Special Issue "Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Eric Brymer
Website
Guest Editor
1. Australian College of Applied Psychology, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia
2. Institute of Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, UK
Interests: performance; extreme environments and the human-nature relationship; nature benefit and health and wellbeing; extreme sports; adventure sports; outdoor sports
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. John Allan
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom
Interests: psychology for the physical educator, outdoor & adventurous, outdoor education
Dr. Ashley Hardwell
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom
Interests: leisure sport, alternative sport
Dr. Suzanne Peacock
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom
Interests: sport and adventure for recovery, psychology for physical educators, adapted adventure
Dr. Melissa Hart
Website
Guest Editor
Carnegie School of Education, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom
Interests: outdoor education, expeditions, experiential learning, geography, cartography and navigation, foucault and education, postmodern qualitative approaches to research, academy schools and the privatisation of education, policy making discourses in schools
Dr. Chris Kay
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom
Interests: outdoor education, physical, mental, social well being, sports
Dr. Michelle Dillon
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom
Interests: sport pedagogy, outdoor education, adventure education

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The World Health organisation defines health as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."  While in general health is improving globally there are still challenges. For example, in 2010 mental illness and substance abuse combined were the leading cause of non-fatal illness worldwide and the fifth leading cause of death and disease worldwide. In September 2015 the United Nations recognised mental health and wellbeing as priorities within the global development agenda. The natural environment has been presented as an important aspect of the global health improvement plan. For instance, in  2018 the UK government published their 25 year environment plan which emphasises the importance of being active in nature. The last two decades have been witness to a plethora of research from a vast array of fields, such as public health, ecology, geography, forestry, psychology, education, sport science and psychiatry suggesting that physical activity in the presence of nature and feeling part of nature enhance health and wellbeing.

Traditional theoretical notions typically used to interpret findings are being questioned (Brymer, Davids, & Mallabon, 2014; Karmanov & Hamel, 2008; Keniger, Gaston, Irvine, & Fuller, 2013; Kjellgren & Buhrkall; Yeh et al., 2016). Research is beginning to consider the importance of individual differences, such as feelings of connection to nature, and the person-environment relationship (Freeman, Akhurst, Bannigan & James, 2016; Freeman & Akhurst, 2015). For the most part research undertaken in these fields has focused on traditional activities such as walking and running undertaken in outdoor environments. Outdoor and adventure activities (from forest school to extreme sports and more) are potentially ideal examples of physical activity in nature and perhaps best placed to reconnect people to the natural world.

The term 'sport' is often viewed as synonymous with structured competition. However, from an etymological perspective, the English word 'sport', derived from old French word 'desport', originally refers to a 'pastime'. For this special edition we adopt the broad definition including the dimensions of self-development and recreation. Specifically, sports are considered to be multi-faceted, boundary-crossing activities, which do not necessarily involve structured competitive activity, regulated performance environments, rules or institutions. This special edition brings together cutting edge research and thought examining the role of outdoor and adventure activities for enhancing mental health and psychological wellbeing.

Dr. Eric Brymer
Dr. John Allan
Dr. Ashley Hardwell
Dr. Suzanne Peacock
Dr. Melissa Hart
Dr. Chris Kay
Dr. Michelle Dillon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • extreme sports
  • outdoor and adventure activities
  • physical
  • mental
  • social wellbeing
  • mental health
  • psychological wellbeing

