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Sports, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) To date no study has yet reported on the recovery characteristics after multi-jointed lower-body [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomous Motivation as a Mediator Between an Empowering Climate and Enjoyment in Male Volleyball Players
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this work was to analyze a mediation model concerning the perception of an empowering climate generated by a coach and enjoyment through the autonomous motivation of athletes. The sample consisted of 71 elite male volleyball players from six countries. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to analyze a mediation model concerning the perception of an empowering climate generated by a coach and enjoyment through the autonomous motivation of athletes. The sample consisted of 71 elite male volleyball players from six countries. The age range was 14 to 18 years (M = 16.5, SD = 0.96). The relationships between the perception of an empowering climate, autonomous motivation, and enjoyment were positive and significant. The mediation model showed that autonomous motivation acts as a mediator in the relationship between the perception of an empowering climate generated by the coach and the enjoyment reported by the athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivational Theories in Physical Activity and Competitive Sports)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement Combined with Resistance Training on Exercise Volume, Muscular Strength, and Body Composition
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
The effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) incorporating a mixture of branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, glutamine, creatine, and piperine on resistance training (RT)-induced adaptations remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of this investigational MIPS [...] Read more.
The effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) incorporating a mixture of branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, glutamine, creatine, and piperine on resistance training (RT)-induced adaptations remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of this investigational MIPS during six weeks of RT on performance and body composition. Thirty recreationally trained males and females were recruited for this pair-matched, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation. Subjects were assigned to consume either an experimental MIPS (MIPS) (n = 15) or a placebo (PLA) (n = 15) concurrently with a six-week periodized RT program. Body composition, one-repetition maximum (1RM), and muscular power were assessed at pre- and post-training. Weekly relative volume load was compared between groups. The MIPS and PLA groups demonstrated a significant increase in total body mass (MIPS = +2.9 ± 1.3%; PLA = +2.5 ± 1.7%) and lean mass (MIPS = +5.0 ± 2.1%; PLA = +3.1 ± 1.9%) (p < 0.001) with no changes in fat mass. There were no group × time interactions for any of the body composition measures. Both groups demonstrated similar improvements in maximum strength for the back squat, bench press, and deadlift as well as lower body power from pre- to post-training (p < 0.001). Within the limitations of the current investigation, results failed to demonstrate the benefits of the experimental MIPS for muscular strength and body composition across six weeks of RT compared to PLA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
A Biomechanical Comparison of Successful and Unsuccessful Snatch Attempts among Elite Male Weightlifters
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
The success factor of the snatch has not been identified. Determining the success factors of the snatch among elite weightlifters might help to attain a successful snatch. This study aimed at clarifying the factors that lead to a successful snatch based on barbell [...] Read more.
The success factor of the snatch has not been identified. Determining the success factors of the snatch among elite weightlifters might help to attain a successful snatch. This study aimed at clarifying the factors that lead to a successful snatch based on barbell trajectory among elite male weightlifters. Data were collected at the 2017 World and Junior World Weightlifting Championships. We digitized the barbell trajectory of the successful and unsuccessful snatch attempts of 61 lifters—an unsuccessful lift would be as a result of a frontward barbell drop—and calculated the kinematic and kinetic parameters of the barbell. No significant difference was found in the barbell maximum height (Dy1) between the successful and unsuccessful lifts. The amount of backward displacement of the barbell in the second pull phase to the catch position (DxL) of the successful lift was significantly larger than that of the unsuccessful lift (successful: 0.11 ± 0.05 m; unsuccessful: 0.10 ± 0.06 m; p < 0.01; d = 0.278). The barbell drop distance in the catch phase (Dy3) of the successful lift was significantly smaller than that in the unsuccessful lift (successful: 0.17 ± 0.04 m; unsuccessful: 0.18 ± 0.04 m; p < 0.001, d = 0.361). These results suggest that DxL and Dy3 are factors leading to a successful snatch lift, but not Dy1. The relative position in the sagittal axis of the barbell and the lifter in the catch position, and catching the barbell when its momentum was low, are important in order to achieve a successful snatch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Science for Elite Athletes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Health and Sociodemographic Differences between Individual and Team Sport Participants
