Bedon, Salvatore Noè, Marco Fasan and Claudio Amadio
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030754 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
The use of simplified tools in support of the mechanical performance assessment of pedestrian structures is strongly attractive for designers due to practical efficiency, as well as for researchers in terms of innovation and the assessment of new proposals. On the side of [...] Read more.
The use of simplified tools in support of the mechanical performance assessment of pedestrian structures is strongly attractive for designers due to practical efficiency, as well as for researchers in terms of innovation and the assessment of new proposals. On the side of design, the vibration serviceability requires that specific comfort levels for pedestrians are satisfied by taking into account conventional performance indicators and the class of use, or the structural typology for pedestrian systems’ object of analysis. A major issue, in this context, is represented by long-term performance of systems (especially pedestrian) that are based on innovative or sensitive materials and possibly affected by degradation or even damage, and thus potentially unsafe. Consequently, it is clear that, especially for in-service structures, the availability of standardized non-destructive protocols for a reliable (and possibly rapid) structural assessment can represent an efficient support for diagnostics. This perspective paper poses the attention on the residual capacity quantification of laminated glass (LG) pedestrian structures, and on the assessment of experimental and/or numerical tools for their analysis. To this aim, three modular units belonging to two different indoor, in-service pedestrian systems are taken into account like pilot studies. On the practical side, as shown, a primary role is assigned to Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) procedures, which are used on-site, to quantify their structural performance based on vibration response, including damage detection and inverse characterization of materials degradation. As shown, based on earlier detailed validation, it is proven that a rapid structural assessment can be based on a single triaxial Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometer, which can be used to derive relevant capacity measures and indicators. To develop possible general recommendations of technical interest for in-service LG pedestrian systems, the so-calculated experimental performance indicators are assessed towards various traditional design procedures and literature approaches of classical use for structural diagnostic purposes, which are presently extended to the structural typology of LG systems. Full article
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20 pages, 5823 KiB  
Article
Structural Identification from Operational Modal Analysis: The Case of Steel Structures
by Flavio Stochino, Alessandro Attoli, Michele Serra, Alberto Napoli, Daniel Meloni and Fausto Mistretta
Buildings 2023, 13(2), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020548 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
In the case of old existing structures where the cultural value is very high, structural health analyses and investigations would be better performed without damages or service interruptions. Thus, modal analysis aimed at identifying eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes represents a very effective strategy to [...] Read more.
In the case of old existing structures where the cultural value is very high, structural health analyses and investigations would be better performed without damages or service interruptions. Thus, modal analysis aimed at identifying eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes represents a very effective strategy to identify structural characteristics. In this paper, an innovative strategy to identify structural parameters exploiting the modal information obtained from operational modal analysis is proposed. The importance of the structural modeling in the problem formulation is highlighted. In the case of a simply supported beam, it was possible to assess the beam steel elastic modulus, while in the case of a cantilever beam, some constraint characteristics have been evaluated as well. In the steel frame case, the focus was on the constraint conditions of the structure determining the flexural stiffness of the springs representing the column base constraints. The method performances are promising for applications in larger structures such as bridges and buildings. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

18 pages, 6579 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Web Panel Zone in Built-up Box Columns Subjected to Bidirectional Cyclic Loads
by Ramón Mata, Eduardo Nuñez, Frank Sanhueza, Nelson Maureira and Ángel Roco
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010071 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The behavior of the web panel zone has a direct effect on the cyclic performance of steel moment connections. While the mechanisms of web panel zone failure are known under cyclic load, little is known about the behavior of the web panel zone [...] Read more.
