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Sports, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Performing a physical warm-up has numerous physiological and performance benefits. We investigated [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Physical Activity and Sports—Real Health Benefits: A Review with Insight into the Public Health of Sweden
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Positive effects from sports are achieved primarily through physical activity, but secondary effects bring health benefits such as psychosocial and personal development and less alcohol consumption. Negative effects, such as the risk of failure, injuries, eating disorders, and burnout, are also apparent. Because [...] Read more.
Positive effects from sports are achieved primarily through physical activity, but secondary effects bring health benefits such as psychosocial and personal development and less alcohol consumption. Negative effects, such as the risk of failure, injuries, eating disorders, and burnout, are also apparent. Because physical activity is increasingly conducted in an organized manner, sport’s role in society has become increasingly important over the years, not only for the individual but also for public health. In this paper, we intend to describe sport’s physiological and psychosocial health benefits, stemming both from physical activity and from sport participation per se. This narrative review summarizes research and presents health-related data from Swedish authorities. It is discussed that our daily lives are becoming less physically active, while organized exercise and training increases. Average energy intake is increasing, creating an energy surplus, and thus, we are seeing an increasing number of people who are overweight, which is a strong contributor to health problems. Physical activity and exercise have significant positive effects in preventing or alleviating mental illness, including depressive symptoms and anxiety- or stress-related disease. In conclusion, sports can be evolving, if personal capacities, social situation, and biological and psychological maturation are taken into account. Evidence suggests a dose–response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is superior to being inactive or sedentary. Recommendations for healthy sports are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Heart Rate Variability and Stress Recovery Responses during a Training Camp in Elite Young Canoe Sprint Athletes
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Training camps are typical in elite Canoeing preparation, during which, the care to assure adaptation to avoid undesired fatigue is not always present. This study aimed identifying a specific sex response in perceived training loads, recovery and stress balance, and cardiac autonomic responses. [...] Read more.
Training camps are typical in elite Canoeing preparation, during which, the care to assure adaptation to avoid undesired fatigue is not always present. This study aimed identifying a specific sex response in perceived training loads, recovery and stress balance, and cardiac autonomic responses. Twenty-one elite athletes (11 males and 10 females) of the Portuguese Canoeing National team participated in the investigation. The daily HRV (lnRMSSD) was monitored. The (RESTQ-52) questionnaire was used to access the recovery and stress state. The 10-day training camp was composed of two consecutive 5-day periods (P1 and P2). Data analyses were performed using confidence limits, effect size, and magnitude-based inference. In the females, Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), lnRMSSD, and its coefficient of variation did not change between P1 and P2. However, in males, lnRMSSD showed a small reduction from P1 to P2. Also, sRPE was higher in males over the training period, with a possibly small difference at P2. Regarding RESTQ-52, total stress most likely increased with large and very large differences in males and moderate differences in females during the training period. Male canoeists undertook higher perceived training loads than females, with a consequent higher level of total perceived stress and lnRMSSD during a 10-day training camp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Agreement between the Open Barbell and Tendo Linear Position Transducers for Monitoring Barbell Velocity during Resistance Exercise
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
To determine the agreement between the Open Barbell (OB) and Tendo weightlifting analyzer (TWA) for measuring barbell velocity, eleven men (19.4 ± 1.0 y) performed one set of 2–3 repetitions at four sub-maximal percentage loads, [i.e., 30, 50, 70, and 90% one-repetition maximum [...] Read more.
To determine the agreement between the Open Barbell (OB) and Tendo weightlifting analyzer (TWA) for measuring barbell velocity, eleven men (19.4 ± 1.0 y) performed one set of 2–3 repetitions at four sub-maximal percentage loads, [i.e., 30, 50, 70, and 90% one-repetition maximum (1RM)] in the back (BS) and front squat (FS) exercises. During each repetition, peak and mean barbell velocity were recorded by OB and TWA devices, and the average of the 2–3 repetitions was used for analyses. Although the repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significantly (p ≤ 0.005) greater peak and mean velocity scores from OB across all intensities, high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,K = 0.790–0.998), low standard error of measurement (SEM2,K = 0.040–0.119 m·s−1), and coefficients of variation (CV = 2–4%) suggested consistency between devices. Positive (r = 0.491–0.949) Pearson correlations between averages and differences (between devices) in peak velocity, as well as associated Bland-Altman plots, showed greater differences occurred as the velocity increased, particularly at low-moderate intensity loads. OB consistently provides greater barbell velocity scores compared to TWA, and the differences between devices were more apparent as the peak velocity increased with low-to-moderate loads. Strength coaches and athletes may find better agreement between devices if the mean velocity scores are only considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Coexistent Plantaris Tendon Pathology in Patients with Mid-Portion Achilles Pathology: A Retrospective MRI Study
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
Co-existence of Plantaris tendinopathy (PT) in patients with mid-Achilles tendinopathy (Mid-AT) is of clinical significance. This study aims to describe the MRI-based pathological characteristics of co-existing PT and Mid-AT. One-hundred MRI studies of patients diagnosed with Mid-AT were retrospectively analysed by an experienced [...] Read more.
