Next Issue
Volume 9, August
Previous Issue
Volume 9, June

Metals, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2019) – 94 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The outstanding mechanical and corrosion properties of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) highly depends on the austenite-to-ferrite phase balance (A/F). This phase ratio can shift in a large scale during welding. To influence the A/F, nitrogen addition to argon shielding is frequently used because the dissolved nitrogen content in the weld metal (WM) predetermines the A/F. An improved theoretical model was established in order to simulate the WM dissolved nitrogen content, and it was validated using six different shielding gases at two heat input levels. This improved model delivers the basics for shielding gas selection and the subsequent weld design. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on the Formability of Metallic Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells
Metals 2019, 9(7), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070810 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Thin stamped bipolar plates (BPPs) are viewed as promising alternatives to traditional graphite BPPs in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Metallic BPPs provide good thermal/electrical conductivity and exhibit high mechanical strength, to support the loads within the stack. However, BPPs manufactured by stamping [...] Read more.
Thin stamped bipolar plates (BPPs) are viewed as promising alternatives to traditional graphite BPPs in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Metallic BPPs provide good thermal/electrical conductivity and exhibit high mechanical strength, to support the loads within the stack. However, BPPs manufactured by stamping processes are prone to defects. In this study, the effect of the tool’s geometry on the thin sheet formability is investigated through finite element simulation. Despite the broad variety of flow field designs, most of BPPs comprise two representative zones. Hence, in order to reduce the computational cost, the finite element analysis is restricted to these two zones, where the deformation induced by the stamping tools is investigated. The channel/rib width, the punch/die fillet radii, and the channel depth are the parameters studied. The analysis is conducted for a stainless steel SS304 with a thickness of 0.15 mm. The results show that the maximum value of thinning occurs always in the U-bend channel section, specifically in the fillet radius of the die closest to the axis of revolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Material Design in Welding Arc Additive Manufacturing
Metals 2019, 9(7), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070809 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Due to the inherent properties of the process, arc-based generative manufacturing offers the possibility, of specifically applying different material properties locally. One possibility to realize this is the use of different materials. Three approaches are presented to illustrate this option. First, anisotropic behavior [...] Read more.
Due to the inherent properties of the process, arc-based generative manufacturing offers the possibility, of specifically applying different material properties locally. One possibility to realize this is the use of different materials. Three approaches are presented to illustrate this option. First, anisotropic behavior in the welding direction is generated. For this purpose, a FeNi36 is specifically combined with a low-alloy ultra-high-strength fine-grained structural steel filler metal. It will be shown that the integral component properties can be specifically adjusted in the welding direction. In addition, the metallurgical and welding characteristics will be discussed. As a second possibility, the use of well plasticizable materials to locally increase the material strength under cyclic loading with locally notched components is presented. For this purpose, an austenitic FeNi36 with good plasticizability and a good yield strength ratio for the application was applied to a fillet weld of a high-strength fine-grained structural steel in the weld seam toe. It is shown that the tolerable cyclic load can be improved by 35% by this procedure. Thirdly, it is shown that the required thickness of corrosion protection layers can be reduced by 50% through a targeted production sequence in arc-based generative manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arc-based Additive Manufacturing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Determination of Electronic Density and Temperature in Water-Confined Plasmas Generated by Laser Shock Processing
Metals 2019, 9(7), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070808 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
In this work, diagnoses of laser-induced plasmas were performed in several Laser Shock Processing (LSP) experiments using the Balmer Hα-line (656.27 nm) and several Mg II spectral lines. A Q-switched laser of Nd:YAG was focused on aluminum samples (Al2024-T351) in LSP experiments. Two [...] Read more.
In this work, diagnoses of laser-induced plasmas were performed in several Laser Shock Processing (LSP) experiments using the Balmer Hα-line (656.27 nm) and several Mg II spectral lines. A Q-switched laser of Nd:YAG was focused on aluminum samples (Al2024-T351) in LSP experiments. Two methods were used to diagnose the plasma. The first method, which required two different experiments, was the standard for establishing the electronic temperature through the use of a Boltzmann Plot with spectral lines of Mg II and self-absorption correction. The Stark width of the Balmer Hα-line was used to determine the electron density in each of the cases studied. The second method had lower accuracy, but only required an experimental determination. Two parameters, the electronic temperature and the electron density, were obtained with the aid of the Hα-line in a single data acquisition process. The order of magnitude of the temperature obtained from this last method was sufficiently close to the value obtained by the standard method (within a factor lower than 2.0), which is considered to be important in order to allow for its possible use in industrial conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Shock Processing and Related Phenomena)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study on Multi-Step Creep Aging Behavior of Al-Li-S4 Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(7), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070807 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Creep age forming (CAF) is a new technology developed for manufacturing large aluminum components in the aerospace industry. Aluminum–lithium alloys may be used in aerospace components because of their high modulus, specific strength and specific stiffness. Therefore, the creep deformation, mechanical properties and [...] Read more.
