Special Issue "Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adam Grajcar
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: advanced high-strength steels; high-strength low-alloyed steels; heat treatment; thermomechanical processing; hot rolling; hot-working phenomena; physical simulation; deformation of metals
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Steel is the world’s most popular metal alloy. We can easily predict that this material will remain the most common metal alloy of the large-scale production in the 21st century; this is because steels are used in every part of the industry, beginning from low-carbon sheet steels for automotive applications, through structural steels for bridges, buildings, linepipes, ships, pressure vessels, etc., engineering steels, stainless steels, specialty steels, to tool steels. At the same time, most of the products are used as plates, sheets, bars, rods, wires, sections, and rails. All of them require rolling to form a semi-final product from a slab, billet, ingot, etc. Simultaneously to the dimention changes, a microstructure of the products is formed during subsequent casting, hot rolling and very often cold rolling. The advanced steels are usually produced in modern integrated technological lines to satisfy both high quality requirements and cost effectiveness. Physical and numerical simulations are effective tools, which enable to easily go from an experimental part of the research to an industrial reality.

This Special Issue will cover recent progress and new developments in researches and simulations in steel rolling including its all metallurgical and technological aspects. Researches and simulations on microstructure-property relationships of hot-rolled, thermomechanically processed and cold-rolled steels, as well as selected technological aspects of modern rolling mills for flat and long products and researches on gauge, profile, flatness, and surface quality inspection are covered.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adam Grajcar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • steel rolling
  • hot-rolling of steel
  • cold-rolling of steel
  • thermomechanical processing of steel
  • physical simulation
  • numerical simulation
  • semi-industrial simulation
  • modern rolling mills

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Longitudinal Performance Uniformity of Hot-Rolled Coils for Cold-Rolled DP980 Steel
Metals 2020, 10(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10030382 - 17 Mar 2020
Abstract
Cold-rolled DP980 steel is widely used in the automobile industry. Hot-rolled coil is the raw material of cold-rolled DP980 steel, the head and tail parts of which are usually obviously stronger than the body part. The objective of this study is to improve [...] Read more.
Cold-rolled DP980 steel is widely used in the automobile industry. Hot-rolled coil is the raw material of cold-rolled DP980 steel, the head and tail parts of which are usually obviously stronger than the body part. The objective of this study is to improve the longitudinal performance uniformity of hot-rolled coils. The material properties of this steel, such as the dynamic continuous cooling transformation, the influence of the cooling mode before coiling, the cooling rate during coil cooling on the microstructure, and mechanical properties of cold-rolled DP980 steel were investigated through thermal simulation experiments and hot rolling experiments. Meanwhile, the temperature field of hot-rolled coil was analyzed using ABAQUS software, which was used to survey the cause of the longitudinal performance fluctuations of hot-rolled coils, combined with an investigation of the aforementioned material properties. The results illustrate that the average cooling rate of the head and tail parts are higher than that of the body part during coil cooling, which causes the longitudinal performance fluctuation of hot-rolled coils. Based on the temperature field of hot-rolled coil, obtained by FEM, the parameters of the U-shaped cooling process were optimized and used in industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Through-Thickness Microstructure and Strain Distribution in Steel Sheets Rolled in a Large-Diameter Rolling Process
Metals 2020, 10(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010091 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
The rolling condition for fabricating a low-carbon niobium-microalloyed steel sheet with an ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure was examined through rolling experiments and finite element analysis. A large-diameter rolling process was proposed to create a UFG structure. The rolling was conducted near the transformation point, [...] Read more.
The rolling condition for fabricating a low-carbon niobium-microalloyed steel sheet with an ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure was examined through rolling experiments and finite element analysis. A large-diameter rolling process was proposed to create a UFG structure. The rolling was conducted near the transformation point, Ar3, from austenite to ferrite. The Ar3 was measured at the surface and the center of the sheet. First, the through-thickness microstructure and equivalent strain distribution in a 1-pass rolled sheet 2.0 mm thick were examined. In the rolling experiments, the embedded pin method was employed to understand through-thickness deformation. The magnitude of the equivalent strain to obtain a UFG structure was estimated to be 2.0. Based on these results, the fabrication of a 2 mm UFG steel sheet by 3-pass rolling for an initial thickness of 14.5 mm was attempted by the proposed large-diameter rolling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Robust Control of the Multivariable 2 × 2 Looper System in Steel Hot Rolling: A Comparison between Multivariable QFT and H
Metals 2019, 9(8), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080839 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
Two robust mutlivariable controllers, H and a decentralized quantitative feedback theory (QFT), are designed in the frequency domain for the 2 × 2 looper system in a steel hot rolling mill to keep stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The H [...] Read more.