Co-existence of Plantaris tendinopathy (PT) in patients with mid-Achilles tendinopathy (Mid-AT) is of clinical significance. This study aims to describe the MRI-based pathological characteristics of co-existing PT and Mid-AT. One-hundred MRI studies of patients diagnosed with Mid-AT were retrospectively analysed by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Presence or absence of a Plantaris tendon, co-existing PT with Mid-AT, insertional characteristics of Plantaris tendon, and maximum anteroposterior thickness of the tendon in Mid-AT (axial images) were evaluated. When PT co-existed with Mid-AT, the location of the tendon pathologies in relation to calcaneal insertion was assessed (sagittal images) and their association was analysed using the coefficient of variation (CV) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Plantaris was present in 84 cases (84%), and Mid-AT and PT co-existed in 10 cases (10%). A greater variability in the location of Plantaris pathology (CV = 42%) than Achilles tendinopathy (CV = 42%) was observed. The correlation coefficient also revealed a low and non-significant association between the location of two pathologies when they exist together (r = +0.06; p = 0.88). Clinical evaluation of Achilles tendon pain needs careful consideration into the possible co-existence of Plantaris pathology. The considerable difference observed in the location of PT and Mid-AT suggest possible isolated pathologies and differentials for Achilles tendon pain. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Current State of Weight-Cutting in Combat Sports
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
In combat sports, athletes are divided into categories based on gender and body mass. Athletes attempt to compete against a lighter opponent by losing body mass prior to being weighed (i.e., ‘weight-cutting’). The purpose of this narrative review was to explore the current [...] Read more.
In combat sports, athletes are divided into categories based on gender and body mass. Athletes attempt to compete against a lighter opponent by losing body mass prior to being weighed (i.e., ‘weight-cutting’). The purpose of this narrative review was to explore the current body of literature on weight-cutting and outline gaps for further research. Methods of weight-loss include energy intake restriction, total body fluid reduction and pseudo extreme/abusive medical practice (e.g., diuretics). The influence of weight-cutting on performance is unclear, with studies suggesting a negative or no effect. However, larger weight-cuts (~5% of body mass in <24 h) do impair repeat-effort performance. It is unclear if the benefit from competing against a smaller opponent outweighs the observed reduction in physical capacity. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the observed reductions in performance, ranging from reduced glycogen availability to increased perceptions of fatigue. Athletes undertaking weight-cutting may be able to utilise strategies around glycogen, total body water and electrolyte replenishment to prepare for competition. Despite substantial discussion on managing weight-cutting in combat sports, no clear solution has been offered. Given the prevalence of weight-cutting, it is important to develop a deeper understanding of such practices so appropriate advice can be given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Performance Challenges in Martial Arts and Combat Sports)
Open AccessArticle
Outdoor Adventure Builds Resilient Learners for Higher Education: A Quantitative Analysis of the Active Components of Positive Change
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
The inability of young adults to adapt to university life has been attributed to their declining resilience. Resilience refers to any individuals’ capacity to change or modify behaviour in response to environmental hazards, so they thrive. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential programmes have helped [...] Read more.
The inability of young adults to adapt to university life has been attributed to their declining resilience. Resilience refers to any individuals’ capacity to change or modify behaviour in response to environmental hazards, so they thrive. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential programmes have helped higher education inductees to acquire skills associated with resilience such as increased self-perception, better interpersonal relationships. However, this study addresses important gaps in existing literature by deploying a high-quality research design to examine the short-term impact of OA experiences on inductees’ resilience and to identify the active components of those experiences that best cultivate inductees’ adaptive capabilities. Multivariate analyses evaluated the efficacy of OA programming to build the resilience of over 2500 inductees. Significant positive gains were reported in the resilience of inductees attending 1-week residential OA programmes measured by an Effect size (ES) = 0.38 and 6.29% increase. Compared to students inducted at university, this represented an 8.35% greater increase in resilience (ES difference = –0.526). Camp-based experiences such as mastering new skills, developing new relationships and being female predicted heightened resilience. A defined blend of embodied, adventure-based meaningful challenges provides a template for helping university inductees to re-adjust, grow and persevere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Blood-Flow Restricted Warm-Up Alters Muscle Hemodynamics and Oxygenation during Repeated Sprints in American Football Players
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Team-sport athletes and coaches use varied strategies to enhance repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Aside from physical training, a well-conducted warm-up enhances RSA via increased oxidative metabolism. Strategies that impede blood flow could potentiate the effects of a warm-up due to their effects on the [...] Read more.
Team-sport athletes and coaches use varied strategies to enhance repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Aside from physical training, a well-conducted warm-up enhances RSA via increased oxidative metabolism. Strategies that impede blood flow could potentiate the effects of a warm-up due to their effects on the endothelial and metabolic functions. This study investigated whether performing a warm-up combined with blood-flow restriction (WFR) induces ergogenic changes in blood volume, muscle oxygenation, and RSA. In a pair-matched, single-blind, pre-post parallel group design, 15 American football players completed an RSA test (12 × 20 m, 20 s rest), preceded by WFR or a regular warm-up (SHAM). Pressure was applied on the athletes’ upper thighs for ≈15 min using elastic bands. Both legs were wrapped at a perceived pressure of 7 and 3 out of 10 in WFR and SHAM, respectively. Changes in gastrocnemius muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. Cohen’s effect sizes (ES) were used to estimate the impact of WFR. WFR did not clearly alter best sprint time (ES −0.25), average speed (ES 0.25), total time (ES −0.12), and percent decrement score (ES 0.39). While WFR did not meaningfully alter average SmO2 and [THb], the intervention clearly increased the maximum [THb] and the minimum and maximum SmO2 during some of the 12 sprint/recovery periods (ES 0.34–1.43). Results indicate that WFR positively alters skeletal muscle hemodynamics during an RSA test. These physiological changes did not improve short-term RSA, but could be beneficial to players during longer activities such as games. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimising Interval Training Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrate Supplementation Combined with a Running Training Program Improved Time-Trial Performance in Recreationally Trained Runners
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Our purpose was to verify the effects of inorganic nitrate combined to a short training program on 10-km running time-trial (TT) performance, maximum and average power on a Wingate test, and lactate concentration ([La]) in recreational runners. Sixteen healthy participants were [...] Read more.