Creep age forming (CAF) is a new technology developed for manufacturing large aluminum components in the aerospace industry. Aluminum–lithium alloys may be used in aerospace components because of their high modulus, specific strength and specific stiffness. Therefore, the creep deformation, mechanical properties and aging precipitation of Al-Li-S4 alloy under CAF conditions were studied. It was found that the creep behavior presents double steady state creep stages during the creep aging process. With the increase of stress level, the first steady creep rate increased, but the second steady creep rate was slightly reduced. Coincidentally, in the first steady state creep stage, the yield strength of the studied alloy also showed a slow increase stage. TEM observation showed that Al-Li-S4 alloy mainly contains two precipitation phases, T1 phase and θ’ phase. A few precipitates form during the first steady creep stage. Then, a lot of nucleation and growth of T1 phase resulted in rapid increase of yield strength. At the same time, the increase of stress level effectively inhibited the growth of T1 phase, which resulted in these strengthening phases being more uniform, and thus improved the mechanical properties of materials. On this basis, the relationship between the multi-step behaviors of creep, mechanical properties and aging precipitates are discussed. It is considered that the main reasons for the multi-step phenomenon of creep and mechanical properties are strongly related to the nucleation, growth and distribution of T1 phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Design of Metal-Forming Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Effect of Different Support Structures in Electron Beam Melting of Titanium Alloy Using Finite Element Models
Metals 2019, 9(7), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070806 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Electron beam melting (EBM) technology is a novel additive manufacturing (AM) technique, which uses computer controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional objects from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer aided design (CAD) [...] Read more.
Electron beam melting (EBM) technology is a novel additive manufacturing (AM) technique, which uses computer controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional objects from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with variety of materials. However, it is reported that EBM has limitations in building overhang structures, due to the poor thermal conductivity for the sintered powder particles under overhang surfaces. In the current study, 2D thermo-mechanical finite element models (FEM) are developed to predict the stresses and deformation associated with fabrication of overhang structures by EBM for Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Different support structure geometries are modeled and evaluated. Finally, the numerical results are validated by experimental work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Metal 3D Printing Processes)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Design for Novel Hot-Work Die Steel by Thermodynamic Calculation and Microstructural Examination
Metals 2019, 9(7), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070805 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
In this paper, a new type of hot-work die steel with excellent high-temperature mechanical properties at 700 °C was designed based on the traditional 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel with the help of Thermo-calc software. The effects of C, Cr, Mo, W and V on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new type of hot-work die steel with excellent high-temperature mechanical properties at 700 °C was designed based on the traditional 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel with the help of Thermo-calc software. The effects of C, Cr, Mo, W and V on the types and mass fractions of carbides were studied. Phase diagram calculation revealed that with the increase of V and W contents and the decrease of Cr content, the precipitation temperature and the mass fraction of M23C6 carbides decreased. Meanwhile, the mass fraction of MC carbides increased as the Mo content decreased. Based on the thermodynamic calculation, new material 25Cr3Mo2NiWVNb steel was designed. Compared to the 25Cr3Mo3NiNb steel, more finely dispersed MC and M2C carbides with high thermal stability, as well as fewer M23C6 carbides with low thermal stability, were precipitated in the new steel. The high-temperature tensile showed that the new steel showed high thermal stability and strength even at 700 °C. The high-temperature strengthening effect might be ascribed to the fine and stable nano-scale MC and M2C carbides which precipitated during tempering. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modification Mechanism of Spinel Inclusions in Medium Manganese Steel with Rare Earth Treatment
Metals 2019, 9(7), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070804 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
In aluminum deoxidized medium manganese steel, spinel inclusions are easily to form during refining, and such inclusions will deteriorate the toughness of the medium manganese steel. Rare earth inclusions have a smaller hardness, and their thermal expansion coefficients are similar to that of [...] Read more.
In aluminum deoxidized medium manganese steel, spinel inclusions are easily to form during refining, and such inclusions will deteriorate the toughness of the medium manganese steel. Rare earth inclusions have a smaller hardness, and their thermal expansion coefficients are similar to that of steel. They can avoid large stress concentrations around inclusions during the heat treatment of steel, which is beneficial for improving the toughness of steel. Therefore, rare earth Ce is usually used to modify spinel inclusions in steel. In order to clarify the modification mechanism of spinel inclusions in medium manganese steel with Ce treatment, high-temperature simulation experiments were carried out. Samples were taken step by step during the experimental steel smelting process, and the inclusions in the samples were analyzed by SEM-EDS. Finally, the experimental results were discussed and analyzed in combination with thermodynamic calculations. The results show that after Ce treatment, the amount of inclusions decrease, the inclusion size is basically less than 5 μm, and the spinel inclusions are transformed into rare earth inclusions. After Ce addition, Mn and Mg in the spinel inclusions are first replaced by Ce, and the spinel structure is destroyed to form CeAlO3. When the O content in the steel is low, S in the steel will replace the O in the inclusion, and CeAlO3 and spinel inclusions will be transformed into Ce2O2S. By measuring the total oxygen content of the steel, the total Ce content required for complete modification of spinel inclusions can be obtained. Finally, the critical conditions for the formation and transformation of inclusions in the Fe-Mn-Al-Mg-Ce-O-S system at 1873K were obtained according to thermodynamic calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pyrometallurgy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Residual Stress, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Thick 6005A-T6 Aluminium Alloy Friction Stir Welds
Metals 2019, 9(7), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070803 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Plates (37 mm thick) of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy were butt joined by a single-sided and double-sided friction stir welding (FSW). The 3D residual stresses in the joints were determined using neutron diffraction. The microstructures were characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and [...] Read more.