The behavior of the web panel zone has a direct effect on the cyclic performance of steel moment connections. While the mechanisms of web panel zone failure are known under cyclic load, little is known about the behavior of the web panel zone under bidirectional loads in bolted connections. Using experimental tests and calibrated numerical models, this research evaluated the web panel zone behavior under unidirectional and bidirectional cyclic loads. The results showed that bidirectional load can modify the stress and strain distribution in the web panel zone. Moreover, the increasing of the width-to-thickness ratio of the column influences the failure mechanism of the joint configuration and increases the plastic incursion in the column. These data demonstrate that bidirectional effects improve the web panel zone performance under cyclic loads. Full article
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18 pages, 4028 KiB  
Perspective
Smart Textiles in Building and Living Applications: WG4 CONTEXT Insight on Elderly and Healthcare Environments
by Enrico Venturini Degli Esposti, Chiara Bedon, Vaida Jonaitiene, Jan K. Kazak, Leonarda Francesca Liotta, Georgios Priniotakis and Urszula Stachewicz
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122156 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
Over the past 30 years, the development of new technologies and especially of smart textiles has unavoidably led to new applications of traditional textiles in the built environment. Depending on special constructional needs (i.e., acoustic insulation, thermal insulation, shading system, etc.) or health [...] Read more.
Over the past 30 years, the development of new technologies and especially of smart textiles has unavoidably led to new applications of traditional textiles in the built environment. Depending on special constructional needs (i.e., acoustic insulation, thermal insulation, shading system, etc.) or health monitoring and supporting needs (i.e., for patients with chronical disease, etc.), an increasing number of possible applications has been proposed to improve human well-being. This is especially the case for healthcare environments (like elderly or nursing homes, etc.), but also educational environments (like schools, etc.) where young or old customers can benefit from technological innovation in several ways. As an ongoing activity of WG4 members for the CA17107 “CONTEXT” European research network, this study presents a review on selected applications for building and living solutions, with special attention to healthcare environments, giving evidence of major outcomes and potentials for smart textiles-based products. Full article
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19 pages, 4748 KiB  
Article
Effect of Interlayer and Inclined Screw Arrangements on the Load-Bearing Capacity of Timber-Concrete Composite Connections
by Yuri De Santis, Martina Sciomenta, Luca Spera, Vincenzo Rinaldi, Massimo Fragiacomo and Chiara Bedon
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122076 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The solution of timber-to-concrete composite (TCC) floors represents a well-established construction technique, which is consistently used for both the retrofitting of existing timber floors and the realization of new diaphragms. The success of TCC floors relies on the intrinsic effectiveness in increasing both [...] Read more.
The solution of timber-to-concrete composite (TCC) floors represents a well-established construction technique, which is consistently used for both the retrofitting of existing timber floors and the realization of new diaphragms. The success of TCC floors relies on the intrinsic effectiveness in increasing both the in-plane (for lateral loads) and the out-of-plane (for gravity loads) performance of existing timber floors. As a widespread retrofit intervention, it is common to use existing floorboards as a permanent formwork for the concrete pouring. Rather few research studies of literature, in this regard, highlighted an overall reduction of load capacity and slip modulus due to the presence of such an interposed interlayer. In this regard, the present paper focuses on the use of screws as efficient mechanical connectors and analyses different configurations and inclination angles for their arrangement. This main goal is achieved by performing parametric Finite Element (FE) numerical analyses, validated on previous experimental tests, in order to specifically investigate the influence of the in-between interlayer, as well as the role of friction phenomena and the influence of the test setup and experimental protocol to achieve the basic mechanical performance indicators. Full article
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24 pages, 6939 KiB  
Article
Simplified Models to Capture the Effects of Restraints in Glass Balustrades under Quasi-Static Lateral Load or Soft-Body Impact
by Emanuele Rizzi, Chiara Bedon and Claudio Amadio
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101664 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Structural glass balustrades are usually composed of simple glass panels which are designed under various restraint solutions to minimize large out-of-plane deflections and prematurely high tensile/compressive stress peaks under lateral loads due to crowd. Linear supports, point-fixing systems, and others can be used [...] Read more.