Two robust mutlivariable controllers, H and a decentralized quantitative feedback theory (QFT), are designed in the frequency domain for the 2 × 2 looper system in a steel hot rolling mill to keep stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The H controller is designed by using the mixed sensitivity approach, while the multivariable decentralized QFT is designed by the extension of the sequential loop closing method presented elsewhere. Stability robustness conditions are verified in the frequency domain, while simulations in time domain are carried out to evaluate the controllers and compare their performance along with that of proportional + integral (PI) and single input single output (SISO) QFT controllers designed earlier. The QFT controller shows the best balance among the performance indicators analyzed here; however, at the expenses of using higher power in one of the control inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Hot Rolling Simulation System for Steel Based on Advanced Meshless Solution
Metals 2019, 9(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070788 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this work, a rolling simulation system for the hot rolling of steel is elaborated. The system is capable of simulating rolling of slabs and blooms, as well as round or square billets, in different symmetric or asymmetric forms in continuous, reversing, or [...] Read more.
In this work, a rolling simulation system for the hot rolling of steel is elaborated. The system is capable of simulating rolling of slabs and blooms, as well as round or square billets, in different symmetric or asymmetric forms in continuous, reversing, or combined rolling. Groove geometries are user-defined and an arbitrary number of rolling stands and distances between them may be used. A slice model assumption is considered, which allows the problem to be efficiently coped with. The related large-deformation thermomechanical problem is solved by the novel meshless Local Radial Basis Function Collocation Method. A compression test is used to compare the simulation results with the Finite Element Method. A user-friendly rolling simulation application has been created for the industrial use based on C# and .NET framework. Results of the simulation, directly taken from the system, are shown for each type of the rolling mill configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Computer-Integrated Platform for Automatic, Flexible, and Optimal Multivariable Design of a Hot Strip Rolling Technology Using Advanced Multiphase Steels
Metals 2019, 9(7), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070737 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The paper presents the design and implementation of a computer system dedicated to the optimization of a hot strip rolling process. The software system proposed here involves the flexible integration of virtual models of various devices used in the process: furnace, descalers, rolling [...] Read more.
The paper presents the design and implementation of a computer system dedicated to the optimization of a hot strip rolling process. The software system proposed here involves the flexible integration of virtual models of various devices used in the process: furnace, descalers, rolling stands, accelerated cooling systems, and coiler. The user can configure an arbitrary sequence of operations and perform simulations for this sequence. The main idea of the system and its implementation details are described in the paper. Besides the computer science part, the material models describing the rolling parameters, microstructure evolution, phase transformations, and product properties are also presented. Effect of precipitation was accounted for various stages of the rolling cycle. Experimental tests were performed to generate data for identification of the models. These include plastometric tests, two-step compression tests, and dilatometric tests. Following this, physical simulations of rolling cycles were performed on Gleeble 3800 to supply data for the verification and validation of the models. Finally, case studies of modern industrial processes were performed, and the selected results are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Amplitude and Flatness Characteristics of Elastic Thin Strip under Fluid–Structure Interaction Vibration Excited by Unsteady Airflow
Metals 2019, 9(5), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050496 - 28 Apr 2019
Abstract
Based on unsteady airflow excitation and elastic thin strip vibration theory, a SI-FLAT flatness meter was taken as the research object, and an amplitude–residual stress simulation analysis model of the cold rolling strip under aerodynamic loads was established by using ANSYS Workbench. First, [...] Read more.
Based on unsteady airflow excitation and elastic thin strip vibration theory, a SI-FLAT flatness meter was taken as the research object, and an amplitude–residual stress simulation analysis model of the cold rolling strip under aerodynamic loads was established by using ANSYS Workbench. First, the influences of fluid–structure interaction on the strip amplitude distribution and the flatness calculation deviation were analyzed. It was found that the analysis with fluid–structure interaction matched the actual measurement of the flatness meter better. Then, the influences of different aerodynamic loads and tensions on the strip midpoint amplitude and the flatness calculation deviation were analyzed. It was found that when alternating aerodynamic loads increased, the strip amplitude increased in the form of a quadratic polynomial. However, when the tensions decreased, the strip amplitude decreased exponentially. The strip dimensions also influenced the amplitude of vibration: The wider and thinner the strip, the larger the amplitude. Finally, the influences of different flatness defects on the strip amplitude distribution and the flatness calculation deviation were analyzed. The deviation was serious on the strip edge, and the fluctuation characteristics of the deviation were opposite to those of the initial flatness defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Anisotropy of Plastic Properties of Thermomechanically-Processed HSLA-Type Steel Plates
Metals 2018, 8(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050304 - 28 Apr 2018
Abstract
The paper presents the investigation results of the impact of shear bands on microstructure, mechanical properties, and anisotropy of plastic properties of HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy) type steel plates, produced in the process of thermomechanical rolling. A lack of conditions ensuring the complete static [...] Read more.