Plates (37 mm thick) of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy were butt joined by a single-sided and double-sided friction stir welding (FSW). The 3D residual stresses in the joints were determined using neutron diffraction. The microstructures were characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In the single-sided FSW specimen, there were acceptable mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 74.4% of base metal (BM) and low residual stresses with peak magnitudes of approximately 37.5% yield strength of BM were achieved. The hardness is related to the grain size of the nugget zone (NZ), and in this study, precipitations were dissolved due to the high heat input. In the double-sided FSW specimen, there were good mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 80.8% of BM, but high residual stresses with peak magnitudes of approximately 70% yield strength of BM were obtained. The heat input by the second pass provided an aging environment for the first-pass weld zone where the dissolved phases were precipitated and residual stresses were relaxed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Welded Joints)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of the Intermittent Feed High-Speed Grinding of TC4 Titanium Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(7), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070802 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
This paper proposes intermittent feed high-speed grinding, which shows considerable advantages in terms of reducing grinding temperature, relieving grinding wheel blockage and improving workpiece surface integrity. In this grinding, the continuous feed mode of the workpiece is changed into the normal feed + [...] Read more.
This paper proposes intermittent feed high-speed grinding, which shows considerable advantages in terms of reducing grinding temperature, relieving grinding wheel blockage and improving workpiece surface integrity. In this grinding, the continuous feed mode of the workpiece is changed into the normal feed + fast retreat reciprocating feed mode by a fast linear feed worktable. By reasonably setting the normal feed distance of single grinding, the action time of the grinding wheel and workpiece is reduced, so that the grinding heat transfer process does not reach a stable state, reducing the grinding temperature during single grinding. Besides this, the surface temperature is cooled to nearly room temperature and the grinding wheel is flushed by the timely retreating of the grinding wheel to allow the grinding fluid to enter the grinding zone fully, which greatly reduces the phenomenon of heat accumulation and grinding wheel loading. An intermittent feed high-speed grinding experiment on Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) titanium alloy was systematically carried out, and the influence of the grinding parameters on grinding force and grinding temperature was deeply analyzed. The instantaneous grinding temperature field and thermal stress field of TC4 titanium alloy in intermittent feed high-speed grinding were constructed with the finite element method. The surface morphology of the grinding wheel and TC4 titanium alloy specimens after intermittent feed grinding were analyzed and were compared with those after traditional continuous grinding. It was found that the curves of the grinding force and temperature varied with time in the process of machining, consisting of many “pulse” peaks. Under the same grinding parameters, the magnitude of the grinding force is the same as that of continuous grinding. In a certain range, the grinding temperature is greatly affected by the single feed distance and the interval time. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results, and the error is controlled within 12%. Compared with traditional high-speed grinding, under the same process parameters, the grinding temperature is greatly reduced, the surface integrity of the workpiece is better, and the clogging of the grinding wheel is greatly reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Technology in the Automotive Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Root Cause Analysis of Surface Cracks in Heavy Steel Plates during the Hot Rolling Process
Metals 2019, 9(7), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070801 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
This paper investigates the root cause of the formation of surface cracks on hot-rolled C–Mn constructional steel heavy plates. Cracks are rather evenly distributed over the surface in the form of colonies of cracks. Samples were cut from the heavy plate. The microstructure [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the root cause of the formation of surface cracks on hot-rolled C–Mn constructional steel heavy plates. Cracks are rather evenly distributed over the surface in the form of colonies of cracks. Samples were cut from the heavy plate. The microstructure of samples in the as-cast and hot-rolled states were studied using optical and electron microscopes as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results show that cracks are heavily oxidized. De-carburized areas are also seen alongside cracks. The crack tip is in the form of a deer-horn, indicating that crack branching has taken place during deformation. The crack initiation sites are V-shaped grooves on the surface of as-cast slabs. Correlations between microstructures, processing parameters, and crack formation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rolling of Metals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Aging Phenomena during In-Service Creep Exposure of Heat-Resistant Steels
Metals 2019, 9(7), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070800 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
An investigation of aging phenomena during creep exposure has been conducted for HP-Nb cast reformer tubes for several exposure conditions. Aging was manifested by carbide precipitation, carbide coarsening, and carbide transformation. The transformation of primary M7C3 to the more stable [...] Read more.
An investigation of aging phenomena during creep exposure has been conducted for HP-Nb cast reformer tubes for several exposure conditions. Aging was manifested by carbide precipitation, carbide coarsening, and carbide transformation. The transformation of primary M7C3 to the more stable M23C6 carbide takes place at high exposure temperature (910 °C and above). The primary MC carbides transform to the Ni-Nb silicide or G-phase during creep exposure. The presence of Ti in the steel prevented the transformation of MC carbides to the G-phase. Morphological changes like needle to globular transitions, rounding of carbide edges, and carbide coarsening take place during creep exposure. The room-temperature tensile elongation and ultimate tensile strength are significantly reduced during creep exposure. The above aging phenomena are precursors to creep damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Mechanisms in Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Copper Dissolution from Black Copper Ore under Oxidizing and Reducing Conditions
Metals 2019, 9(7), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070799 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Black copper oxides are amorphous materials of copper-bearing phases of manganese. They are complex mineral compounds with difficult to recognize mineralogy and have slow dissolution kinetics in conventional hydrometallurgical processes. This study evaluates the effects of various leaching media on copper dissolution from [...] Read more.