Our purpose was to verify the effects of inorganic nitrate combined to a short training program on 10-km running time-trial (TT) performance, maximum and average power on a Wingate test, and lactate concentration ([La]) in recreational runners. Sixteen healthy participants were divided randomly into two groups: Nitrate (n = 8) and placebo (n = 8). The experimental group ingested 750 mg/day (~12 mmol) of nitrate plus 5 g of resistant starch, and the control group ingested 6 g of resistant starch, for 30 days. All variables were assessed at baseline and weekly over 30 days. Training took place 3x/week. The time on a 10-km TT decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in all timepoints compared to baseline in both groups, but only the nitrate group was faster in week 2 compared to 1. There was a significant group × time interaction (p < 0.001) with lower [La] in the nitrate group at week 2 (p = 0.032), week 3 (p = 0.002), and week 4 (p = 0.003). There was a significant group time interaction (p = 0.028) for Wingate average power and a main effect of time for maximum power (p < 0.001) and [La] for the 60-s Wingate test. In conclusion, nitrate ingestion during a four-week running program improved 10-km TT performance and kept blood [La] steady when compared to placebo in recreational runners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sled-Pull Load–Velocity Profiling and Implications for Sprint Training Prescription in Young Male Athletes
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of individual load–velocity profiles and the between-athlete variation using the decrement in maximal velocity (Vdec) approach to prescribe training loads in resisted sled pulling in young athletes. Seventy high school, team sport, male [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of individual load–velocity profiles and the between-athlete variation using the decrement in maximal velocity (Vdec) approach to prescribe training loads in resisted sled pulling in young athletes. Seventy high school, team sport, male athletes (age 16.7 ± 0.8 years) were recruited for the study. All participants performed one un-resisted and four resisted sled-pull sprints with incremental resistance of 20% BM. Maximal velocity was measured with a radar gun during each sprint and the load–velocity relationship established for each participant. A subset of 15 participants was used to examine the reliability of sled pulling on three separate occasions. For all individual participants, the load–velocity relationship was highly linear (r > 0.95). The slope of the load–velocity relationship was found to be reliable (coefficient of variation (CV) = 3.1%), with the loads that caused a decrement in velocity of 10, 25, 50, and 75% also found to be reliable (CVs = <5%). However, there was a large between-participant variation (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) in the load that caused a given Vdec, with loads of 14–21% body mass (% BM) causing a Vdec of 10%, 36–53% BM causing a Vdec of 25%, 71–107% BM causing a Vdec of 50%, and 107–160% BM causing a Vdec of 75%. The Vdec method can be reliably used to prescribe sled-pulling loads in young athletes, but practitioners should be aware that the load required to cause a given Vdec is highly individualized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sleep Patterns, Alertness, Dietary Intake, Muscle Soreness, Fatigue, and Mental Stress Recorded before, during and after Ramadan Observance
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Ramadan is one of the pillars of the Islamic creed. Its observance commonly causes chrono-biological changes. The present study examined sleep and alertness during Ramadan observance relative to data collected before and after Ramadan in a sample of young, physically active men. Information [...] Read more.
Ramadan is one of the pillars of the Islamic creed. Its observance commonly causes chrono-biological changes. The present study examined sleep and alertness during Ramadan observance relative to data collected before and after Ramadan in a sample of young, physically active men. Information was also collected on dietary intake, muscle soreness, fatigue, and mental stress over the three periods. Fourteen physically active men (age: 21.6 ± 3.3 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, body-mass: 73.1 ± 9.0 kg) completed the Hooper questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and responded to the digit cancellation test (DCT) fifteen days before Ramadan, during the last ten days of Ramadan and 20 days after Ramadan. The PSQI results indicated that sleep duration was significantly longer before Ramadan (p = 0.003) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04) compared to during Ramadan and was longer before Ramadan than after Ramadan (p = 0.04). In addition, the sleep efficiency was lower during Ramadan in comparison to before Ramadan (p = 0.02) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04). The daytime dysfunction score increased during Ramadan in comparison with before Ramadan (p = 0.01) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04), and the sleep quality score was higher during (p = 0.003) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04) as compared to before Ramadan. The sleep disturbance score increased during Ramadan relative to before Ramadan (p = 0.04). However, Ramadan observance had no significant effect on sleep latency. Mental alertness also decreased at the end of Ramadan compared to before (p = 0.003) or after Ramadan (p = 0.01). Dietary intake, muscle soreness, fatigue, and mental stress as estimated by the Hooper questionnaire remained unchanged over the three periods of the investigation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Ramadan observance had an adverse effect on sleep quantity and on mental alertness, but not on sleep quality. However, dietary intake, muscle soreness, fatigue, and mental stress remained unaffected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychophysiological Response in Sports)
Open AccessArticle
Physical and Physiological Responses during the Stop-Ball Rule During Small-Sided Games in Soccer Players
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Small-sided games (SSGs) are a recommended training method for significant performance enhancement, and training efficiency. The stop-ball (SSG-SB) effects on physical responses (e.g., acceleration, deceleration, sprints, total distance, and indicator of workload) have not been investigated yet. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Small-sided games (SSGs) are a recommended training method for significant performance enhancement, and training efficiency. The stop-ball (SSG-SB) effects on physical responses (e.g., acceleration, deceleration, sprints, total distance, and indicator of workload) have not been investigated yet. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the SSG-SB compared to the small-goals SSG (SSG-SG) on physical and heart rate (HR) responses at high intensity (total distance (>18 km/h)), sprints (>18 km/h), and acceleration and deceleration (>3 m/s²) during a 4 vs. 4 SSG format in youth professional soccer players. Sixteen male elite young soccer players (mean ± SD body height, 176.5 ± 6.3 cm; age, 18.3 ± 0.7 years; body weight, 73.4 ± 7.2 kg) performed two forms of SSGs, i.e., SSG-SB or SSG-SG, for 4 × 4 min with a recovery of 2 min between sets. Data were compared using the t-test. The SSG-SB induced a significantly higher mean HR (180.0 ± 2.0 vs. 173.0 ± 3.0 beats per minute; p < 0.05) compared to the SSG-SG. Likewise, the SSG-SB was significantly higher compared to the SSG-SG for total distance (2580 ± 220.3 vs. 2230 ± 210 m; p < 0.001), player load (98.07 ± 12.5 vs. 89.4 ± 10.5; p < 0.05), sprint distance (7.9 ± 2.3 vs. 5.2 ± 2.0 m; p < 0.05), acceleration (15.6 ± 2.75 vs. 12.5 ± 1.75; p < 0.05), and deceleration (17.3 ± 3.20 vs. 14.4 ± 2.55; p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the SSG-SG and the SSG-SB for maximal velocity, power, and sprints duration. This study provides new information about the effectiveness of the SSG-SB as a training stimulus for soccer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Plyometric Training on Jumping, Sprinting and Change of Direction Speed in Child Female Athletes
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of plyometric training on jumping, sprinting, and change of direction (COD) performance. Methods: Fifty female 7–9-year-old gymnasts were randomly assigned to a plyometric training group (PG; n = 33), that performed supplementary plyometric training [...] Read more.
