Special Issue "Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jennifer R. Pharr
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Interests: The intersection of sport, physical activity, and health. Health disparity. Barriers that impede and facilitators that enhance healthy behaviors such as preventive care and disease prevention. Interventions to reduce barriers to healthy behaviors. Disparities in healthcare/health service utilization of vulnerable populations
Dr. Nancy L. Lough
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Educational Psychology and Higher Education, College of Education, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Interests: The intersection of sport, gender, health and well being. Gender equity in organizational leadership. Sport marketing and sponsorship. Social marketing in sport. Advancing women in higher education and sport leadership

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research has established the connection between physical activity and health. We know that people who engage in physical activity are less likely to experience some chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, some forms of cancer) and risk factors for chronic disease (e.g. obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol. Additionally, being physically active has been found to improve bone density, pulmonary function, mood and wellbeing. Most physical activity research has compared people who are physically active to those who are not and have grouped all types of physical activity together. However, physical activity can be divided into subgroups including sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, and other (usually labelled household tasks).

Limited research has examined the link between sport, physical activity, human health and wellbeing in adults. The purpose of this Special edition is to examine the contribution that sport makes to human health and wellbeing including how and why sport influences people to be physically active.

Dr. Jennifer R. Pharr
Dr. Nancy L. Lough
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Sociodemographic Determinants of Physical Activity and Sport Participation among Women in the United States
Sports 2020, 8(7), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8070096 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
Regular physical activity and sport participation have been shown to improve women’s health; however, research has found that better health is associated with sport participation. Little is known about the sociodemographic determinants of physical activity among women, especially among the different subcategories of [...] Read more.
Regular physical activity and sport participation have been shown to improve women’s health; however, research has found that better health is associated with sport participation. Little is known about the sociodemographic determinants of physical activity among women, especially among the different subcategories of physical activity (sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, and household tasks). Because of the added health benefits associated with sport participation, the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic determinants among subcategories of physically active women in the United States by analyzing Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. We used data from the 2017 national BRFSS survey to conduct this secondary data analysis. Participants were asked an extensive set of questions about their physical activity. Seventy-six different activities were identified and categorized as either sport, recreation, conditioning exercise, or household tasks. Weighted descriptive statistics were performed to describe the sociodemographic determinants of the four physical activity subcategories, including age, income, education, employment, and race/ethnicity. There were significant differences in all sociodemographic variables among the four subcategories of physical activity. Women who participated in sport were more likely to be in the younger age groups; however, physical activity declined among all subcategories beyond the age of 64. Women who participated in sports were more diverse, likely to be employed, and college graduates compared to the other subcategories. Women who participated in recreational or household tasks were more likely to meet the criteria to be categorized as highly active; however, they exercised at a lower intensity. The sociodemographic characteristics of physical activity and sport participation can be used to create promotional strategies to increase physical activity and improve fitness and health among women who tend towards participation, and also to change programs to accommodate women from other sociodemographic groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Health and Sociodemographic Differences between Individual and Team Sport Participants
Sports 2019, 7(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060150 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) has been widely recognized as an avenue to improve health. Researchers have also found better health outcomes among adults who participate in sport when compared to adults who participate in other forms of PA. However, little is known about the [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) has been widely recognized as an avenue to improve health. Researchers have also found better health outcomes among adults who participate in sport when compared to adults who participate in other forms of PA. However, little is known about the health differences between those who participate in individual versus team sport. The purpose of the study was to identify differences in chronic diseases, conditions, or risk factors between individual and team sport participants. This study was a secondary analysis of data from the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey conducted in 2017. PA that was identified as sport was further categorized as an individual or a team sport. Odds and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on sport category were calculated using logistic regression. There were significant differences in all sociodemographic characteristics between the groups. Those who participated in team sport did so for more minutes and at a higher intensity and were less likely to report several chronic diseases/conditions. However, after controlling for sociodemographic differences between groups, only depression, general health, and smoking remained significant. The social aspect of team sport may be protective against depression but may also influence unhealthy behaviors such as smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Testing by Sports Medicine Physicians in the United States: Attitudes, Experiences, and Knowledge
Sports 2018, 6(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040145 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
It remains unknown whether and how sports medicine physicians currently utilize genetic testing in their clinical practice. This study sought to assess knowledge of, experience with, and attitudes towards genetic testing by sports medicine physicians in the United States (US). An email with [...] Read more.
It remains unknown whether and how sports medicine physicians currently utilize genetic testing in their clinical practice. This study sought to assess knowledge of, experience with, and attitudes towards genetic testing by sports medicine physicians in the United States (US). An email with a survey hyperlink was distributed twice to members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) listserv in September 2016, with approximately a 10% response rate. Questions focused on knowledge of, experience with, and attitudes towards testing for different genes related to sports proficiency, injury risk, and disease risk. Few AMSSM physicians believe that genetic testing to adapt training (12%) or to choose a sport (2%) is ready for clinical adoption. Most respondents self-reported minimal knowledge about, and limited experience with, genetic testing. The main exception was screening for sickle cell trait (SCT) for which most (84%) reported moderate/significant/expert knowledge and over two-thirds had ordered testing. Although most respondents thought it appropriate to counsel and test for health conditions associated with cardiac and connective tissue disorders in the setting of a positive family history, only a minority had been asked to do so. Five or fewer respondents (2%) had been asked to test for performance-associated variants (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) II and Alpha-Actinin 3 (ACTN3)), and five or fewer (2%) would recommend changes based on the results. Our study provides a baseline of current US sports medicine physicians’ minimal experiences with, and knowledge of, genetic testing. The findings of our study indicate that sports medicine physicians require further genetics education as it relates to sports and exercise in order to be prepared to competently engage with their patients and to develop sound professional organizational policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Physical Activity and Sports—Real Health Benefits: A Review with Insight into the Public Health of Sweden
Sports 2019, 7(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050127 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Positive effects from sports are achieved primarily through physical activity, but secondary effects bring health benefits such as psychosocial and personal development and less alcohol consumption. Negative effects, such as the risk of failure, injuries, eating disorders, and burnout, are also apparent. Because [...] Read more.
Positive effects from sports are achieved primarily through physical activity, but secondary effects bring health benefits such as psychosocial and personal development and less alcohol consumption. Negative effects, such as the risk of failure, injuries, eating disorders, and burnout, are also apparent. Because physical activity is increasingly conducted in an organized manner, sport’s role in society has become increasingly important over the years, not only for the individual but also for public health. In this paper, we intend to describe sport’s physiological and psychosocial health benefits, stemming both from physical activity and from sport participation per se. This narrative review summarizes research and presents health-related data from Swedish authorities. It is discussed that our daily lives are becoming less physically active, while organized exercise and training increases. Average energy intake is increasing, creating an energy surplus, and thus, we are seeing an increasing number of people who are overweight, which is a strong contributor to health problems. Physical activity and exercise have significant positive effects in preventing or alleviating mental illness, including depressive symptoms and anxiety- or stress-related disease. In conclusion, sports can be evolving, if personal capacities, social situation, and biological and psychological maturation are taken into account. Evidence suggests a dose–response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is superior to being inactive or sedentary. Recommendations for healthy sports are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health)
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