Black copper oxides are amorphous materials of copper-bearing phases of manganese. They are complex mineral compounds with difficult to recognize mineralogy and have slow dissolution kinetics in conventional hydrometallurgical processes. This study evaluates the effects of various leaching media on copper dissolution from black copper minerals. Leach of a pure black copper sample from Lomas Bayas Mine and another from a regional mine were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Qemscan and mechanically prepared for acid leaching under standard, oxidizing and reducing conditions through the addition of oxygen, iron sulfate or sulfur dioxide, respectively. Standard and high potential leaching (770 mV (SHE)) results in a copper dissolution rate of 70% and manganese dissolution rate of 2%. The addition of potential reducing agents (FeSO4 or SO2) decreases the redox potential to 696 and 431 mV, respectively, and favors the dissolution of manganese, thus increasing the overall copper extraction rate. The addition of SO2 results in the lowest redox potential and the highest copper extraction rates of 86.2% and 75.5% for the Lomas Bayas and regional samples, respectively, which represent an increase of 15% over the copper extract rates under standard and oxidizing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Hydrogen Content and Strain Rate on Hydrogen-induced Delay Cracking for Hot-stamped Steel
Metals 2019, 9(7), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070798 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Hot-stamped steel has been widely used in automobile bumper and other safety components due to its high strength. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of hydrogen content and strain rate on hydrogen-induced delay cracking (HIDC) behavior. The results showed that the plasticity of [...] Read more.
Hot-stamped steel has been widely used in automobile bumper and other safety components due to its high strength. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of hydrogen content and strain rate on hydrogen-induced delay cracking (HIDC) behavior. The results showed that the plasticity of the steel significantly decreased with an increase in hydrogen content or a decrease in the strain rate. Fractography was analyzed after tensile tests. It was found that all of the pre-charged specimens cracked at large-sized inclusions when stretched at a strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1, which indicates that, in this case, the defect itself in the material had great influence on the extend properties. No inclusions were found at the main fracture origin area for hydrogen steady-state specimens, when stretched at a strain rate of 1 × 10−6 s−1, which demonstrated that a slower strain rate causes greater influence by hydrogen. However, for the non-pre-charged samples, the fractures surface showed that cracking originated from the defect near the sample surface, which was independent of strain rates. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Warm Rolling on Microstructure and Deformation Behavior of High Manganese Steels
Metals 2019, 9(7), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070797 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
In this work, a Fe-23Mn-0.3C-1Al high manganese twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is subjected to varying warm rolling procedures in order to increase the yield strength and maintain a notable ductility. A comprehensive material characterization allows for the understanding of the activated deformation mechanisms [...] Read more.
In this work, a Fe-23Mn-0.3C-1Al high manganese twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is subjected to varying warm rolling procedures in order to increase the yield strength and maintain a notable ductility. A comprehensive material characterization allows for the understanding of the activated deformation mechanisms and their impact on the resulting microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The results show a significant enhancement of the yield strength compared to a fully recrystallized Fe-23Mn-0.3C-1Al steel. This behavior is mainly dominated by the change of the active deformation mechanisms during rolling. Deformation twinning is very pronounced at lower temperatures, whereas this mechanism is suppressed at 500 °C and a thickness reduction of up to 50%. The mechanical properties can be tailored by adjusting rolling temperature and thickness reduction to desired applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical, Structural and Morphological Characterization of Hydrothermally Fabricated Binary Palladium Alloys PdCo and PdNi
Metals 2019, 9(7), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070796 - 18 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
This article details the development and characterization of binary palladium alloys synthesized via a hydrothermal process. Palladium alloys, being good redox catalysts, could potentially replace platinum in many applications such as in dye sensitized solar cells, capacitors and vehicular catalytic converters where platinum [...] Read more.
This article details the development and characterization of binary palladium alloys synthesized via a hydrothermal process. Palladium alloys, being good redox catalysts, could potentially replace platinum in many applications such as in dye sensitized solar cells, capacitors and vehicular catalytic converters where platinum is vital for maximum productivity. A good replacement should be cheap, readily available and be able to offer comparable catalytic activity to that of platinum. As such we hereby attempt to hydrothermally fabricate and characterize binary palladium alloys PdNi and PdCo that could be ideal replacements for platinum. XRD analysis of the as-synthesized binary alloys revealed the existence of only palladium peaks at 2θ values of 40.1°, 46.7°, 68.1°, 82.1° and 86.6°, indicative of the successful formation of the binary alloys. SEM micrographs revealed that both alloys consisted of spherical particles with PdCo agglomerating to an extent, whereas PdNi was widely distributed, thus it could enhance electrolyte adsorption during catalytic reduction reactions. Cyclic voltammetry analysis at 50 mV∙s−1 revealed that PdNi is more electrocatalytically active with a reduction current density of 41 mA∙cm−2 compared to 18 mA∙cm−2 for PdCo. Lower charge transfer resistance from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the superior catalytic ability of PdNi. The two palladium alloys also produced maximum specific capacitances of 68 and 27 F∙g−1 for PdNi and PdCo respectively. Analysis of the sample stability yielded coulombic efficiency retention of 98.7 and 97% for PdNi and PdCo respectively after 1000 cycles. Results obtained have shown that the palladium alloys with their low charge transfer resistance could be ideal replacements for platinum in dye sensitized solar cells. Modest specific capacitance for PdNi illustrates its potential as an electrode catalyst in capacitors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Hot Roll Bonded Al/Ti Laminated Metal Composites (LMCs) by Pre-Rolling Diffusion Process
Metals 2019, 9(7), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070795 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
In this study, the traditional hot rolling to fabricate Al/Ti laminated metal composites (LMCs) was improved by using a pre-rolling diffusion process. The effect of the pre-rolling diffusion on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Ti LMCs were investigated by various methods, such as [...] Read more.