Background: This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of plyometric training on jumping, sprinting, and change of direction (COD) performance. Methods: Fifty female 7–9-year-old gymnasts were randomly assigned to a plyometric training group (PG; n = 33), that performed supplementary plyometric training twice per week, and a control group (CG; n = 17) that continued regular training. The following tests were performed before and after the intervention: 10 and 20 m sprints, 5 + 5 m and 10 + 10 m COD tests, one-leg and two-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), drop jump (DJ), squat jump (SJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Results: Only a main effect for time was found for all jumping performance parameters (p = 0.001). However, the improvement of one- and two-leg CMJ in PG had a greater effect size than CG (0.72 and 0.67 vs. 0.34 and 0.18, respectively). Group × time interactions were found for 10 and 20 m sprint tests (p = 0.018 and p = 0.011, respectively) and for 10 + 10 m COD (p = 0.008) with the post hoc test showing improvement only for the PG (p = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.003 and d = 1.1, 1.14, and 0.6, respectively). Conclusions: Supplementary plyometric training increased sprint and COD performance more than regular gymnastics training, while jumping performance was equally improved in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cycling on Subsequent Running Performance, Stride Length, and Muscle Oxygen Saturation in Triathletes
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Running performance is a determinant factor for victory in Sprint and Olympic distance triathlon. Previous cycling may impair running performance in triathlons, so brick training becomes an important part of training. Wearable technology that is used by triathletes can offer several metrics for [...] Read more.
Running performance is a determinant factor for victory in Sprint and Olympic distance triathlon. Previous cycling may impair running performance in triathlons, so brick training becomes an important part of training. Wearable technology that is used by triathletes can offer several metrics for optimising training in real-time. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of previous cycling on subsequent running performance in a field test, while using kinematics metrics and SmO2 provided by wearable devices that are potentially used by triathletes. Ten trained triathletes participated in a randomised crossover study, performing two trial sessions that were separated by seven days: the isolated run trial (IRT) and the bike-run trial (BRT). Running kinematics, physiological outcomes, and perceptual parameters were assessed before and after each running test. The running distance was significantly lower in the BRT when compared to the IRT, with a decrease in stride length of 0.1 m (p = 0.00) and higher %SmO2 (p = 0.00) in spite of the maximal intensity of exercise. No effects were reported in vertical oscillation, ground contact time, running cadence, and average heart rate. These findings may only be relevant to ‘moderate level’ triathletes, but not to ‘elite’ ones. Triathletes might monitor their %SmO2 and stride length during brick training and then compare it with isolated running to evaluate performance changes. Using wearable technology (near-infrared spectroscopy, accelerometry) for specific brick training may be a good option for triathletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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Open AccessArticle
Validity and Reliability of an Electronic Contact Mat for Drop Jump Assessment in Physically Active Adults
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the concurrent validity and the test–retest reliability of an electronic contact mat for drop jump assessment in physically active adults. Seventy-nine young, physically active adults participated in the validity study, and 49 subjects were [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the concurrent validity and the test–retest reliability of an electronic contact mat for drop jump assessment in physically active adults. Seventy-nine young, physically active adults participated in the validity study, and 49 subjects were recruited for the reliability study. The motor task required subjects to perform two-legged drop jumps using drop heights of 24, 43, and 62 cm as well as one-legged drop jumps with the left and right leg using a drop height of 24 cm. Ground contact times were simultaneously quantified with an electronic contact mat, a force plate (i.e., gold standard), and a light-barrier system (another criterion device). Concurrent validity was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), systematic bias, limits of agreement, and linear regression analysis. Test–retest reliability (one week apart) was determined by calculating the ICC, the standard error of measurement (SEM), the coefficient of variation (CV), and Lin´s concordance correlation coefficient (рc). Further, we determined the minimal detectable change (MDC95%). Irrespective of drop height and jump condition, good agreements between testing devices (ICC ≥ 0.95) were shown. Compared to the force plate (−0.6 to 3.1 ms) but not to the light-barrier system (31.4 to 41.7 ms), the contact mat showed low systematic bias values. In terms of test–retest reliability, our analyses showed that the measuring devices are in agreement (ICC: 0.70–0.92; SEM: 8.5–18.4 ms; CV: 3.6–6.4%). Depending on the measurement device, drop height, and jump condition, a MDC95% value ranging from 23.6 to 50.9 ms represents the minimum amount of change needed to identify practical relevant effects in repeated measurements of drop jump performance. Our findings indicate that the electronic contact mat is a valid and reliable testing device for drop jump assessment from different drop heights in young physically active adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Device-Assessed Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Canadians with Chronic Disease(s): Findings from the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (SB) are major determinants of quality of life in adults with one or more chronic disease(s). The aim of this study is to compare objectively measured physical activity and SB in a representative sample of Canadian adults with [...] Read more.
Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (SB) are major determinants of quality of life in adults with one or more chronic disease(s). The aim of this study is to compare objectively measured physical activity and SB in a representative sample of Canadian adults with and without chronic disease(s). The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) (2007–2013) was used in this study. Daily time spent in physical activities and sedentary behaviors were assessed by an accelerometer in Canadians aged 35–79 years. Data are characterized as daily mean time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), steps accumulated per day and SB. Chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart diseases, cancer) were assessed via self-report diagnostic or laboratory data. Weighted multivariable analyses of covariance comparing physical activity and SB variables among adults without and with chronic disease(s) were conducted; 6270 participants were included. Analyses indicated that 23.9%, 4.9% and 0.5% had one, two, and three or more chronic diseases. Adults with two and more chronic diseases had significantly lower daily duration of MVPA and LPA, daily step counts, and higher daily duration of SB compared to adults without chronic diseases. Interventions targeting physical activity improvement and SB reduction might be beneficial for Canadian multimorbid adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Course on the Wellbeing of Recovering UK Military Personnel: An Exploratory Study
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
UK military personnel have faced increased demands over the last three decades; these have affected their wellbeing and caused multiple physical and mental health problems. Currently, bespoke rehabilitation systems may recommend participation in sports programmes. Although research attention has been drawn to the [...] Read more.
UK military personnel have faced increased demands over the last three decades; these have affected their wellbeing and caused multiple physical and mental health problems. Currently, bespoke rehabilitation systems may recommend participation in sports programmes. Although research attention has been drawn to the short-term positive effects of these programmes, their long-term impact on psychological wellbeing is unknown. To address this gap, the current study explored the long-term impact of a sports programme on UK military personnel’s ability to make changes in their day-to-day life through the lens of psychological wellbeing. For this purpose, UK military personnel (n = 97) completed an online survey aiming to provide a quantitative and qualitative picture of their experiences of an outdoor and adventure sports programme, underpinned by the basic psychological needs theory, six months following completion. Findings suggest that 75% of respondents found that the course was useful for facilitating adaptive changes. Content analysis suggests that elements of the course seem to satisfy their basic psychological needs of competence, relatedness and autonomy. Activities initiated six months after the course are mostly aligned with improved psychological wellbeing. Useful theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Change of Direction Tests in Elite Youth Soccer Players
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Change of direction (COD) is a performance-limiting factor in team sports. However, there are no exact definitions describing which physical abilities limit COD performance in soccer. Nevertheless, different COD tests are used or have been recommended as being equally effective in the professional [...] Read more.
Change of direction (COD) is a performance-limiting factor in team sports. However, there are no exact definitions describing which physical abilities limit COD performance in soccer. Nevertheless, different COD tests are used or have been recommended as being equally effective in the professional practice of measuring COD performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different COD tests, and to test the independence and generalizability of these COD tests in soccer. As such, 27 elite youth soccer players were randomly recruited and were tested in different COD tests (i.e., Illinois agility test (IAT), T agility test (TT), 505 agility test (505), Gewandtheitslauf (GewT), triangle test (Tri-t), and square test (SQT)). Bivariate Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the relationships between the COD tests. The Benjamini–Hochberg method was used to control for the false discovery rate of the study at 0.05. This investigation calculated explained variances of 10% to 55% between performances in the different COD tests. This suggested that the tests covered different aspects or task-specific characteristics of the COD. Therefore, coaches and sport scientists should review and select different tests with a logical validity, based on the requirement profiles of the corresponding sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training in Sprint Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Injury Pain in Track and Field Athletes: Cross-Sectional Study of Mediating Factors
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether data from track and field athletes support a conceptual model where the perception of pain affects self-evaluated health directly, yet is also indirectly mediated through personal factors and external stressors. A cross-sectional study was performed among [...] Read more.
This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether data from track and field athletes support a conceptual model where the perception of pain affects self-evaluated health directly, yet is also indirectly mediated through personal factors and external stressors. A cross-sectional study was performed among athletes (n = 278) competing at the highest national level in the sport. Data for the dependent and independent variables were collected using the EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) standardized measure of health status, and the mediator variables were collected by the Body Consciousness Scale (BCS-HA), Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ), Commitment to Exercise Scale (CtES), and Brief Cope survey instruments. Two hundred and twenty-five (81%) athletes provided complete data sets. A strong direct association (c = −16.49; p < 0.001) was found between pain and self-estimated health, and a global mediation was found through the mediators (mediation effect (ME), −1.814, 90% confidence interval (CI), −3.414, −0.351). Specific mediation was observed for body competence (ME, −0.721; 90% CI, −2.028, −0.097) and private body consciousness (ME, −0.514; 90% CI, −1.761, −0.017). In conclusion, we found a negative association between perceived pain and self-evaluated health among competitive track and field athletes, and we found that a portion of the association was mediated through mediating factors. Under the assumption that the analyzed pain data primarily represented noxious pain, the conceptual model of the relationships between pain and self-estimated health among high-level track and field athletes was supported. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Heart Rate Responses and Exercise Intensity During A Prolonged 4-Hour Individual Cycling Race among Japanese Recreational Cyclists
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
Heart rate (HR) during different endurance cycling races and events are investigated for professional cyclist, however, enduro races to compete for total laps and distance covered within a fixed time using a circuit course has not yet been investigated. This study examined the [...] Read more.