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Physical activity (PA) has been widely recognized as an avenue to improve health. Researchers have also found better health outcomes among adults who participate in sport when compared to adults who participate in other forms of PA. However, little is known about the [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) has been widely recognized as an avenue to improve health. Researchers have also found better health outcomes among adults who participate in sport when compared to adults who participate in other forms of PA. However, little is known about the health differences between those who participate in individual versus team sport. The purpose of the study was to identify differences in chronic diseases, conditions, or risk factors between individual and team sport participants. This study was a secondary analysis of data from the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey conducted in 2017. PA that was identified as sport was further categorized as an individual or a team sport. Odds and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on sport category were calculated using logistic regression. There were significant differences in all sociodemographic characteristics between the groups. Those who participated in team sport did so for more minutes and at a higher intensity and were less likely to report several chronic diseases/conditions. However, after controlling for sociodemographic differences between groups, only depression, general health, and smoking remained significant. The social aspect of team sport may be protective against depression but may also influence unhealthy behaviors such as smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intersection of Sport, Physical Activity and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Motives for Exercising and Associations with Body Composition in Icelandic Adolescents
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the motives that lead Icelandic teenagers to engage in physical exercise and the possible associations with variables of their body composition. For this purpose, the Self-Report of Reasons for the Practice of Physical [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the motives that lead Icelandic teenagers to engage in physical exercise and the possible associations with variables of their body composition. For this purpose, the Self-Report of Reasons for the Practice of Physical Exercise questionnaire (AMPEF) was administered to 387 students (54% boys and 46% girls, Mage = 13.38 years) from Reykjavik (Iceland). The results reveal the subscales Revitalization and Enjoyment, Strength and Endurance, Challenge and Competition as the main motives for exercising among the participants. Boys score higher in all subscales than girls except for Revitalization and Enjoyment. Associations between the motive Weight Management and Appearance, and BMI and Fat % levels were found. It can be concluded that the participants’ physical exercise practice is based on the feelings and experiences they perceive in the sports practice process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity in Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Self-Talk Training on Competitive Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Volitional Skills, and Performance: An Intervention Study with Junior Sub-Elite Athletes
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Self-talk (ST) is used to influence athletes’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Samples of squad and competitive athletes are underrepresented, although research has proven the positive effects of ST in the context of sports. Thus, the present study focused on the impact [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Self-talk (ST) is used to influence athletes’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Samples of squad and competitive athletes are underrepresented, although research has proven the positive effects of ST in the context of sports. Thus, the present study focused on the impact of ST on psychological and performance outcomes of junior sub-elite athletes. (2) Methods: N = 117 athletes (55 females, 62 males; M = 16.0 years) were randomly assigned to either one of two experimental groups or to a control group (n = 30). The experimental groups received an ST intervention for either one week (n = 36) or eight weeks (n = 38), and the control group received no ST training. The dependent variables (competitive anxiety, volitional skills, self-efficacy, and coaches’ performance ratings) were assessed three times before and after the intervention. It was expected that (a) an ST intervention would reduce the competitive anxiety and increase volitional skills, self-efficacy, and performance; and, (b) long-term training would lead to higher effects than short-term training. (3) Results: As expected, ST training led to (less) somatic state anxiety and (higher) state self-confidence, self-optimization, self-efficacy, and performance. Additionally, long-term training was more effective than short-term training. (4) Conclusions: Targeted ST interventions may help to improve junior athletes’ psychological states and performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recognition of Foot Strike Pattern in Asian Recreational Runners
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Close to 90% of recreational runners rearfoot strike in a long-distance road race. This prevalence has been obtained from North American cohorts of runners. The prevalence of rearfoot strikers has not been extensively examined in an Asian population of recreational runners. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Close to 90% of recreational runners rearfoot strike in a long-distance road race. This prevalence has been obtained from North American cohorts of runners. The prevalence of rearfoot strikers has not been extensively examined in an Asian population of recreational runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot strikers during a long-distance road race in Asian recreational runners and compare this prevalence to reported values in the scientific literature. To do so, we classified the foot strike pattern of 950 recreational runners at the 10 km mark of the Singapore marathon (77% Asian field). We observed 71.1%, 16.6%, 1.7%, and 10.6% of rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot, and asymmetric strikers, respectively. Chi-squared tests revealed significant differences between our foot strike pattern distribution and those reported from North American cohorts (P < 0.001). Our foot strike pattern distribution was similar to one reported from elite half-marathon runners racing in Japan (Fisher exact test, P = 0.168). We conclude that the prevalence of rearfoot strikers is lower in Asian than North American recreational runners. Running research should consider and report ethnicity of participants given that ethnicity can potentially explain biomechanical differences in running patterns. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Anthropometric and Physiological Profile of Mixed Martial Art Athletes: A Brief Review
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this review was to analyze the existing knowledge of the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of MMA (mixed martial arts). A computerized search was performed in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for English-language, peer-reviewed investigations using the term “mixed martial [...] Read more.