In this study, the traditional hot rolling to fabricate Al/Ti laminated metal composites (LMCs) was improved by using a pre-rolling diffusion process. The effect of the pre-rolling diffusion on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Ti LMCs were investigated by various methods, such as optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and tensile tests. The results show that, with increasing diffusion temperature, the thickness in diffusion layer was increased and the mechanical properties of LMCs were improved obviously, which was attributed to the optimized interfacial structure after diffusion process. In addition, the formation of TiAl3 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) was detected in the bonding interface, which played an important role in improving the mechanical properties for Al/Ti LMCs. The predicted results of stress-strain curves from rule of mixture (ROM) indicated that, there existed an extra interfacial strengthening in Al/Ti LMCs beside the mechanical properties provided by the contribution of constituent layers. The pre-rolling diffusion process is effective for the optimization of interfacial structure and improvement of mechanical properties in Al/Ti LMCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding of Metals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Some Recent Advances on Thermal–mechanical Fatigue Design and Upcoming Challenges for the Automotive Industry
Metals 2019, 9(7), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070794 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Automotive industry faces numerous evolutions regarding environment regulations and parts reliability. Through the specific case of a cylinder head, actual and forthcoming challenges for low-cycle and thermal–mechanical fatigue design in an industrial context are presented. With a description of current design approaches and [...] Read more.
Automotive industry faces numerous evolutions regarding environment regulations and parts reliability. Through the specific case of a cylinder head, actual and forthcoming challenges for low-cycle and thermal–mechanical fatigue design in an industrial context are presented. With a description of current design approaches and highlighting limitations, this work focuses on variable loadings, constitutive models and their interaction with the environment, fatigue criteria, and structure validations, the four major steps to meet a reliable design. The need to carry out extended experimental databases for different complexity levels is emphasized to provide a better understanding of loadings and their impact on the strength of materials and structures, as well as the production of more physically-based models that are easier to identify and lead to higher levels of reliability in the thermal–mechanical design process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Plasticity and Fatigue at High Temperature)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Laser Shock Peening: Toward the Use of Pliable Solid Polymers for Confinement
Metals 2019, 9(7), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070793 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
This paper presents the first extensive study of the performances of solid polymers used as confinement materials for laser shock applications such as laser shock peening (LSP) as opposed to the exclusively used water-confined regime up to now. The use of this new [...] Read more.
This paper presents the first extensive study of the performances of solid polymers used as confinement materials for laser shock applications such as laser shock peening (LSP) as opposed to the exclusively used water-confined regime up to now. The use of this new confinement approach allows the treatment of metal pieces needing fatigue behavior enhancement but located in areas which are sensitive to water. Accurate pressure determination in the polymer confinement regime was performed by coupling finite element simulation and experimental measurements of rear free-surface velocity using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Pressure could reach 7.6 and 4.6 GPa for acrylate-based polymer and cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), respectively. At 7 and 4.7 GW/cm 2 , respectively, detrimental laser breakdown limited pressure for acrylate and PDMS. These results show that the pressures produced were also as high as in water confinement, attaining values allowing the treatment of all types of metals with LSP and laying the groundwork for future determination of the fatigue behavior exhibited by this type of treated materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Shock Processing and Related Phenomena)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Elastic Parameters of Paramagnetic Fe–20Cr–20Ni-Based Alloys: A First-Principles Study
Metals 2019, 9(7), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070792 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
The single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic parameters of paramagnetic Fe0.6−xCr0.2Ni0.2Mx (M = Al, Co, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ti, V, and W; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) alloys in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase were derived by [...] Read more.
The single-crystal and polycrystalline elastic parameters of paramagnetic Fe0.6−xCr0.2Ni0.2Mx (M = Al, Co, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ti, V, and W; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) alloys in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase were derived by first-principles electronic structure calculations using the exact muffin-tin orbitals method. The disordered local magnetic moment approach was used to model the paramagnetic phase. The theoretical elastic parameters of the present Fe–Cr–Ni-based random alloys agree with the available experimental data. In general, we found that all alloying elements have a significant effect on the elastic properties of Fe–Cr–Ni alloy, and the most significant effect was found for Co. A correlation between the tetragonal shear elastic constant C′ and the structural energy difference ΔE between fcc and bcc lattices was demonstrated. For all alloys, small changes in the Poisson’s ratio were obtained. We investigated the brittle/ductile transitions formulated by the Pugh ratio. We demonstrate that Al, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ti, V, and W dopants enhance the ductility of the Fe–Cr–Ni system, while Co reduces it. The present theoretical data can be used as a starting point for modeling the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Properties of a Novel Quaternary Sn-Bi-Sb-Ag Solder: Wettability, Interfacial Structure and Mechanical Properties
Metals 2019, 9(7), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070791 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Sn-58Bi eutectic solder is the most recommended low temperature Pb-free solder but is also limited from the interfacial embrittlement of Bi segregation. Since the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder provides a similar melting point as Sn-58Bi eutectic, this paper systematically investigated the properties of this [...] Read more.