Heart rate (HR) during different endurance cycling races and events are investigated for professional cyclist, however, enduro races to compete for total laps and distance covered within a fixed time using a circuit course has not yet been investigated. This study examined the heart rate (HR) and exercise intensity during an enduro cycling race. Ten male Japanese amateur cyclists performed cycling individually for at least 2 consecutive hours. HR was measured using an HR monitor during the race, and we estimated the energy expenditure (EE) during the race using the HR–VO2 relationship in advance. Exercise intensities were defined as percentages of HRmax based on ACSM exercise guideline as follows: moderate intensity, 64–76% HRmax; vigorous intensity, 77–95% HRmax. The HR during the race was 158.9 ± 10.6 bpm (86.4 ± 2.2% HRmax), and exercise intensity is categorized as vigorous intensity. The EE during the race using HR–VO2 relationship were 12.9 ± 1.2 kcal/kg/hr, which would require a large energy expenditure (EE) during the race. However, energy cost was 0.36 ± 0.04 kcal/kg/km regardless of total distance. The findings indicate that enduro cycling racing is categorized as vigorous intensity (>77% HRmax) for healthy male recreational cyclists though, cycling is an efficient form of transportation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Short-Time β-Alanine Supplementation on the Acute Strength Performance after High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise in Recreationally Trained Men
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: We investigated the effects of 28 days of beta-alanine (β-alanine) supplementation on the acute interference effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on lower-body resistance exercise performance, body composition, and strength when combined with a resistance training program. (2) Methods: Twenty-two males [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We investigated the effects of 28 days of beta-alanine (β-alanine) supplementation on the acute interference effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on lower-body resistance exercise performance, body composition, and strength when combined with a resistance training program. (2) Methods: Twenty-two males were randomized into: β-alanine supplementation (6.4 g/day) or placebo (6.4 g/day maltodextrin) during 28 days. Total body water, intracellular and extracellular water, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Participants performed 5000-m HIIE (1:1 effort and rest ratio) followed by resistance exercise (four sets of 80% at 45° leg press until muscular failure) at baseline and after 28 days. The resistance training program consisted of three sets of 10 to 12 RM with 90 s of rest, four days per week. (3) Results: For the post-HIIE leg press volume, higher values were observed post-training than pre-training, but no group x time interaction was observed. There was a non-significant trend for an interaction in the FFM change (β-alanine = 2.8% versus placebo = 1.0%, p = 0.072). (4) Conclusion: Twenty-eight days of β-alanine supplementation did not prevent acute strength loss during resistance exercise after high-intensity interval exercise, nor increase strength or hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimising Interval Training Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Shorter Small-Sided Game Sets May Increase the Intensity of Internal and External Load Measures: A Study in Amateur Soccer Players
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare internal and external load measures during two regimens (6 x 3’ and 3 x 6’) of a 5 vs. 5 format of play. Moreover, within-regimen changes (between sets) were also tested. Ten amateur soccer players [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare internal and external load measures during two regimens (6 x 3’ and 3 x 6’) of a 5 vs. 5 format of play. Moreover, within-regimen changes (between sets) were also tested. Ten amateur soccer players (age: 19.8 ± 1.6 years; experience: 8.3 ± 2.1 years; height: 177.4 ± 3.8 cm; weight: 71.7 ± 4.2 kg) participated in the experiment. Internal load was measured using the CR-10 scale as the rated of perceived exertion (RPE) scale and a heart rate (HR) monitor. The measurements of total (TD), running (RD) and sprinting (SD) distances were also collected using a 10-Hz validated and reliable GPS. Comparisons between regimens revealed that the 3 x 6’ regimen was significantly more intense in terms of RPE than the 6 x 3’ regimen (p = 0.028; d = 0.351), although no significant differences were found in HR. Significantly greater averages of TD (p = 0.000; d = 0.871) and RD (p = 0.004; d = 0.491) were found in the 6 x 3’ regimen. In both regimens, the RPE was significantly lower during the first set than in the remaining sets. On the other hand, the TD was significantly shorter in the last sets than in the earlier. In summary, the present study suggests that shorter sets may be beneficial for maintaining higher internal and external load intensities during 5 vs. 5 formats, and that a drop-in performance may occur throughout the sets in both regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Process in Soccer Players)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Maturation on Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetries in Elite Youth Tennis Players
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
Neuromuscular asymmetries have been previously associated with reduced performance. Similarly, maturation has shown that youth athletes may experience a loss of motor control, which could also lead to compromised physical performance. The present study aimed to evaluate and quantify the level of asymmetry [...] Read more.
Neuromuscular asymmetries have been previously associated with reduced performance. Similarly, maturation has shown that youth athletes may experience a loss of motor control, which could also lead to compromised physical performance. The present study aimed to evaluate and quantify the level of asymmetry among chronological and maturational groups. Forty-one youth tennis players performed the single leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ), star excursion balance test (SEBT) and a change of direction speed (CODS) test. Differences were found between the strongest and weakest limbs across all tests (p < 0.001), and also for SEBT in the posteromedial direction (p = 0.02), SEBT composite score (p < 0.01) in maturation groups, and for SEBT posterolateral direction (p = 0.03) and SEBT composite score (p = 0.01) in chronological groups. The SLCMJ showed the largest inter-limb asymmetries for the circa peak height velocity (PHV) group (19.31 ± 12.19%) and under-14 (U14) group (17.55 ± 9.90%). Chronological and maturation groups followed similar trends for inter-limb asymmetries, but the biological index showed larger asymmetry scores in the jumping test at PHV compared to that found in the chronological group (U14). These results show that inter-limb differences may be heightened during PHV. Practitioners can use this information to inform the decision-making process when prescribing training interventions in youth tennis players. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recommendations for Measurement and Management of an Elite Athlete
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 28 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Athletes who merit the title ‘elite’ are rare and differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from athletes of lower qualifications. Serving and studying elite athletes may demand non-traditional approaches. Research involving elite athletes suffers because of the typical nomothetic requirements for large sample sizes [...] Read more.
Athletes who merit the title ‘elite’ are rare and differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from athletes of lower qualifications. Serving and studying elite athletes may demand non-traditional approaches. Research involving elite athletes suffers because of the typical nomothetic requirements for large sample sizes and other statistical assumptions that do not apply to this population. Ideographic research uses single-athlete study designs, trend analyses, and statistical process control. Single-athlete designs seek to measure differences in repeated measurements under prescribed conditions, and trend analyses may permit systematic monitoring and prediction of future outcomes. Statistical process control uses control charting and other methods from management systems to assess and modify training processes in near real-time. These methods bring assessment and process control into the real world of elite athletics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Strength Training on Body Composition in Young Male Professional Soccer Players
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
The present prospective cohort study investigated changes in body composition (BC) in young male football players (n = 18, 16.1 ± 0.8 years; 181.0 ± 0.1 cm; 71.3 ± 4.9 kg) after combined football and strength training (ST) during a whole in-season [...] Read more.
The present prospective cohort study investigated changes in body composition (BC) in young male football players (n = 18, 16.1 ± 0.8 years; 181.0 ± 0.1 cm; 71.3 ± 4.9 kg) after combined football and strength training (ST) during a whole in-season period (26 weeks). BC was measured at whole-body absolute and regional levels by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in eighteen players at the beginning and at the end of the competitive period. The ST was organized into three different session types: ST in the gym, specific ST on the field, and individual ST (weak points). The results of the present study indicated that fat-free mass (FFM) was substantially higher following the competitive period (5.1% ± 1.2%), while percentage of fat showed no changes during the competitive period. At the regional level, arms’ and legs’ FFM increased at the end of the season, and bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) increased in arms, legs, pelvis, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. In conclusion, within the limitation of the potential positive impact of growth and/or maturation, present results seem to indicate that an ST program that supplements football-related training sessions could be an effective option to increase FFM, BMC, and BMD at both whole-body and regional level across the competitive season in young male professional football players. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Countermovement Jump Inter-Limb Asymmetries in Collegiate Basketball Players
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to establish the intrasession and intersession reliability of variables obtained from a force plate that was used to quantitate lower extremity inter-limb asymmetry during the bilateral countermovement jump (CMJ). Secondarily, a comparison was performed to determine [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to establish the intrasession and intersession reliability of variables obtained from a force plate that was used to quantitate lower extremity inter-limb asymmetry during the bilateral countermovement jump (CMJ). Secondarily, a comparison was performed to determine the influence of the jump protocol CMJ with or without an arm swing (CMJ AS and CMJ NAS, respectively) on inter-limb asymmetries. Twenty-two collegiate basketball players performed three CMJ AS and three CMJ NAS on dual force platforms during two separate testing sessions. A majority of variables met the acceptable criterion of intersession and intrasession relative reliability (ICC > 0.700), while fewer than half met standards established for absolute reliability (CV < 10%). CMJ protocol appeared to influence asymmetries; Concentric Impulse-100 ms, Eccentric Braking Rate of Force Development, Eccentric Deceleration, and Force at Zero velocity were significantly different between jumping conditions (CMJAS versus CMJ NAS; p < 0.05). The present data establish the reliability and smallest worthwhile change of inter-limb asymmetries during the CMJ, while also identifying the influence of CMJ protocol on inter-limb asymmetries, which can be useful to practitioners and clinicians in order to effectively monitor changes associated with performance, injury risk, and return-to-play strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Cardiac Autonomic Recovery after a Repeated Sprint Test in Young Soccer Players
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe the time course (within 2 h post-exercise) of heart rate variability (HRV) recovery following a traditional repeated sprint ability (RSA) test applied to youth soccer players. Twenty-four young soccer players (18.4 ± 0.5 years) undertook [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to describe the time course (within 2 h post-exercise) of heart rate variability (HRV) recovery following a traditional repeated sprint ability (RSA) test applied to youth soccer players. Twenty-four young soccer players (18.4 ± 0.5 years) undertook the following assessments: (1) 10 min rest in the seated position for HRV assessment; (2) a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test; (3) passive recovery in the seated position for 10 min, immediately after finishing the RSA test and 1 h and 2 h post-RSA test. During the HRV measurements (using the natural log of root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals—lnRMSSD) the participants were instructed to assume a comfortable sitting position, remaining awake and breathing spontaneously for 10 min. Magnitude-based inference was used in the analyses. After the RSA test, the post-1 h measure was almost certainly lower than the resting measure, but almost certainly higher than the lnRMSSD measured post-RSA test. The lnRMSSD post-2 h was likely lower than the resting lnRMSSD and very likely higher than post-1 h. In conclusion, lnRMSSD is severely depressed after performing an RSA test, and reactivation is incomplete after 2 h of passive recovery. This result should be considered by practitioners when applying successive training sessions within intervals shorter than 2 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Process in Soccer Players)
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Open AccessCommunication
The Rise of Elite Short-Course Triathlon Re-Emphasises the Necessity to Transition Efficiently from Cycling to Running
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
Transitioning efficiently between cycling and running is considered an indication of overall performance, and as a result the cycle–run (C–R) transition is one of the most researched areas of triathlon. Previous studies have thoroughly investigated the impact of prior cycling on running performance. [...] Read more.