The aim of this review was to analyze the existing knowledge of the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of MMA (mixed martial arts). A computerized search was performed in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for English-language, peer-reviewed investigations using the term “mixed martial arts” or “MMA” alone and in combination with “physiological characteristics”, “physiological profile”, “body composition”, “strength”, “power”, “endurance”, “aerobic”, and “anaerobic”. The main findings of this review suggested an overall profile of low body fat, high flexibility, muscle strength, muscle endurance, and anaerobic power, and average cardiovascular endurance. Nevertheless, no differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics by performance level of the athletes were observed. Based on the studies analyzed in this review, several limitations were reported. First, the subjects in each paper were limited in number, as is MMA literature itself, and it is impossible to make a generalization regarding the anthropometric and physiological profile for male athletes. Second, no studies included female MMA athletes; therefore, there was no evidence for what their profiles might be. Last, the majority of the above-mentioned studies used different tests, or the same tests with different protocols, and as a result, it is difficult to compare their results. The similarity observed between the levels of the athletes might be a result of the different tests and protocols used by the researchers or might be evidence that the anthropometric and physiological profile of an MMA athlete did not vary among high-level athletes. Considering the increasing number of those engaging in MMA training and sport events, the findings of the present study provided strength and conditioning trainers working with MMA athletes a valuable tool for monitoring training and performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Skin Temperatures in Females Wearing a 2 mm Wetsuit during Surfing
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to examine regional skin temperatures in recreational female surfers’ wearing a 2 mm thick neoprene wetsuit while surfing and to compare these results to previously published data collected in males participating in an identical study. Female surfers [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to examine regional skin temperatures in recreational female surfers’ wearing a 2 mm thick neoprene wetsuit while surfing and to compare these results to previously published data collected in males participating in an identical study. Female surfers (n = 27) engaged in surfing for at least 40 min while wearing a commercially available 2 mm full wetsuit. Skin temperature of eight different anatomical locations were measured with wireless iButton thermal sensors. Regional skin temperatures significantly differed (p < 0.001) across almost all anatomical regions. Furthermore, regional skin temperatures significantly decreased across time at all skin regions throughout an average surfing session (p < 0.001). The greatest reduction in skin temperature was observed in the lower leg (−5.4 °C). Females in the current study exhibited a significantly greater skin temperature decrease in the lower back (−15.2% vs. −10.8%, p = 0.022) and lower arm (−13.6% vs. −10.8%, p < 0.001) when compared to previous data published in males. Overall, results of the current study are consistent with data previously published on male recreational surfers. However, the current study provides preliminary evidence that the magnitude of change in skin temperature may differ between male and female recreational surfers at some anatomical locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Wearing a Lower Body Compression Garment on Anaerobic Exercise Performance in Division I NCAA Basketball Players
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Lower body compression (LBC) has been shown as an effective recovery tool from basketball but it is unknown how it affects performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a LBC garment on anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate [...] Read more.
Lower body compression (LBC) has been shown as an effective recovery tool from basketball but it is unknown how it affects performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a LBC garment on anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate basketball players. Healthy Division I collegiate basketball players (n = 12) were recruited for this study. In a crossover, counterbalanced study design, subjects volunteered to participate in two separate visits each with a different condition: wearing a LBC garment or non-compressive control (CON) garment. During each visit, subjects completed 2 × 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnTs) separated by a 5-min active recovery period. Each visit was separated by a 72 h washout period. Results revealed that over the 2 × 30 second WAnTs, mean power output (p = 0.028; d= 0.35), anaerobic capacity (p = 0.018; d = 0.45), and total work (p = 0.027; d = 0.36) were higher when wearing the LBC versus CON garment. However, peak power output (p = 0.319; d = 0.09), anaerobic power (p = 0.263; d = 0.23), and fatigue index (p = 0.749; d = 0.05) were not statistically different. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly lower (p = 0.032; d = 0.72) with LBC compared to CON. Results indicate that LBC may increase anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate basketball players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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Open AccessReview
Accelerating Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Injuries in Triathletes: Considerations for Olympic Distance Races
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
The triathlon is one of the fastest developing sports in the world due to expanding participation and media attention. The fundamental change in Olympic triathlon races from a single to a multistart event is highly demanding in terms of recovery from and prevention [...] Read more.