Sn-58Bi eutectic solder is the most recommended low temperature Pb-free solder but is also limited from the interfacial embrittlement of Bi segregation. Since the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder provides a similar melting point as Sn-58Bi eutectic, this paper systematically investigated the properties of this solder from wettability, bulk tensile properties, interfacial microstructure in solder joints with a Cu substrate, interfacial evolution in joints during isothermal aging and the shear strength on ball solder joints with effect of aging conditions. The results were also compared with Sn-58Bi solder. The wettability of solder alloys was evaluated with wetting balance testing, and the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder had a better wettability than Sn-58Bi solder on the wetting time. Tensile tests on bulk solder alloys indicated that the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder had a higher tensile strength and similar elongation compared with Sn-58Bi solder due to the finely distributed SnSb and Ag3Sn intermetallics in the solder matrix. The tensile strength of solder decreased with a decrease in the strain rate and with an increase in temperature, while the elongation of solder was independent of the temperature and strain rate. When soldering with a Cu substrate, a thin Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) is produced at the interface in the solder joint. Measurement on IMC thickness showed that the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag had a lower IMC growth rate during the following isothermal aging. Ball shear test on solder joints illustrated that the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder joints had higher shear strength than Sn-58Bi solder joints. Compared with the serious deterioration on shear strength of Sn-58Bi joints from isothermal aging, the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder joints presented a superior high temperature stability. Therefore, the quaternary Sn-38Bi-1.5Sb-0.7Ag solder provides better performances and the possibility to replace Sn-58Bi solder to realize low temperature soldering. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Isochronal Phase Transformation in Bimodal Ti-55531
Metals 2019, 9(7), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070790 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Bimodal microstructures where globular α and acicular α phases are embedded in the β matrix are commonly used in industry-relevant Ti-55531. To optimize the performance of Ti-55531 through heat treatment, it is crucial to understand and control the phase transformation in the as-received [...] Read more.
Bimodal microstructures where globular α and acicular α phases are embedded in the β matrix are commonly used in industry-relevant Ti-55531. To optimize the performance of Ti-55531 through heat treatment, it is crucial to understand and control the phase transformation in the as-received bimodal Ti-55531 as well as its microstructure evolution. In this work, the isochronal phase transformations and microstructure evolution in the bimodal Ti-55531 during the continuous heating were systematically studied by combining dilatometry, XRD phase analyses, and SEM observation. The β → α transformation occurred at 678 K only with the acicular α. When the temperature was higher than 788 K, α → β transformation took place in two separate stages (i.e., αacicular → β and αglobular → β transformation). The dissolution of αglobular occurred after the dissolution of αacicular was completed. Due to the difference in the chemical composition and interface curvature between αacicular and αglobular, the average activation energy for αacicular → β transformation was lower than that for the αglobular → β transformation. The isochronal phase transformation and microstructure evolution during continuous heating in the present work could be used to optimize heat treatment procedures for desired mechanical properties. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Carbon Redistribution Process in Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) During Heat Treatment—APT and Synchrotron Diffraction Study
Metals 2019, 9(7), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070789 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
In-situ synchrotron diffraction and atom probe tomography (APT) have been used to study the carbon diffusion and redistribution process in austempered ductile iron (ADI) during austempering. The process of carbon content change in bainitic ferrite during different austempering temperatures has been determined quantitatively. [...] Read more.
In-situ synchrotron diffraction and atom probe tomography (APT) have been used to study the carbon diffusion and redistribution process in austempered ductile iron (ADI) during austempering. The process of carbon content change in bainitic ferrite during different austempering temperatures has been determined quantitatively. The transformation in ADI is controlled by decarburization of supersaturated ferrite and carbide precipitation and has been found to be divided into three stages based on a model developed for bainitic steels by Takahashi and Bhadeshia. The formation, morphology and composition of carbides and carbon clusters in ferrite after austempering have been identified unequivocally by APT. Finally, the relationships of carbon content in ferrite, carbon gap values, and austempering temperatures in the ADI alloy were expressed using empirical equations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hot Rolling Simulation System for Steel Based on Advanced Meshless Solution
Metals 2019, 9(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070788 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
In this work, a rolling simulation system for the hot rolling of steel is elaborated. The system is capable of simulating rolling of slabs and blooms, as well as round or square billets, in different symmetric or asymmetric forms in continuous, reversing, or [...] Read more.