The paper presents the investigation results of the impact of shear bands on microstructure, mechanical properties, and anisotropy of plastic properties of HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy) type steel plates, produced in the process of thermomechanical rolling. A lack of conditions ensuring the complete static recrystallization between successive roll passes leads to localization of plastic deformation and formation of shear bands in dynamically-recrystallized austenite enriched with carbon and other interstitial elements, which transform into carbide segregation bands during tempering. These bands are the cause of low impact resistance of rolled plates, especially in the transverse direction, and the high degree of anisotropy of plastic properties in the plates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Steel Subjected to the Thermomechanical Control Process with Respect to Weldability
Metals 2018, 8(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8030169 - 09 Mar 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
The study is concerned with the assessment of the weldability of steel S700MC subjected to the thermomechanical control process (TMCP) and precipitation hardening and characterised by a high yield point. Appropriate mechanical and plastic properties of steel S700MC were obtained using the thermomechanical [...] Read more.
The study is concerned with the assessment of the weldability of steel S700MC subjected to the thermomechanical control process (TMCP) and precipitation hardening and characterised by a high yield point. Appropriate mechanical and plastic properties of steel S700MC were obtained using the thermomechanical control process through precipitation, solution, and strain hardening as well as by using grain-refinement-related processes. Constituents responsible for the hardening of steel S700MC include Ti, Nb, N, and C. The hardening is primarily affected by (Ti,Nb)(C,N)-type dispersive precipitates sized from several nanometres to between ten and twenty nanometres. The welding process considerably differs from TMCP conditions, leading to the reduction of plastic properties both in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and in the weld area. This study demonstrates that in cases of TMCP steels, where the effect of precipitation hardening is obtained through titanium and niobium hardening phases, the carbon equivalent and phase transformation γ–α cannot constitute the basis of weldability assessment. The properties of welded joints made from the above-named group of steels are primarily affected by the stability of hardening phases, changes in their dispersion, and ageing processes. The most inferior properties were identified in the high-temperature and coarse-grained HAZ area, where the nucleation of hardening phases in the matrix and their uncontrolled reprecipitation in the fine-dispersive form lead to a sharp decrease in toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical Study on Contact Condition and Wear of Roller in Cold Rolling
Metals 2017, 7(9), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090376 - 15 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
An accurate determination of the contact pressure and local sliding in a cold rolling process is an essential step towards the prediction of the roller’s life due to wear damage. This investigation utilized finite element analysis to quantify the local contact pressure and [...] Read more.
An accurate determination of the contact pressure and local sliding in a cold rolling process is an essential step towards the prediction of the roller’s life due to wear damage. This investigation utilized finite element analysis to quantify the local contact pressure and local sliding over the rolling bite in a plate cold rolling process. It was the first study to quantify the local sliding distance in a rolling process using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that the local contact pressure over the rolling bite demonstrates a hill profile, and the peak coincides with the neutral plane. The local sliding distance over the rolling bite demonstrates a double-peak profile with the two peaks appearing at the forward slip and backward slip zones respectively. The amplitude of sliding distance in the backward slip zone is larger than that in the forward slip zone. A stick zone was confirmed between the forward slip and backward slip zones. According to a parametric study, the local contact pressure and sliding distance decrease when the thickness reduction is reduced or the diameter of the roller is decreased. The location of the neutral plane always presents at the rolling exit side of the rolling bite’s center. The size of the stick zone enlarges and the sizes of slip zones shrink significantly when the friction coefficient is increased. Finally, a novel concept of wear intensity was defined to examine the wear of the roller based on the local contact pressure and local sliding distance. The results show that a two-peak wear response exists in the backward and forward slip zones. The magnitude of the wear in the backward slip zone is larger than that in the forward slip zone. For a given roller and blank material combination, using a smaller thickness reduction, a smaller diameter roller and a higher friction coefficient condition can reduce the wear of the roller for a single rolling cycle. The current paper develops an understanding of rolling contact responses to the wear of the roller in rolling process. The research method can also be applied to study other rolling or sliding wear problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle
An Algorithm for Surface Defect Identification of Steel Plates Based on Genetic Algorithm and Extreme Learning Machine
Metals 2017, 7(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7080311 - 15 Aug 2017
Cited by 12
Abstract
Defects on the surface of steel plates are one of the most important factors affecting the quality of steel plates. It is of great importance to detect such defects through online surface inspection systems, whose ability of defect identification comes from self-learning through [...] Read more.
Defects on the surface of steel plates are one of the most important factors affecting the quality of steel plates. It is of great importance to detect such defects through online surface inspection systems, whose ability of defect identification comes from self-learning through training samples. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is a fast machine learning algorithm with a high accuracy of identification. ELM is implemented by a hidden matrix generated with random initialization parameters, while different parameters usually result in different performances. To solve this problem, an improved ELM algorithm combined with a Genetic Algorithm was proposed and applied for the surface defect identification of hot rolled steel plates. The output matrix of the ELM’s hidden layers was treated as a chromosome, and some novel iteration rules were added. The algorithm was tested with 1675 samples of hot rolled steel plates, including pockmarks, chaps, scars, longitudinal cracks, longitudinal scratches, scales, transverse cracks, transverse scratches, and roll marks. The results showed that the highest identification accuracies for the training and the testing set obtained by the G-ELM (Genetic Extreme Learning Machine) algorithm were 98.46% and 94.30%, respectively, which were about 5% higher than those obtained by the ELM algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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