Transitioning efficiently between cycling and running is considered an indication of overall performance, and as a result the cycle–run (C–R) transition is one of the most researched areas of triathlon. Previous studies have thoroughly investigated the impact of prior cycling on running performance. However, with the increasing number of short-course events and the inclusion of the mixed relay at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, efficiently transitioning from cycle–run has been re-emphasised and with it, any potential limitations to running performance among elite triathletes. This short communication provides coaches and sports scientists a review of the literature detailing the negative effects of prior variable-cycling on running performance experienced among elite, short-course and Olympic distance triathletes; as well as discussing practical methods to minimise any negative impact of cycling on running performance. The current literature suggests that variable-cycling negatively effects running ability in at least some elite triathletes and that improving swimming performance, drafting during cycling and C–R training at race intensity could improve an athlete’s triathlon running performance. It is recommended that future research clearly define the performance level, competitive format of the experimental population and use protocols that are specific to the experimental population in order to improve the training and practical application of the research findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
Open AccessReview
Training and Competition Readiness in Triathlon
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
Triathlon is characterized by the multidisciplinary nature of the sport where swimming, cycling, and running are completed sequentially in different events, such as the sprint, Olympic, long-distance, and Ironman formats. The large number of training sessions and overall volume undertaken by triathletes to [...] Read more.
Triathlon is characterized by the multidisciplinary nature of the sport where swimming, cycling, and running are completed sequentially in different events, such as the sprint, Olympic, long-distance, and Ironman formats. The large number of training sessions and overall volume undertaken by triathletes to improve fitness and performance can also increase the risk of injury, illness, or excessive fatigue. Short- and medium-term individualized training plans, periodization strategies, and work/rest balance are necessary to minimize interruptions to training due to injury, illness, or maladaptation. Even in the absence of health and wellbeing concerns, it is unclear whether cellular signals triggered by multiple training stimuli that drive training adaptations each day interfere with each other. Distribution of training intensity within and between different sessions is an important aspect of training. Both internal (perceived stress) and external loads (objective metrics) should be considered when monitoring training load. Incorporating strength training to complement the large body of endurance work in triathlon can help avoid overuse injuries. We explore emerging trends and strategies from the latest literature and evidence-based knowledge for improving training readiness and performance during competition in triathlon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Single Ingestion of Trehalose during Prolonged Exercise
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
Trehalose (TRE), a disaccharide, is absorbed slowly and gradually increases the blood glucose (GLU) level along with reducing insulin secretion. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we examined exercise performance following ingestions of either GLU, TRE, or water (WAT). The second [...] Read more.
Trehalose (TRE), a disaccharide, is absorbed slowly and gradually increases the blood glucose (GLU) level along with reducing insulin secretion. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we examined exercise performance following ingestions of either GLU, TRE, or water (WAT). The second purpose was to investigate the effects of TRE energy metabolism during prolonged exercise. We examined exercise performance using the Wingate test, with 30-min constant load exercise at 40% VO2peak after exercising for 60 min at 40% VO2peak, by using an electromagnetic brake-type bicycle ergometer (Part 1). The power values, blood glucose and lactate, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured. In addition, we investigated the energy metabolism after a single ingestion of TRE, by measuring the RER and estimating the lipid oxidation for 60 min at 40% VO2peak (Part 2). Healthy college male students performed three trials—(1) placebo (WAT), (2) GLU, and (3) TRE. Repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for a comparison of the data among the three trial groups. A multiple comparison test was performed using post hoc Bonferroni correction. The TRE ingestion significantly increased the average and maximum power values (p < 0.01). The TRE ingestion showed significantly higher lipid utilization than the GLU lipid oxidation values the in TRE, 12.5 ± 6.1 g/h; GLU, 9.3 ± 4.7 g/h; and WAT, 15.0 ± 4.4 g/h; (p < 0.01). In conclusion, we provide novel data that a single TRE ingestion was effective in improving prolonged exercise performance by effective use of glucose and lipids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Athlete Monitoring in Rugby Union: Is Heterogeneity in Data Capture Holding Us Back?
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
In an effort to combat growing demands on players, athlete monitoring has become a central component of professional sport. Despite the introduction of new technologies for athlete monitoring, little is understood about the practices employed in professional rugby clubs. A questionnaire was circulated [...] Read more.
In an effort to combat growing demands on players, athlete monitoring has become a central component of professional sport. Despite the introduction of new technologies for athlete monitoring, little is understood about the practices employed in professional rugby clubs. A questionnaire was circulated amongst conditioning staff across the 12 Premiership rugby clubs to capture the methods used, relative importance, perceived effectiveness and barriers to the use of multiple different athlete monitoring measurements. Previous injury, Global Positioning System (GPS) metrics, collision counts and age were deemed the most important risk factors for managing future injury risk. A wide range of GPS metrics are collected across clubs with high-speed running (12/12 clubs), distance in speed zones (12/12 clubs) and total distance (11/12 clubs) the most commonly used. Of the metrics collected, high-speed running was deemed the most important for managing future injury risk (5/12 clubs); however, there was considerable variation between clubs as to the exact definition of high-speed running, with both absolute and relative measures utilised. While the use of such monitoring tools is undertaken to improve athlete welfare by minimising injury risk, this study demonstrates the significant heterogeneity of systems and methods used by clubs for GPS capture. This study therefore questions whether more needs to be done to align practices within the sport to improve athlete welfare. Full article
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