In this work, a rolling simulation system for the hot rolling of steel is elaborated. The system is capable of simulating rolling of slabs and blooms, as well as round or square billets, in different symmetric or asymmetric forms in continuous, reversing, or combined rolling. Groove geometries are user-defined and an arbitrary number of rolling stands and distances between them may be used. A slice model assumption is considered, which allows the problem to be efficiently coped with. The related large-deformation thermomechanical problem is solved by the novel meshless Local Radial Basis Function Collocation Method. A compression test is used to compare the simulation results with the Finite Element Method. A user-friendly rolling simulation application has been created for the industrial use based on C# and .NET framework. Results of the simulation, directly taken from the system, are shown for each type of the rolling mill configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Boron Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of (Ti,Ta)(C,N)-Co Based Cermets
Metals 2019, 9(7), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070787 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
In this work, a titanium–tantalum carbonitride based cermet, with cobalt as the binder phase and boron as a sintering additive, was developed by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction process using two different methodologies. The boron additive was added to prevent the formation of [...] Read more.
In this work, a titanium–tantalum carbonitride based cermet, with cobalt as the binder phase and boron as a sintering additive, was developed by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction process using two different methodologies. The boron additive was added to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds generally formed during the liquid phase sintering step due to the excessive ceramic dissolution into the molten binder phase. A systematic study was carried out to understand the effects of boron addition on the nature of the phases, microstructure, and mechanical properties of cermets. With the boron addition, the formation of two different boride solid solutions, i.e., (Ti,Ta)B2 and (Ti,Ta)3B4, was observed. Moreover, the nature of the binder was also modified, from the (Ti,Ta)Co2 brittle intermetallic compound (for cermets without boron addition) to ductile and tough (Ti,Ta)Co3 and α-Co phases (for cermets with boron addition). These modifications caused, as a general trend, the increase of hardness and toughness in cermets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Cemented Carbides and Cermet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Micro-Macro Relationship between Microstructure, Porosity, Mechanical Properties, and Build Mode Parameters of a Selective-Electron-Beam-Melted Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(7), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070786 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The performance of two selective electron beam melting operation modes, namely the manual mode and the automatic ‘build theme mode’, have been investigated for the case of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy (45–105 μm average particle size of the powder) in terms of porosity, microstructure, [...] Read more.
The performance of two selective electron beam melting operation modes, namely the manual mode and the automatic ‘build theme mode’, have been investigated for the case of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy (45–105 μm average particle size of the powder) in terms of porosity, microstructure, and mechanical properties. The two operation modes produced notable differences in terms of build quality (porosity), microstructure, and properties over the sample thickness. The number and the average size of the pores were measured using a light microscope over the entire build height. A density measurement provided a quantitative index of the global porosity throughout the builds. The selective-electron-beam-melted microstructure was mainly composed of a columnar prior β-grain structure, delineated by α-phase boundaries, oriented along the build direction. A nearly equilibrium α + β mixture structure, formed from the original β-phase, arranged inside the prior β-grains as an α-colony or α-basket weave pattern, whereas the β-phase enveloped α-lamellae. The microstructure was finer with increasing distance from the build plate regardless of the selected build mode. Optical measurements of the α-plate width showed that it varied as the distance from the build plate varied. This microstructure parameter was correlated at the sample core with the mechanical properties measured by means of a macro-instrumented indentation test, thereby confirming Hall-Petch law behavior for strength at a local scale for the various process conditions. The tensile properties, while attesting to the mechanical performance of the builds over a macro scale, also validated the indentation property measurement at the core of the samples. Thus, a direct correlation between the process parameters, microstructure, porosity, and mechanical properties was established at the micro and macro scales. The macro-instrumented indentation test has emerged as a reliable, easy, quick, and yet non-destructive alternate means to the tensile test to measure tensile-like properties of selective-electron-beam-melted specimens. Furthermore, the macro-instrumented indentation test can be used effectively in additive manufacturing for a rapid setting up of the process, that is, by controlling the microscopic scale properties of the samples, or to quantitatively determine a product quality index of the final builds, by taking advantage of its intrinsic relationship with the tensile properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing-Structure-Property Relationships in Metals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Low-Temperature Induced Martensitic Transformation Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Metastable Fe-Ni-P Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(7), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070785 - 14 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
The metastable Fe-Ni-P alloy with phosphorus (P) solid-solution structure has been fabricated by spark plasma sintering. Its face-centered cubic (FCC) matrix without the precipitation of phosphide attains a high plasticity and an excellent strain hardening ability at room temperature. This Fe-Ni-P alloy is [...] Read more.
The metastable Fe-Ni-P alloy with phosphorus (P) solid-solution structure has been fabricated by spark plasma sintering. Its face-centered cubic (FCC) matrix without the precipitation of phosphide attains a high plasticity and an excellent strain hardening ability at room temperature. This Fe-Ni-P alloy is subjected to cryogenic treatment at various temperatures (−20 °C and −50 °C), to investigate the role of phosphorus on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of γ-(Fe-Ni) alloy at low temperatures. The results indicate that the addition of phosphorus can destabilize the Fe-Ni-P alloy and facilitate its martensitic transformation during cryogenic treatment. P-doping does not lead to obvious embrittlement of Fe-Ni-P alloy at low temperatures, but strengthens the alloy by promoting microstructure evolution. The Fe-Ni-P alloy has high plasticity and good strain hardening ability after treated at −20 °C, and is converted to acicular martensite structure after being treated at −50 °C, resulting in a significant increase in its hardness (433 HV) and compressive yield strength (1271 MPa). Developing this Fe-Ni-P alloy as a load-bearing component for low-temperature conditions shows great promise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Dislocation Structure of a CrMnN and a CrNi Austenite after Cyclic Deformation
Metals 2019, 9(7), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070784 - 13 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
In the literature, the effects of nitrogen on the strength of austenitic stainless steels as well as on cold deformation are well documented. However, the effect of N on fatigue behaviour is still an open issue, especially when comparing the two alloying concepts [...] Read more.