The triathlon is one of the fastest developing sports in the world due to expanding participation and media attention. The fundamental change in Olympic triathlon races from a single to a multistart event is highly demanding in terms of recovery from and prevention of exercise-induced muscle injures. In elite and competitive sports, ultrastructural muscle injuries, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), are responsible for impaired muscle performance capacities. Prevention and treatment of these conditions have become key in regaining muscular performance levels and to guarantee performance and economy of motion in swimming, cycling and running. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current findings on the pathophysiology, as well as treatment and prevention of, these conditions in compliance with clinical implications for elite triathletes. In the context of DOMS, the majority of recovery interventions have focused on different protocols of compression, cold or heat therapy, active regeneration, nutritional interventions, or sleep. The authors agree that there is a compelling need for further studies, including high-quality randomized trials, to completely evaluate the effectiveness of existing therapeutic approaches, particularly in triathletes. The given recommendations must be updated and adjusted, as further evidence emerges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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Open AccessArticle
GOING GREEN: The Effectiveness of a 40-Day Green Exercise Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior is an economic and health priority. This Green Exercise (GEx) study reports on a 40-day physical activity intervention to increase physical activity that primarily used outdoor recreation activities. Adherence, compliance, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, anthropometry, [...] Read more.
Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior is an economic and health priority. This Green Exercise (GEx) study reports on a 40-day physical activity intervention to increase physical activity that primarily used outdoor recreation activities. Adherence, compliance, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, anthropometry, strength, dynamic stability, and cardiovascular fitness were assessed 1 week prior and immediately following the 40-day intervention. The results then were compared with a larger study that used the same methodologies but for the exception of primarily indoor physical activities. Results from this study showed similar improvements in health measures to the comparative indoor-based physical activity program with increased adherence and compliance. Improvements in wellbeing were also noted. This GEx study suggests that exercise programs that seek to increase physical activity levels of insufficiently active adults may benefit from including outdoor recreation activities within the program and may also increase participant mental health and general well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Nature–Based Interventions for Improving Health and Wellbeing: The Purpose, the People and the Outcomes
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Engagement with nature is an important part of many people’s lives, and the health and wellbeing benefits of nature–based activities are becoming increasingly recognised across disciplines from city planning to medicine. Despite this, urbanisation, challenges of modern life and environmental degradation are leading [...] Read more.
Engagement with nature is an important part of many people’s lives, and the health and wellbeing benefits of nature–based activities are becoming increasingly recognised across disciplines from city planning to medicine. Despite this, urbanisation, challenges of modern life and environmental degradation are leading to a reduction in both the quantity and the quality of nature experiences. Nature–based health interventions (NBIs) can facilitate behavioural change through a somewhat structured promotion of nature–based experiences and, in doing so, promote improved physical, mental and social health and wellbeing. We conducted a Delphi expert elicitation process with 19 experts from seven countries (all named authors on this paper) to identify the different forms that such interventions take, the potential health outcomes and the target beneficiaries. In total, 27 NBIs were identified, aiming to prevent illness, promote wellbeing and treat specific physical, mental or social health and wellbeing conditions. These interventions were broadly categorized into those that change the environment in which people live, work, learn, recreate or heal (for example, the provision of gardens in hospitals or parks in cities) and those that change behaviour (for example, engaging people through organized programmes or other activities). We also noted the range of factors (such as socioeconomic variation) that will inevitably influence the extent to which these interventions succeed. We conclude with a call for research to identify the drivers influencing the effectiveness of NBIs in enhancing health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Gastrointestinal Complaints and Correlations with Self-Reported Macronutrient Intake in Independent Groups of (Ultra)Marathon Runners Competing at Different Distances
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the differences in gastrointestinal (GI) and exercise related complaints between groups of runners competing at different distances using web-based questionnaires. Total (severe) complaints were reported by 89.3% (49.7%) of the runners during the race vs. 70.6% (29.4%) after the race. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the differences in gastrointestinal (GI) and exercise related complaints between groups of runners competing at different distances using web-based questionnaires. Total (severe) complaints were reported by 89.3% (49.7%) of the runners during the race vs. 70.6% (29.4%) after the race. Significant differences between groups were described for marathon (n = 98) and 60 km (n = 43) runners. During competition, runners reported the urge to urinate (47.7%), muscle cramps (43.6%) and belching (43.6%). The prevalence of bloating, flatulence, side ache and dizziness differed between distances (p < 0.02). There were small to moderate negative correlations between food and fluid intake and GI complaints. After competition (12 h), 70.6% of participants reported complaints, with muscle cramps (47.6%), flatulence (19.0%) and bloating (12.7%) being the most prevalent. Prevalence of belching, nausea, stomach cramps and muscle cramps differed between race distances (p < 0.04). There were small to high positive correlations between complaints during and after competition (p < 0.05). In conclusion, runners of all distances reported a high prevalence of GI and other exercise related complaints. There were some small differences in reporting type and severity of complaints between distances. Results showed small to strong correlations between complaints during and after competition and with nutrient intake, without a clear similar pattern for all distances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Keep Your Head Up—Correlation between Visual Exploration Frequency, Passing Percentage and Turnover Rate in Elite Football Midfielders
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
Statistical analysis of real in-game situations plays an increasing role in talent identification and player recruitment across team sports. Recently, visual exploration frequency (VEF) in football has been discussed as being one of the important performance-determining parameters. However, until now, VEF has been [...] Read more.
Statistical analysis of real in-game situations plays an increasing role in talent identification and player recruitment across team sports. Recently, visual exploration frequency (VEF) in football has been discussed as being one of the important performance-determining parameters. However, until now, VEF has been studied almost exclusively in laboratory settings. Moreover, the VEF of individuals has not been correlated with performance parameters in a statistically significant number of top-level players. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between VEF and individual performance parameters in elite football midfielders. Thirty-five midfielders participating in the Euro 2016 championship were analyzed using game video. Their VEF was categorized into scans, transition scans, and total scans. Linear regression analysis was used to correlate the three different VEF parameters with the passing percentage and the turnover rate for individual players. The linear regression showed significant positive correlations between scan rate (p = 0.033, R 2 = 3.0%) and total scan rate (p = 0.015, R 2 = 4.0%) and passing percentage but not between transition scan rate and passing percentage (p = 0.074). There was a significant negative correlation between transition scan rate and turnover rate (p = 0.023, R 2 = 3.5%) but not between total scan rate (p = 0.857) or scan rate (p = 0.817) and turnover rate. In conclusion, the present study shows that players with a higher VEF may complete more passes and cause fewer turnovers. VEF explains up to 4% of variance in pass completion and turnover rate and thus should be considered as one of the factors that can help to evaluate players and identify talents as well as to tailor training interventions to the needs of midfielders up to the highest level of professional football. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Tendon and Ligament Injuries in Elite Rugby: The Potential Genetic Influence
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
This article reviews tendon and ligament injury incidence and severity within elite rugby union and rugby league. Furthermore, it discusses the biological makeup of tendons and ligaments and how genetic variation may influence this and predisposition to injury. Elite rugby has one of [...] Read more.
This article reviews tendon and ligament injury incidence and severity within elite rugby union and rugby league. Furthermore, it discusses the biological makeup of tendons and ligaments and how genetic variation may influence this and predisposition to injury. Elite rugby has one of the highest reported injury incidences of any professional sport. This is likely due to a combination of well-established injury surveillance systems and the characteristics of the game, whereby high-impact body contact frequently occurs, in addition to the high intensity, multispeed and multidirectional nature of play. Some of the most severe of all these injuries are tendon and ligament/joint (non-bone), and therefore, potentially the most debilitating to a player and playing squad across a season or World Cup competition. The aetiology of these injuries is highly multi-factorial, with a growing body of evidence suggesting that some of the inter-individual variability in injury susceptibility may be due to genetic variation. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of genetic injury traits within rugby athletes. Due to a growing understanding of the molecular characteristics underpinning the aetiology of injury, investigating genetic variation within elite rugby is a viable and worthy proposition. Therefore, we propose several single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes of interest; COL1A1, COL3A1, COL5A1, MIR608, MMP3, TIMP2, VEGFA, NID1 and COLGALT1 warrant further study within elite rugby and other invasion sports. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Late-Presenting Swimming-Induced Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report Series from the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) may develop during strenuous physical exertion in water. This case series reports on three cases of suspected late-presenting SIPE during the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon. A 30-year-old male professional (PRO) triathlete, a 40-year-old female AGE GROUP triathlete and a 34-year-old [...] Read more.
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) may develop during strenuous physical exertion in water. This case series reports on three cases of suspected late-presenting SIPE during the Norseman Xtreme Triathlon. A 30-year-old male professional (PRO) triathlete, a 40-year-old female AGE GROUP triathlete and a 34-year-old male AGE GROUP triathlete presented with shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing up pink sputum during the last part of the bike phase. All three athletes reported an improvement in breathing during the first major uphill of the bike phase and increasing symptoms during the downhill. The PRO athlete had a thoracic computed tomography, and the scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. The male AGE GROUP athlete had a normal chest x-ray. Both athletes were admitted for further observation and discharged from hospital the following day, with complete regression of symptoms. The female athlete recovered quickly following pre-hospital oxygen treatment. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is rare but potentially very dangerous. Knowledge and awareness of possible risk factors and symptoms are essential, and the results presented in this report emphasize the importance of being aware of the possible delayed development of symptoms. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema elicited by strenuous exercise, equipment for measuring oxygen saturation should be available for the medical staff on site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Submaximal Performances on Critical Speed and Power: Uses of an Arbitrary-Unit Method with Different Protocols
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
The effects of submaximal performances on critical speed (SCrit) and critical power (PCrit) were studied in 3 protocols: a constant-speed protocol (protocol 1), a constant-time protocol (protocol 2) and a constant-distance protocol (protocol 3). The effects of submaximal performances [...] Read more.
The effects of submaximal performances on critical speed (SCrit) and critical power (PCrit) were studied in 3 protocols: a constant-speed protocol (protocol 1), a constant-time protocol (protocol 2) and a constant-distance protocol (protocol 3). The effects of submaximal performances on SCrit and PCrit were studied with the results of two theoretical maximal exercises multiplied by coefficients lower or equal to 1 (from 0.8 to 1 for protocol 1; from 0.95 to 1 for protocols 2 and 3): coefficient C1 for the shortest exercises and C2 for the longest exercises. Arbitrary units were used for exhaustion times (tlim), speeds (or power-output in cycling) and distances (or work in cycling). The submaximal-performance effects on SCrit and PCrit were computed from two ranges of tlim (1–4 and 1–7). These effects have been compared for a low-endurance athlete (exponent = 0.8 in the power-law model of Kennelly) and a high-endurance athlete (exponent = 0.95). Unexpectedly, the effects of submaximal performances on SCrit and PCrit are lower in protocol 1. For the 3 protocols, the effects of submaximal performances on SCrit, and PCrit, are low in many cases and are lower when the range of tlim is longer. The results of the present theoretical study confirm the possibility of the computation of SCrit and PCrit from several submaximal exercises performed in the same session. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Outcomes from a One-Week Adapted Sport and Adapted Adventure Recovery Programme for Military Personnel
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: The Battle Back Centre offers a bespoke, Self Determination Theory-oriented adapted sport and adventurous training programme centred on experiential learning and reflection to support the recovery of military personnel. Aim: To identify the short-term impact of participation in the programme on positive [...] Read more.
Background: The Battle Back Centre offers a bespoke, Self Determination Theory-oriented adapted sport and adventurous training programme centred on experiential learning and reflection to support the recovery of military personnel. Aim: To identify the short-term impact of participation in the programme on positive mental health and psychological need satisfaction. Method: Participants were 978 wounded, injured and sick (WIS) personnel classified as: Wounded (battle casualties), Injured (non-battle casualties) and Sick (mental/physical illness). Participants completed the Basic Need Satisfaction in General Scale (Gagné, 2003) and Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well Being Scale (Tennant et al. 2006) on arrival and course completion. Results: All measures of positive mental health and psychological need satisfaction showed statistically significant increases, with a large effect size, from baseline to course completion (mean ± SD change in positive mental health, competence, autonomy and relatedness were 7.19 ± 9.61, 0.46 ± 0.9, 0.27 ± 0.84, 0.26 ± 0.86, respectively, p < 0.05). While the average magnitude of the intervention effect for positive mental health (16%) is comparable or greater than other reported interventions, changes were achieved in a shorter time. Conclusion: Findings highlight the positive short-term effect adapted sport and adventurous activities have for WIS personnel. Declaration of interest: Work supported by The Royal British Legion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
Purposeful Outdoor Learning Empowers Children to Deal with School Transitions
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
UK schoolchildren are vulnerable to transitional stress between primary and secondary school, which may impact negatively upon their psychological health and academic achievement. This is experienced most acutely by children from ethnic minorities and lower socio-economic status (SES) households. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential [...] Read more.
UK schoolchildren are vulnerable to transitional stress between primary and secondary school, which may impact negatively upon their psychological health and academic achievement. This is experienced most acutely by children from ethnic minorities and lower socio-economic status (SES) households. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential programmes are purported to develop behavioural adaptations which enable positive educational transitions of children. Personal, social and academic skills (self-reliance, getting along with others, curriculum alignment) may be best acquired through bespoke nature-based residential OA programmes. A mixed methods study evaluated the efficacy of a bespoke OA programme for developing school children’s psychological well-being and self-determination during their transition into secondary school. Participants were representantives of ethnic minorities and lower SES groups. A bespoke OA residential programme achieved the strongest scale of change in children’s psychological well-being (F (30,69) = 1.97 < 0.05) and self-determination (effect size 0.25) compared to a generic OA residential and a non-OA school-based induction programme. Qualitative testimonies illuminated personal experiences and processes underpinning the perceived changes in the self-determination domains of Autonomy (the capacity to self-direct learning), Competence (the ability to complete tasks) and Relatedness (developing connections with others). Providing early opportunities for children to take control for their own learning through nature-based tailored OA programming improves their psychological well-being and adaptability to combat transitional stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Intention to Lean the Body Forward on Kinematics and Kinetics of Sprinting for Active Adults
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the influence of the intention to lean the body forward on spatiotemporal and ground reaction force variables during the acceleration phase of a sprint. Fourteen active adults performed two 50 m sprints (with and without the intention to lean), during [...] Read more.
This study investigated the influence of the intention to lean the body forward on spatiotemporal and ground reaction force variables during the acceleration phase of a sprint. Fourteen active adults performed two 50 m sprints (with and without the intention to lean), during which spatiotemporal variables and impulses were obtained using a long force platform system. Effect size (Cohen’s d) was used to examine the differences between the two trials. We found that running speed and net anteroposterior impulse did not change by the intention for all steps. However, step frequency increased in the initial two steps through decreases in support time and flight time by the intention. Moreover, these shorter support and flight times were caused by a decrease in the vertical impulse. The propulsive impulse did not change during the initial part of acceleration phase, but the braking impulse decreased at the first step. This study demonstrates that an intention to lean the body forward leads to a smaller braking impulse and a higher step frequency through shorter support and flight times and a smaller vertical impulse during the initial part of the acceleration phase of a sprint. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Recovery in Young and Middle-Aged Males with Different Resistance Training Experience
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
This study compared the time course of recovery after a squatting exercise in trained young (YG; n = 9; age 22.3 ± 1.7 years) and trained (MT; n = 9; 39.9 ± 6.2 years) and untrained (MU; n = 9; age 44.4 ± [...] Read more.
This study compared the time course of recovery after a squatting exercise in trained young (YG; n = 9; age 22.3 ± 1.7 years) and trained (MT; n = 9; 39.9 ± 6.2 years) and untrained (MU; n = 9; age 44.4 ± 6.3 years) middle-aged males. Before and at 24 and 72 h after 10 × 10 squats at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM), participants provided measurements of perceived muscle soreness (VAS), creatine kinase (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), and resting doublet force of the knee extensors and squatting peak power at 20% and 80% 1RM. When compared to the YG males, the MT experienced likely and very likely moderate decrements in MVC, resting doublet force, and peak power at 20% and 80% 1RM accompanied by unclear differences in VAS, CK, and VA after the squatting exercise. MU males, compared to MT, experienced greater alterations in peak power at 20% and 80% 1RM and VAS. Alterations in CK, MVC, VA, and resting doublet force were unclear at all time-points between the middle-aged groups. Middle-aged males experienced greater symptoms of muscle damage and an impaired recovery profile than young resistance trained males. Moreover, regardless of resistance training experience, middle-aged males are subject to similar symptoms after muscle-damaging lower-body exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Personality Factors and Body Esteem Predict Imagery Ability in Dancers?
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 26 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
Dancing is mainly regarded as a form of art, which has been linked to the expression of emotions. Imagery is a well-known technique for enhancing performance. Additionally, specific personality traits are likely to facilitate performance. In the dancer’s performance, regarding the body as [...] Read more.
Dancing is mainly regarded as a form of art, which has been linked to the expression of emotions. Imagery is a well-known technique for enhancing performance. Additionally, specific personality traits are likely to facilitate performance. In the dancer’s performance, regarding the body as a tool is crucial. The following study examines personality and perceived body esteem as predictors of imagery ability in professional dancers. We analyzed two experimental groups, namely ballet dancers and professional dancers of other styles, and a control group. A sample of 249 people took part in the study: 155 women and 94 men aged 18–56 years. Participants filled in The Imagination in Sport Questionnaire and Polish adaptations of the Big Five Inventory—Short and the Body Esteem Scale. Results indicated that while each experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of their imagery ability, there were no differences between the two experimental groups. Findings revealed that personality traits, mainly higher openness to experience, and body esteem, mainly related to physical condition, were significant predictors of higher imagery ability in all groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Core Temperature in Triathletes during Swimming with Wetsuit in 10 °C Cold Water
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
Low water temperature (<15 °C) has been faced by many organizers of triathlons and swim-runs in the northern part of Europe during recent years. More knowledge about how cold water affects athletes swimming in wetsuits in cold water is warranted. The aim of [...] Read more.
Low water temperature (<15 °C) has been faced by many organizers of triathlons and swim-runs in the northern part of Europe during recent years. More knowledge about how cold water affects athletes swimming in wetsuits in cold water is warranted. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the physiological response when swimming a full Ironman distance (3800 m) in a wetsuit in 10 °C water. Twenty triathletes, 37.6 ± 9 years (12 males and 8 females) were recruited to perform open water swimming in 10 °C seawater; while rectal temperature (Tre) and skin temperature (Tskin) were recorded. The results showed that for all participants, Tre was maintained for the first 10–15 min of the swim; and no participants dropped more than 2 °C in Tre during the first 30 min of swimming in 10 °C water. However; according to extrapolations of the results, during a swim time above 135 min; 47% (8/17) of the participants in the present study would fall more than 2 °C in Tre during the swim. The results show that the temperature response to swimming in a wetsuit in 10 °C water is highly individual. However, no participant in the present study dropped more than 2 °C in Tre during the first 30 min of the swim in 10 °C water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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Open AccessArticle
Phase-Specific Changes in Rate of Force Development and Muscle Morphology Throughout a Block Periodized Training Cycle in Weightlifters
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic and morphological adaptations that occur during distinct phases of a block periodized training cycle in weightlifters. Athlete monitoring data from nine experienced collegiate weightlifters was used. Isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and ultrasonography (US) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic and morphological adaptations that occur during distinct phases of a block periodized training cycle in weightlifters. Athlete monitoring data from nine experienced collegiate weightlifters was used. Isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and ultrasonography (US) results were compared to examine the effects of three specific phases of a training cycle leading up to a competition. During the high volume strength-endurance phase (SE) small depressions in rate of force development (RFD) but statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (CSA), and body mass (BM) were observed. The lower volume higher intensity strength-power phase (SP) caused RFD to rebound above pre-training cycle values despite statistically significant reductions in CSA. Small to moderate increases only in the earlier RFD time bands (<150 ms) occurred during the peak/taper phase (PT) while CSA and BM were maintained. Changes in IMTP RFD and CSA from US reflected the expected adaptations of block periodized training phases. Changes in early (<100 ms) and late (≥150 ms) RFD time bands may not occur proportionally throughout different training phases. Small increases in RFD and CSA can be expected in well-trained weightlifters throughout a single block periodized training cycle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Manual Therapy, Customised Foot Orthoses and Combined Therapy in the Management of Plantar Fasciitis—A RCT
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 26 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is one of the most common causes of plantar heel pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different treatment approaches in the management of PF. Methods: Sixty-three patients (44 female, 19 men; 48.4 ± 9.8 years) were randomly [...] Read more.
Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is one of the most common causes of plantar heel pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different treatment approaches in the management of PF. Methods: Sixty-three patients (44 female, 19 men; 48.4 ± 9.8 years) were randomly assigned into a manual therapy (MT), customised foot orthosis (FO) and a combined therapy (combined) group. The primary outcomes of pain and function were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society-Ankle Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS-AHS) and the patient reported outcome measure (PROM) Foot Pain and Function Scale (FPFS). Data were evaluated at baseline (T0) and at follow-up sessions after 1 month, 2 months and 3 months (T1–T3). Results: All three treatments showed statistically significant (p < 0.01) improvements in both scales from T0 to T1. However, the MT group showed greater improvements than both other groups (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Manual therapy, customised foot orthoses and combined treatments of PF all reduced pain and function, with the greatest benefits shown by isolated manual therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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