Structural glass balustrades are usually composed of simple glass panels which are designed under various restraint solutions to minimize large out-of-plane deflections and prematurely high tensile/compressive stress peaks under lateral loads due to crowd. Linear supports, point-fixing systems, and others can be used to create geometrical schemes based on the repetition of simple modular units. Among others, linear restraints that are introduced at the base of glass panels are mechanically described in the form of ideal linear clamps for glass, in which the actual geometrical and mechanical details of real fixing components are reduced to rigid nodal boundaries. This means that, from a modelling point of view, strong simplifications are introduced for design. In real systems, however, these multiple components are used to ensure appropriate local flexibility and adequately minimize the risk of premature stress peaks in glass. The present study draws attention to one of these linear restraint solutions working as a clamp at the base of glass panels in bending. The accuracy and potential of simplified mechanical models in characterizing the effective translational and rotational stiffness contributions of its components are addressed, with the support of efficient and accurate Finite Element (FE) numerical models and experimental data from the literature for balustrades under double twin-tyre impact. Intrinsic limits are also emphasized based on parametric calculations in quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Full article
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20 pages, 7002 KiB  
Article
Body CoM Acceleration for Rapid Analysis of Gait Variability and Pedestrian Effects on Structures
by Chiara Bedon
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020251 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Knowledge of body motion features and walk-induced effects is of primary importance for the vibration analysis of structures, especially low-frequency slabs and lightweight and/or slender systems, as well as for clinical applications. Structurally speaking, consolidated literature procedures are available for a wide set [...] Read more.
Knowledge of body motion features and walk-induced effects is of primary importance for the vibration analysis of structures, especially low-frequency slabs and lightweight and/or slender systems, as well as for clinical applications. Structurally speaking, consolidated literature procedures are available for a wide set of constructional solutions and typologies. A basic assumption consists in the description of walking humans’ effects on structures through equivalent deterministic loads, in which the ground vertical reaction force due to pedestrians depends on their mass and motion frequency. However, a multitude of additional parameters should be taken into account and properly confirmed by dedicated laboratory studies. In this paper, the focus is on the assessment of a rapid analysis protocol in which attention is given to pedestrian input, based on a minimized sensor setup. The study of gait variability and related effects for structural purposes is based on the elaboration of single Wi-Fi sensor, body centre of mass (CoM) accelerations. A total of 50 walking configurations was experimentally investigated in laboratory or in field conditions (for more than 500 recorded gaits), with the support of an adult volunteer. Parametric gait analysis is presented considering different substructure conditions and motion configurations. Body CoM acceleration records are then used for the analysis of a concrete slab, where the attention is focused on the effects of (i) rough experimental body CoM input, or (ii) experimentally derived synthetized gait input. The effects on the structural side of rough experimental walk time histories or synthetized experimental stride signals are discussed. Full article
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27 pages, 7528 KiB  
Article
Lightweight Composite Floor System—Cold-Formed Steel and Concrete—LWT-FLOOR Project
by Ivan Lukačević, Ivan Ćurković, Andrea Rajić and Marko Bartolac
Buildings 2022, 12(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12020209 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4485
Abstract
In the last few decades, the application of lightweight cold-formed composite steel–concrete structural systems has constantly been increasing within the field of structural engineering. This can be explained by efficient material usage, particularly noticeable when using cold-formed built-up sections and the innovative types [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, the application of lightweight cold-formed composite steel–concrete structural systems has constantly been increasing within the field of structural engineering. This can be explained by efficient material usage, particularly noticeable when using cold-formed built-up sections and the innovative types of shear connections. This paper summarises an overview of the development of the cold-formed composite steel–concrete floor systems. Additionally, it provides the background, planned activities, and preliminary results of the current LWT-FLOOR project, which is ongoing at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Croatia. The proposed structural system is formed of built-up cold-formed steel beams and cast-in-place concrete slabs that are interconnected using an innovative type of shear connection. Preliminary analytical and numerical results on the system bending capacity are presented. Obtained results are mutually comparable. The resistance of the fixed beam solution is governed by the resistance of the steel beam, while pinned beam solution is governed by the degree of shear connection without the influence of the increased number of spot welds in the steel beam. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

26 pages, 4677 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Reliability-Based Approach for Evaluating Safe Scaled Distance of Steel Columns under Dynamic Blast Loads
by Mohammad Momeni, Chiara Bedon, Mohammad Ali Hadianfard and Abdolhossein Baghlani
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120606 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Damage to building load-bearing members (especially columns) under explosions and impact are critical issues for structures, given that they may cause a progressive collapse and remarkably increase the number of potential victims. One of the best ways to deal with this issue is [...] Read more.
Damage to building load-bearing members (especially columns) under explosions and impact are critical issues for structures, given that they may cause a progressive collapse and remarkably increase the number of potential victims. One of the best ways to deal with this issue is to provide values of safe protective distance (SPD) for the structural members to verify, so that the amount of damage (probability of exceedance low damage) cannot exceed a specified target. Such an approach takes the form of the so-called safe scaled distance (SSD), which can be calculated for general structural members but requires dedicated and expensive studies. This paper presents an improved calculation method, based on structural reliability analysis, to evaluate the minimum SSD for steel columns under dynamic blast loads. An explicit finite element (FE) approach is used with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method to obtain the SSD, as a result of damage probability. The uncertainties associated with blast and material properties are considered using statistical distributions. A parametric study is thus carried out to obtain curves of probability of low damage for a range of H-shaped steel columns with different size and boundaries. Finally, SSD values are detected and used as an extensive databank to propose a practical empirical formulation for evaluating the SSD of blast loaded steel columns with good level of accuracy and high calculation efficiency. Full article
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14 pages, 73117 KiB  
Article
FRP Pedestrian Bridges—Analysis of Different Infill Configurations
by Lucija Stepinac, Ana Skender, Domagoj Damjanović and Josip Galić
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110564 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to analyze fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge decks according to their material, cross-section, and shape geometry. Infill cell configurations of the decks (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and honeycomb) were tested based on the FRP cell units available in [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to analyze fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bridge decks according to their material, cross-section, and shape geometry. Infill cell configurations of the decks (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, and honeycomb) were tested based on the FRP cell units available in the market. A comparison was made for each cell configuration in flat and curved bridge shapes. Another comparison was made between the material properties. Each model was computed for a composite layup material and a quasi-isotropic material. The quasi-isotropic material represents chopped fibers within a matrix. FE (finite element) analysis was performed on a total of 24 models using Abaqus software. The results show that the bridge shape geometry and infill configuration play an important role in increasing the stiffness, more so than improving the material properties. The arch shape of the bridge deck with quasi-isotropic material and chopped fibers was compared to the cross-ply laminate material in a flat bridge deck. The results show that the arch shape of the bridge deck contributed to the overall stiffness by reducing the deformation by an average of 30–40%. The results of this preliminary study will provide a basis for future research into form finding and laboratory testing. Full article
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17 pages, 1448 KiB  
Review
An Abridged Review of Buckling Analysis of Compression Members in Construction
by Manmohan Dass Goel, Chiara Bedon, Adesh Singh, Ashish Premkishor Khatri and Laxmikant Madanmanohar Gupta
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050211 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4477
Abstract
The column buckling problem was first investigated by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to enhance the buckling capacity of slender columns, because of their importance in structural, mechanical, aeronautical, biomedical, and several other engineering fields. Buckling analysis [...] Read more.
The column buckling problem was first investigated by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to enhance the buckling capacity of slender columns, because of their importance in structural, mechanical, aeronautical, biomedical, and several other engineering fields. Buckling analysis has become a critical aspect, especially in the safety engineering design since, at the time of failure, the actual stress at the point of failure is significantly lower than the material capability to withstand the imposed loads. With the recent advancement in materials and composites, the load-carrying capacity of columns has been remarkably increased, without any significant increase in their size, thus resulting in even more slender compressive members that can be susceptible to buckling collapse. Thus, nonuniformity in columns can be achieved in two ways—either by varying the material properties or by varying the cross section (i.e., shape and size). Both these methods are preferred because they actually inherited the advantage of the reduction in the dead load of the column. Hence, an attempt is made herein to present an abridged review on the buckling analysis of the columns with major emphasis on the buckling of nonuniform and functionally graded columns. Moreover, the paper provides a concise discussion on references that could be helpful for researchers and designers to understand and address the relevant buckling parameters. Full article
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25 pages, 140735 KiB  
Article
Facial Expression-Based Experimental Analysis of Human Reactions and Psychological Comfort on Glass Structures in Buildings
by Chiara Bedon and Silvana Mattei
Buildings 2021, 11(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11050204 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5111
Abstract
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a [...] Read more.
For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a multitude of aspects that can be associated with design concepts of the so-called “emotional architecture”, through which subjective feelings, nervous states and emotions of end-users are evoked by constructional details. The interactions of several objective and subjective parameters can make the “optimal” building design challenging, and this is especially the case for new technical concepts, constructional materials and techniques. In this paper, a remote experimental methodology is proposed to explore and quantify the prevailing human reactions and psychological comfort trends for building occupants, with a focus on end-users exposed to structural glass environments. Major advantages were taken from the use of virtual visual stimuli and facial expression automatic recognition analysis, and from the active support of 30 volunteers. As shown, while glass is often used in constructions, several intrinsic features (transparency, brittleness, etc.) are responsible for subjective feelings that can affect the overall psychological comfort of users. In this regard, the use of virtual built environments and facial expression analysis to quantify human reactions can represent an efficient system to support the building design process. Full article
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28 pages, 9895 KiB  
Article
Calibrated Numerical Approach for the Dynamic Analysis of Glass Curtain Walls under Spheroconical Bag Impact
by Alessia Bez, Chiara Bedon, Giampiero Manara, Claudio Amadio and Guido Lori
Buildings 2021, 11(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040154 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3569
Abstract
The structural design of glass curtain walls and facades is a challenging issue, considering that building envelopes can be subjected extreme design loads. Among others, the soft body impact (SBI) test protocol represents a key design step to protect the occupants. While in [...] Read more.
The structural design of glass curtain walls and facades is a challenging issue, considering that building envelopes can be subjected extreme design loads. Among others, the soft body impact (SBI) test protocol represents a key design step to protect the occupants. While in Europe the standardized protocol based on the pneumatic twin-tire (TT) impactor can be nowadays supported by Finite Element (FE) numerical simulations, cost-time consuming experimental procedures with the spheroconical bag (SB) impactor are still required for facade producers and manufacturers by several technical committees, for the impact assessment of novel systems. At the same time, validated numerical calibrations for SB are still missing in support of designers and manufacturers. In this paper, an enhanced numerical approach is proposed for curtain walls under SB, based on a coupled methodology inclusive of a computationally efficient two Degree of Freedom (2-DOF) and a more geometrically accurate Finite Element (FE) model. As shown, the SB impactor is characterized by stiffness and dissipation properties that hardly match with ideal rigid elastic assumptions, nor with the TT features. Based on a reliable set of experimental investigations and records, the proposed methodology acts on the time history of the imposed load, which is implicitly calibrated to account for the SB impactor features, once the facade features (flexibility and damping parameters) are known. The resulting calibration of the 2-DOF modelling parameters for the derivation of time histories of impact force is achieved with the support of experimental measurements and FE model of the examined facade. The potential and accuracy of the method is emphasized by the collected experimental and numerical comparisons. Successively, the same numerical approach is used to derive a series of iso-damage curves that could support practical design calculations. Full article
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