In the literature, the effects of nitrogen on the strength of austenitic stainless steels as well as on cold deformation are well documented. However, the effect of N on fatigue behaviour is still an open issue, especially when comparing the two alloying concepts for austenitic stainless steels—CrNi and CrMnN—where the microstructures show a different evolution during cyclic deformation. In the present investigation, a representative sample of each alloying concept has been tested in a resonant testing machine at ambient temperature and under stress control single step tests with a stress ratio of 0.05. The following comparative analysis of the microstructures showed a preferred formation of cellular dislocation substructures in the case of the CrNi alloy and distinct planar dislocation glide in the CrMnN steel, also called high nitrogen steel (HNS). The discussion of these findings deals with potential explanations for the dislocation glide mechanism, the role of N on this phenomenon, and the consequences on fatigue behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Lubrication and Forging Load on Surface Roughness, Residual Stress, and Deformation of Cold Forging Tools
Metals 2019, 9(7), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070783 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Cold forging is a metal forming that which uses localized compressive force at room temperature. During the cold forging process, the tool is subjected to extremely high loads and abrasive wear. Lubrication plays an important role in cold forging to improve product quality [...] Read more.
Cold forging is a metal forming that which uses localized compressive force at room temperature. During the cold forging process, the tool is subjected to extremely high loads and abrasive wear. Lubrication plays an important role in cold forging to improve product quality and tool life by preventing direct metallic contact. Surface roughness and residual stress also greatly affects the service life of a tool. In this study, variations in surface roughness, residual stress, and specimen deformation with the number of cold forging cycles were investigated under different forging conditions. Specimens that were made of heat-treated SKH51 (59–61 HRC), a high-speed tool steel with a polished working surface, were used. The specimens were subjected to an upsetting process. Compressive residual stress, surface roughness, and specimen deformation showed a positive relationship with the number of forging cycles up to a certain limit and became almost constant in most of the forging conditions. A larger change in residual stress and surface roughness was observed at the center of the specimens in all the forging conditions. The effect of the magnitude of the forging load on the above discussed parameters is large when compared to the effect of the lubrication conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Substrate Roughness on Oxidation Resistance of an Aluminized Ni-Base Superalloy
Metals 2019, 9(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070782 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
In the present work, it is shown that the surface preparation method used on two Ni-based superalloys prior to aluminizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the most important factors determining the oxidation resistance of aluminized Ni-based superalloys. It was found that [...] Read more.
In the present work, it is shown that the surface preparation method used on two Ni-based superalloys prior to aluminizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the most important factors determining the oxidation resistance of aluminized Ni-based superalloys. It was found that grit-blasting the substrate surface negatively affects the oxidation resistance of the aluminized coatings. For grit-blasted and aluminized IN 625, a thicker outer NiAl coating was formed compared to that of IN 738. In contrast, no effect on NiAl coating thickness was found for grit-blasted and aluminized IN 738. However, a thicker interdiffusion zone (IDZ) was observed. It was shown that the systems with grit-blasted surfaces reveal worse oxidation resistance during thermal shock tests—namely, a higher mass loss was observed for both grit-blasted and aluminized alloys, as compared to ground and aluminized alloys. A possible reason for this effect of remaining alumina particles originating from surface grit-blasting on the diffusion processes and stress distribution at the coating/substrate is proposed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Vibration as a Primary Mixing Tool in Accelerating Aluminum–Copper Alloys Preparation from Their Pure Elements
Metals 2019, 9(7), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070781 - 12 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
In this study, ultrasonic vibration (USV) was evaluated in preparation of Al–8wt.%Cu alloys at a lab-scale. Moreover, the role of Ti–6Al–4V sonotrode erosion and its contribution in grain refining were analyzed. Based on the experimental conditions/parameters, it was found that the amount of [...] Read more.
In this study, ultrasonic vibration (USV) was evaluated in preparation of Al–8wt.%Cu alloys at a lab-scale. Moreover, the role of Ti–6Al–4V sonotrode erosion and its contribution in grain refining were analyzed. Based on the experimental conditions/parameters, it was found that the amount of impurities and the associated porosity were significantly reduced in USV treated alloys. Furthermore, USV reduced the time needed for dissolving the alloying element Cu, nevertheless, the best dissolving of Cu in this study was not possible without introducing further holding time. As a result of using a titanium-based sonotrode, a noticeable content of Ti was found in the ultrasonically treated alloys due to sonotrode erosion under USV. The dispersion of TiAl3 promoted, as a main factor, a grain refining effect at relatively constant and high melt temperature, other possible mechanisms of grain refining have been discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop