Physical Performance in Team Sports

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2020) | Viewed by 77108

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Team sports are the most popular game in the world, played at all levels (amateur and professional), all ages (children, adolescents, adults and elderly), and genders (male and female). In the recent literature, it has been shown how performance in team sports depends on high levels of technical, tactical and physical conditioning, which include anatomical, functional, biomechanical and physiological adaptations induced by training. Consequently, the aim of physical conditioning, as well as providing a stimulus with specific adaptations that will translate into better athletic performance, should be to protect physical well-being that is sorely tested by a sporting competition characterized by a long period of time. If there is no scientific knowledge about training, the increase in the load administered to achieve these objectives may stress the athlete by increasing the injury risk. This Special Issue of Sports aims at creating a multidisciplinary forum for discussion on recent advanced results in this area and, for this reason, calls on authors to submit original research and/or specific reviews that improve our understanding of “Physical Performance in Team Sports”. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: Physiological and psychological demands of game, strength and conditioning, match analysis and technological advances, functional evaluation, injury, prevention and rehabilitation, and performance analysis of female players.

Prof. Fabrizio Perroni
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Physiological and Psychological responses
  • Strength and conditioning
  • Biomechanics
  • Match analysis
  • Functional evaluation
  • Injury
  • Female players

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Physical Fitness in Formative Female Basketball Players: A Case Study
by David Mancha-Triguero, Nicolás Martín-Encinas and Sergio J. Ibáñez
Sports 2020, 8(7), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8070097 - 8 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
Over the last few years, team sports increased the amount of physical demand and its importance. Therefore, work related to physical fitness and its assessment is essential to achieving success. However, there are few studies on this subject at the formative stage. The [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, team sports increased the amount of physical demand and its importance. Therefore, work related to physical fitness and its assessment is essential to achieving success. However, there are few studies on this subject at the formative stage. The purpose of this study was then to analyze the physical fitness of an under-18 (U18) women’s team divided by game positions. In addition, physical fitness at different times of the season was characterized to identify differences and determine its evolution. To assess physical fitness, tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacities, lower body strength, centripetal force, agility and speed were carried out as designed in the SBAFIT battery. Each player was equipped with an inertial microtechnology device for the collection of data. This research is classified as empirical, with quasi-experimental methodology. The results showed significant differences in variables of the test of aerobic and anaerobic capacities, speed, agility (generic and specific), and centripetal force (right) based on game position and the moment of the season. The results also showed the importance of the specific physical aspect in relation to an optimal improvement in physical fitness, since training sessions and competition do not allow all players to improve equally or efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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11 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
Match Demands of Women’s Collegiate Soccer
by Andrew R. Jagim, Jason Murphy, Alexis Q. Schaefer, Andrew T. Askow, Joel A. Luedke, Jacob L. Erickson and Margaret T. Jones
Sports 2020, 8(6), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8060087 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4542
Abstract
Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women’s collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement [...] Read more.
Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women’s collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 ± 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 ± 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 ± 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 ± 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 ± 2588 m and 1019 ± 552 m at high speeds (>249.6 m·m−1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 ± 14.7 m·m−1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 ± 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 ± 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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11 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Physical and Fitness Characteristics of Elite Professional Rugby Union Players
by Logan Posthumus, Campbell Macgregor, Paul Winwood, Katrina Darry, Matthew Driller and Nicholas Gill
Sports 2020, 8(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8060085 - 5 Jun 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7657
Abstract
This study explored the physical and fitness characteristics of elite professional rugby union players and examined the relationships between these characteristics within forwards and backs. Thirty-nine elite professional rugby union players from the New Zealand Super Rugby Championship participated in this study. Body [...] Read more.
This study explored the physical and fitness characteristics of elite professional rugby union players and examined the relationships between these characteristics within forwards and backs. Thirty-nine elite professional rugby union players from the New Zealand Super Rugby Championship participated in this study. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry alongside anthropometrics. Fitness characteristics included various strength, power, speed, and aerobic fitness measures. Forwards were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) taller and heavier than backs, and possessed greater lean mass, fat mass, fat percentage, bone mass, and skinfolds. Forwards demonstrated greater strength and absolute power measures than backs (p = 0.02), but were slower and possessed less aerobic fitness (p ≤ 0.01). Skinfolds demonstrated very large correlations with relative power (r = −0.84) and speed (r = 0.75) measures within forwards, while backs demonstrated large correlations between skinfolds and aerobic fitness (r = −0.54). Fat mass and fat percentage demonstrated very large correlations with speed (r = 0.71) and aerobic fitness (r = −0.70) measures within forwards. Skinfolds, fat mass, and fat percentage relate strongly to key fitness characteristics required for elite professional rugby union performance. Individual and positional monitoring is important due to the clear differences between positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
16 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Can Countermovement Jump Neuromuscular Performance Qualities Differentiate Maximal Horizontal Deceleration Ability in Team Sport Athletes?
by Damian J. Harper, Daniel D. Cohen, Christopher Carling and John Kiely
Sports 2020, 8(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8060076 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 8294
Abstract
This investigation aimed to determine the countermovement jump (CMJ) neuromuscular performance (NMP) qualities that differentiate between athletes with high or low horizontal deceleration ability. Twenty-seven male university team sport athletes performed a CMJ on vertical axis force plates and a maximal horizontal deceleration [...] Read more.
This investigation aimed to determine the countermovement jump (CMJ) neuromuscular performance (NMP) qualities that differentiate between athletes with high or low horizontal deceleration ability. Twenty-seven male university team sport athletes performed a CMJ on vertical axis force plates and a maximal horizontal deceleration following a 20 m maximal horizontal sprint acceleration. The instantaneous velocity throughout the maximal horizontal deceleration test was measured using a radar device. The deceleration ability was evaluated using the average deceleration (HDEC, m·s−2) and change in momentum—referred to as the horizontal braking impulse (HBI, N·s·kg−1). Participants were dichotomised into high and low HDEC and HBI according to a median-split analysis, and CMJ variables calculated for the overall eccentric, eccentric-deceleration and concentric phases. When horizontal deceleration ability was defined by HDEC, the CMJ concentric (effect size (ES) = 0.95) and eccentric (ES = 0.72) peak forces were the variables with the largest difference between groups. However, when defined using HBI, the largest difference was the concentric (ES = 1.15) and eccentric (ES = −1.00) peak velocities. Only the concentric mean power was significantly different between the high and low groups for both HDEC (ES = 0.85) and HBI (ES = 0.96). These findings show that specific eccentric and concentric NMP qualities may underpin the horizontal deceleration abilities characterised by HDEC and HBI. Specific NMP training interventions may be beneficial to target improvements in either of these measures of horizontal deceleration abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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10 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Reliability of a Repeated High-Intensity Effort Test for Elite Rugby Union Players
by Adrien Vachon, Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Jean-Baptiste Paquet, Tony Monnet and Laurent Bosquet
Sports 2020, 8(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8050072 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3355
Abstract
This study aimed to adapt a repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) test to the rugby union physical demands and assess both sprint time and tackle indices reliability. Following a familiarization session, sixteen elite rugby union players completed two RHIE tests consisting of 12 × [...] Read more.
This study aimed to adapt a repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) test to the rugby union physical demands and assess both sprint time and tackle indices reliability. Following a familiarization session, sixteen elite rugby union players completed two RHIE tests consisting of 12 × 20 m sprint + tackle. Total sprint time and total g-force during tackling, average sprint time and average g-force as well as percentage decrementsprint time and percentage decrementtackle were considered for the analysis. Sprint time indices showed high to very high absolute and relative reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) = 0.95, Standard Error Measurement (SEM) = 1.30%; ICC = 0.95, SEM = 1.44%; ICC = 0.73, SEM = 23.0%, for total sprint time, average sprint time and percentage decrementsprint time, respectively). Tackle indices showed moderate to high reliability (ICC = 0.54, SEM = 16.5%; ICC = 0.61, SEM = 15.6%; ICC = 0.71, SEM = 12.3%, for total g-force, average g-force and percentage decrementtackle, respectively). The RHIE test provides reliable measures of sprint time and tackle indices. Tackle indices should be used as a validation criterion of the test, whereas total time should be considered as the test final result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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10 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Time Course of Recovery for Performance Attributes and Circulating Markers of Muscle Damage Following a Rugby Union Match in Amateur Athletes
by Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Mário Antônio de Moura Simim, Rodrigo Barboza da Silva, Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Bernardo Neme Ide, Moacir Marocolo, Jeffrey S. Martin and Gustavo R. Mota
Sports 2020, 8(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8050064 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3741
Abstract
Background: We sought to determine the time course of changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle damage following a single rugby union match. Methods: Fourteen male amateur rugby players (28.9 ± 3.5 yrs; 1.7 ± 5.1 m; 86.1 ± 11.1 kg) participated. Plasma activity [...] Read more.
Background: We sought to determine the time course of changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle damage following a single rugby union match. Methods: Fourteen male amateur rugby players (28.9 ± 3.5 yrs; 1.7 ± 5.1 m; 86.1 ± 11.1 kg) participated. Plasma activity of creatine kinase ([CK]) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), L-run test (change of direction) and 30-m sprint (T30; speed) with 10-m lap time (T10; acceleration) were assessed on six occasions: one week before the match (PRE) and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-match. Results: Relative to PRE, LDH was elevated immediately post-match (+33.6% ± 13.6%; p < 0.001) and [CK] was elevated immediately (+64.1% ± 38.8%, p = 0.001) and 24 h post-match (+352% ± 317%; p = 0.024). L-run test time increased 16.0 ± 8.7% relative to PRE at 24 h post (p < 0.001) and remained elevated through 96 h post-match (p < 0.05). T10 and T30 times increased relative to PRE immediately post-match (+12.0% ± 10.4%, p = 0.008; and +6.1% ± 4.9%; p = 0.006, respectively), though T30 times were similar to baseline by 48 h post-match whereas T10 times remained elevated through 72 h post-match. Conclusions: A single, competitive rugby union match induces significant muscle damage and performance decrements with distinct time courses of recovery in amateur athletes. Notably, change of direction attributes (i.e., L-run) appear to have the longest time course to full recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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13 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Resisted Sprint Performance and Different Strength and Power Measures in Rugby Players
by Santiago Zabaloy, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Tomás T. Freitas, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Lucas Pereira, Irineu Loturco, Thomas Comyns, Javier Gálvez-González and Pedro E. Alcaraz
Sports 2020, 8(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030034 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5555
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a specific isometric-strength sprint test (SIST) and unresisted maximum velocity (Vmax), sprint times across different loading conditions, and the velocity loss (Vloss) loads required to achieve each intended Vloss condition during resisted sprint training (RST) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a specific isometric-strength sprint test (SIST) and unresisted maximum velocity (Vmax), sprint times across different loading conditions, and the velocity loss (Vloss) loads required to achieve each intended Vloss condition during resisted sprint training (RST) in rugby players. Additionally, the investigation examined the relationship between strength in the back-squat one-repetition maximum (1RM-SQ) as well as isometric squat (ISQT), jumps, and sprint performance variables. Twenty (n = 20) male amateur rugby players performed, on two separate occasions, a structural multiple-joint assessment of jumps, strength, and sprint performance. Interestingly, SIST revealed moderate correlations (r = 0.453 to 0.681; p < 0.05) between 1RM-SQ and ISQT. The SISTrel (relative to body mass), but not SIST, used in the present study showed moderate correlations (r = 0.508 to 0.675; p < 0.05) with the loads needed to reach 10%, 30%, and 50% of Vloss during RST. The SISTrel that measures resultant force application in a more sprint-related position explains much of the individual response of each athlete during sprinting towing a sled and can also be used to prescribe and quantify loads in the RST in a more objective and individual manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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11 pages, 691 KiB  
Article
Associations Between Two Athlete Monitoring Systems Used to Quantify External Training Loads in Basketball Players
by Aaron Heishman, Keldon Peak, Ryan Miller, Brady Brown, Bryce Daub, Eduardo Freitas and Michael Bemben
Sports 2020, 8(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030033 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4225
Abstract
Monitoring external training load (eTL) has become popular for team sport for managing fatigue, optimizing performance, and guiding return-to-play protocols. During indoor sports, eTL can be measured via inertial measurement units (IMU) or indoor positioning systems (IPS). Though each device provides unique information, [...] Read more.
Monitoring external training load (eTL) has become popular for team sport for managing fatigue, optimizing performance, and guiding return-to-play protocols. During indoor sports, eTL can be measured via inertial measurement units (IMU) or indoor positioning systems (IPS). Though each device provides unique information, the relationships between devices has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the association of eTL between an IMU and IPS used to monitor eTL in team sport. Retrospective analyses were performed on 13 elite male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I basketball players (age: 20.2 ± 1.2 years, height: 201.1 ± 7.6 cm, mass: 96.8 ± 8.8 kg) from three practices during the off-season training phase. A one-way analysis of variance was used to test differences in eTL across practices. Pearson’s correlation examined the association between the Distance traveled during practice captured by IPS compared to PlayerLoad (PL), PlayerLoad per Minute (PL/Min), 2-Dimensional PlayerLoad (PL2D), 1-Dimensional PlayerLoad Forward (PL1D-FWD), Side (PL1D-SIDE), and Up (PL1D-UP) captured from the IMU. Regression analyses were performed to predict PL from Distance traveled. The eTL characteristics during Practice 1: PL = 420.4 ± 102.9, PL/min = 5.8 ± 1.4, Distance = 1645.9 ± 377.0 m; Practice 2: PL = 472.8 ± 109.5, PL/min = 5.1 ± 1.2, Distance = 1940.0 ± 436.3 m; Practice 3: PL = 295.1 ± 57.8, PL/min = 5.3 ± 1.0, Distance = 1198.2 ± 219.2 m. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were observed in PL, PL2D, PL1D-FWD, PL1D-SIDE, PL1D-UP, and Distance across practices. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.001) existed between Distance and PL parameters (Practice 1: r = 0.799–0.891; Practice 2: r = 0.819–0.972; and Practice 3: 0.761–0.891). Predictive models using Distance traveled accounted for 73.5–89.7% of the variance in PL. Significant relationships and predictive capacities exists between systems. Nonetheless, each system also appears to capture unique information that may still be useful to performance practitioners regarding the understanding of eTL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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12 pages, 850 KiB  
Article
Which are the Nutritional Supplements Used by Beach-Volleyball Athletes? A Cross-Sectional Study at the Italian National Championship
by Stefano Amatori, Davide Sisti, Fabrizio Perroni, Samuel Impey, Michela Lantignotti, Marco Gervasi, Sabrina Donati Zeppa and Marco B. L. Rocchi
Sports 2020, 8(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030031 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5321
Abstract
Beach volleyball is an intermittent team sport played under high temperature and humidity. Given that some nutritional supplements can enhance sports performance, this study aimed to evaluate the quantity and the heterogeneity of the nutritional supplementation practices of amateur (n = 69) and [...] Read more.
Beach volleyball is an intermittent team sport played under high temperature and humidity. Given that some nutritional supplements can enhance sports performance, this study aimed to evaluate the quantity and the heterogeneity of the nutritional supplementation practices of amateur (n = 69) and professional (n = 19) beach volley athletes competing in the Italian National Championship; an online form was used to collect data about the supplementation habits. The latent class analysis was used to find sub-groups characterised by different habits regarding supplements consumption. The most frequently used supplements (more than once a week) are vitamins B and C (39.2% of athletes), protein (46.8%), and caffeine (36.9%). The latent class analysis revealed three different sub-groups of athletes: the first class (56.7%) included athletes who were used to take very few supplements, the second class (17.0%) was characterised by higher consumption of supplements and the third class (26.2%) was in the middle between the others two. Groups were characterised not only by the quantity but also by the category of supplements used. Our results highlighted a high heterogeneity in supplementation habits. A pragmatic approach to supplements and sports foods is needed in the face of the evidence that some products can usefully contribute to enhancing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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9 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Classification of Soccer and Basketball Players’ Jumping Performance Characteristics: A Logistic Regression Approach
by Christos Chalitsios, Thomas Nikodelis, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Christos Chassanidis and Iraklis Kollias
Sports 2019, 7(7), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7070163 - 4 Jul 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6123
Abstract
This study aimed to examine countermovement jump (CMJ) kinetic data using logistic regression, in order to distinguish sports-related mechanical profiles. Eighty-one professional basketball and soccer athletes participated, each performing three CMJs on a force platform. Inferential parametric and nonparametric statistics were performed to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine countermovement jump (CMJ) kinetic data using logistic regression, in order to distinguish sports-related mechanical profiles. Eighty-one professional basketball and soccer athletes participated, each performing three CMJs on a force platform. Inferential parametric and nonparametric statistics were performed to explore group differences. Binary logistic regression was used to model the response variable (soccer or not soccer). Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was reached for differences between groups in maximum braking rate of force development (RFDDmax, U79 = 1035), mean braking rate of force development (RFDDavg, U79 = 1038), propulsive impulse (IMPU, t79 = 2.375), minimum value of vertical displacement for center of mass (SBCMmin, t79 = 3.135), and time difference (% of impulse time; ΔΤ) between the peak value of maximum force value (FUmax) and SBCMmin (U79 = 1188). Logistic regression showed that RFDDavg, impulse during the downward phase (IMPD), IMPU, and ΔΤ were all significant predictors. The model showed that soccer group membership could be strongly related to IMPU, with the odds ratio being 6.48 times higher from the basketball group, whereas RFDDavg, IMPD, and ΔΤ were related to basketball group. The results imply that soccer players execute CMJ differently compared to basketball players, exhibiting increased countermovement depth and impulse generation during the propulsive phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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8 pages, 1343 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Wearing a Lower Body Compression Garment on Anaerobic Exercise Performance in Division I NCAA Basketball Players
by Christopher Ballmann, Hunter Hotchkiss, Mallory Marshall and Rebecca Rogers
Sports 2019, 7(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060144 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4079
Abstract
Lower body compression (LBC) has been shown as an effective recovery tool from basketball but it is unknown how it affects performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a LBC garment on anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate [...] Read more.
Lower body compression (LBC) has been shown as an effective recovery tool from basketball but it is unknown how it affects performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a LBC garment on anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate basketball players. Healthy Division I collegiate basketball players (n = 12) were recruited for this study. In a crossover, counterbalanced study design, subjects volunteered to participate in two separate visits each with a different condition: wearing a LBC garment or non-compressive control (CON) garment. During each visit, subjects completed 2 × 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnTs) separated by a 5-min active recovery period. Each visit was separated by a 72 h washout period. Results revealed that over the 2 × 30 second WAnTs, mean power output (p = 0.028; d= 0.35), anaerobic capacity (p = 0.018; d = 0.45), and total work (p = 0.027; d = 0.36) were higher when wearing the LBC versus CON garment. However, peak power output (p = 0.319; d = 0.09), anaerobic power (p = 0.263; d = 0.23), and fatigue index (p = 0.749; d = 0.05) were not statistically different. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly lower (p = 0.032; d = 0.72) with LBC compared to CON. Results indicate that LBC may increase anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate basketball players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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15 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Countermovement Jump Inter-Limb Asymmetries in Collegiate Basketball Players
by Aaron Heishman, Bryce Daub, Ryan Miller, Brady Brown, Eduardo Freitas and Michael Bemben
Sports 2019, 7(5), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050103 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 7489
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to establish the intrasession and intersession reliability of variables obtained from a force plate that was used to quantitate lower extremity inter-limb asymmetry during the bilateral countermovement jump (CMJ). Secondarily, a comparison was performed to determine [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to establish the intrasession and intersession reliability of variables obtained from a force plate that was used to quantitate lower extremity inter-limb asymmetry during the bilateral countermovement jump (CMJ). Secondarily, a comparison was performed to determine the influence of the jump protocol CMJ with or without an arm swing (CMJ AS and CMJ NAS, respectively) on inter-limb asymmetries. Twenty-two collegiate basketball players performed three CMJ AS and three CMJ NAS on dual force platforms during two separate testing sessions. A majority of variables met the acceptable criterion of intersession and intrasession relative reliability (ICC > 0.700), while fewer than half met standards established for absolute reliability (CV < 10%). CMJ protocol appeared to influence asymmetries; Concentric Impulse-100 ms, Eccentric Braking Rate of Force Development, Eccentric Deceleration, and Force at Zero velocity were significantly different between jumping conditions (CMJAS versus CMJ NAS; p < 0.05). The present data establish the reliability and smallest worthwhile change of inter-limb asymmetries during the CMJ, while also identifying the influence of CMJ protocol on inter-limb asymmetries, which can be useful to practitioners and clinicians in order to effectively monitor changes associated with performance, injury risk, and return-to-play strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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10 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
The Relationship of Age and BMI with Physical Fitness in Futsal Players
by Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Hamdi Chtourou, Gema Torres-Luque, Thomas Rosemann and Beat Knechtle
Sports 2019, 7(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7040087 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4679
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of age and body mass status with field and laboratory measures of physical fitness in futsal players. Futsal players (n = 65, age 12.9 ± 2.8 years), who were classified into U11 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of age and body mass status with field and laboratory measures of physical fitness in futsal players. Futsal players (n = 65, age 12.9 ± 2.8 years), who were classified into U11 (n = 28, 9–11 years), U13 (n = 21, 11–13 years), and adults (n = 16, >18 years), performed a physical fitness battery consisting of both laboratory and field tests. A similar prevalence of overweight (25%) was observed in all age groups (χ2 = 1.94, p = 0.380, φ = 0.17). Age groups differed for all parameters, except body fat percentage, with adult players showing higher values than the younger groups (p < 0.05). U13 was heavier, taller, and had larger fat-free mass than U11 (p < 0.05). Adult players had superior values than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness parameters (p < 0.05). Body mass index (BMI) correlated inversely with aerobic capacity (U13), jumping ability, relative isometric muscle strength, and relative mean power in the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) (U11) (p < 0.05). Also, it correlated directly with absolute isometric muscle strength (U11) and peak power, mean power (all groups), and fatigue index (U11, U13) in WAnT (p < 0.05). Considering the results of this study, it was concluded that the prevalence of overweight in futsal players should be an important concern for practitioners working in this team sport. Optimizing BMI should be considered as a training and nutrition goal in order to improve sport performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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11 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Countermovement Jump Protocol on Reactive Strength Index Modified and Flight Time: Contraction Time in Collegiate Basketball Players
by Aaron Heishman, Brady Brown, Bryce Daub, Ryan Miller, Eduardo Freitas and Michael Bemben
Sports 2019, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7020037 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 7825
Abstract
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate differences in Reactive Strength Index Modified (RSIMod) and Flight Time to Contraction Time Ratio (FT:CT) during the countermovement jump (CMJ) performed without the arm swing (CMJNAS) compared to the CMJ with the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate differences in Reactive Strength Index Modified (RSIMod) and Flight Time to Contraction Time Ratio (FT:CT) during the countermovement jump (CMJ) performed without the arm swing (CMJNAS) compared to the CMJ with the arm swing (CMJAS), while exploring the relationship within each variable between jump protocols. A secondary purpose sought to explore the relationship between RSIMod and FT:CT during both jump protocols. Twenty-two collegiate basketball players performed both three CMJNAS and three CMJAS on a force plate, during two separate testing sessions. RSIMod was calculated by the flight-time (RSIModFT) and impulse-momentum methods (RSIModIMP). CMJ variables were significantly greater during the CMJAS compared to CMJNAS (p < 0.001). There were large to very large correlations within each variable between the CMJAS and CMJNAS. There were significant positive correlations among RSIModFT, RSIModIMP, and FT:CT during both the CMJAS (r ≥ 0.864, p < 0.001) and CMJNAS (r ≥ 0.960, p < 0.001). These findings identify an increase in RSIMod or FT:CT during the CMJAS, that may provide independent information from the CMJNAS. In addition, either RSIMod or FT:CT may be utilized to monitor changes in performance, but simultaneous inclusion may be unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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