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context
Sports 2020, 8(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040050 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
Outdoor and adventure sports (OAS) have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. This Special Edition brings together cutting-edge research and thought on the implications of this link. An analysis of the papers in this Special Edition reveals important insights into (i) [...] Read more.
Outdoor and adventure sports (OAS) have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. This Special Edition brings together cutting-edge research and thought on the implications of this link. An analysis of the papers in this Special Edition reveals important insights into (i) the diverse and powerful outcomes derived from adventure experiences, (ii) how adventure experiences facilitate these outcomes, (iii) how best to design outdoor and adventure experiences. The evidence in this edition indicates a need for a more systematic approach to the inclusion of OAS as important to good health and wellbeing. OAS should be included as part of education, health, policy and planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Cognitive Dissonance on a Ski Mountaineering Traverse: A Personal Narrative of an Expedition to ISHINCA (5530 m) in PERU
Sports 2019, 7(12), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120249 - 11 Dec 2019
Abstract
Through a personal narrative account, this paper explores the nature of the author’s cognitive dissonance experienced during a traverse of a high-altitude ski mountaineering objective (Nevado Ishinca 5530 m) in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. The author experienced psychological discomfort in the ascent and a [...] Read more.
Through a personal narrative account, this paper explores the nature of the author’s cognitive dissonance experienced during a traverse of a high-altitude ski mountaineering objective (Nevado Ishinca 5530 m) in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. The author experienced psychological discomfort in the ascent and a role of self in determining a continued commitment with the ski mountaineering challenge. Distraction, trivialization, act rationalization and finally attitude change were all used in attempt to reduce negative levels of cognitive dissonance. The lack of consonant cognitions to support abandoning the climb, the notion of free choice, the role of self-concept and self-esteem values motivated continued commitment until the negative levels of arousal subsided. Through a challenging mountaineering experience, I developed a greater self-awareness of the role of commitment to an objective which could be applied to other life events and experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Outdoor Therapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Examining the Lived-Experience, Embodied, and Therapeutic Process through Interpersonal Process Recall
Sports 2019, 7(8), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080182 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
This research explores an innovative methodology for understanding the process and practice of UK-based outdoor therapists. Recent studies address the need to expand circles of knowledge, and capture the lived-experience of outdoor practitioners to examine the ‘altered’ therapeutic process and frame. Interpersonal process [...] Read more.
This research explores an innovative methodology for understanding the process and practice of UK-based outdoor therapists. Recent studies address the need to expand circles of knowledge, and capture the lived-experience of outdoor practitioners to examine the ‘altered’ therapeutic process and frame. Interpersonal process recall (IPR) methodology offers a nuanced and contextualised lived-experience of outdoor therapists. IPR includes three phases: (1) initial-interview; (2) post-session-reflective-recording; and (3) an IPR-interview to replay and explore the participants’ recorded reflections of the outdoor therapy session. The sample included three UK-based outdoor therapists. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to qualitatively analyze the data. The study presents the theme of ‘transitional landscapes—transitional thinking’, which explores the embodied experience, the parallel process between the client and therapist, and watching for drift. The findings provide insight for training and supervision and generates constructive dialogue amongst outdoor therapists. The research supports IPR as a methodology offering participant and researcher experiential and reflective positions. Parallels are drawn in relation to existing research, literature, and contemporary professional issues surrounding outdoor therapy as a mental health treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
GOING GREEN: The Effectiveness of a 40-Day Green Exercise Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults
Sports 2019, 7(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060142 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior is an economic and health priority. This Green Exercise (GEx) study reports on a 40-day physical activity intervention to increase physical activity that primarily used outdoor recreation activities. Adherence, compliance, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, anthropometry, [...] Read more.
Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior is an economic and health priority. This Green Exercise (GEx) study reports on a 40-day physical activity intervention to increase physical activity that primarily used outdoor recreation activities. Adherence, compliance, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, anthropometry, strength, dynamic stability, and cardiovascular fitness were assessed 1 week prior and immediately following the 40-day intervention. The results then were compared with a larger study that used the same methodologies but for the exception of primarily indoor physical activities. Results from this study showed similar improvements in health measures to the comparative indoor-based physical activity program with increased adherence and compliance. Improvements in wellbeing were also noted. This GEx study suggests that exercise programs that seek to increase physical activity levels of insufficiently active adults may benefit from including outdoor recreation activities within the program and may also increase participant mental health and general well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Nature–Based Interventions for Improving Health and Wellbeing: The Purpose, the People and the Outcomes
Sports 2019, 7(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060141 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
Engagement with nature is an important part of many people’s lives, and the health and wellbeing benefits of nature–based activities are becoming increasingly recognised across disciplines from city planning to medicine. Despite this, urbanisation, challenges of modern life and environmental degradation are leading [...] Read more.
Engagement with nature is an important part of many people’s lives, and the health and wellbeing benefits of nature–based activities are becoming increasingly recognised across disciplines from city planning to medicine. Despite this, urbanisation, challenges of modern life and environmental degradation are leading to a reduction in both the quantity and the quality of nature experiences. Nature–based health interventions (NBIs) can facilitate behavioural change through a somewhat structured promotion of nature–based experiences and, in doing so, promote improved physical, mental and social health and wellbeing. We conducted a Delphi expert elicitation process with 19 experts from seven countries (all named authors on this paper) to identify the different forms that such interventions take, the potential health outcomes and the target beneficiaries. In total, 27 NBIs were identified, aiming to prevent illness, promote wellbeing and treat specific physical, mental or social health and wellbeing conditions. These interventions were broadly categorized into those that change the environment in which people live, work, learn, recreate or heal (for example, the provision of gardens in hospitals or parks in cities) and those that change behaviour (for example, engaging people through organized programmes or other activities). We also noted the range of factors (such as socioeconomic variation) that will inevitably influence the extent to which these interventions succeed. We conclude with a call for research to identify the drivers influencing the effectiveness of NBIs in enhancing health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Outcomes from a One-Week Adapted Sport and Adapted Adventure Recovery Programme for Military Personnel
Sports 2019, 7(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060135 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The Battle Back Centre offers a bespoke, Self Determination Theory-oriented adapted sport and adventurous training programme centred on experiential learning and reflection to support the recovery of military personnel. Aim: To identify the short-term impact of participation in the programme on positive [...] Read more.
Background: The Battle Back Centre offers a bespoke, Self Determination Theory-oriented adapted sport and adventurous training programme centred on experiential learning and reflection to support the recovery of military personnel. Aim: To identify the short-term impact of participation in the programme on positive mental health and psychological need satisfaction. Method: Participants were 978 wounded, injured and sick (WIS) personnel classified as: Wounded (battle casualties), Injured (non-battle casualties) and Sick (mental/physical illness). Participants completed the Basic Need Satisfaction in General Scale (Gagné, 2003) and Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well Being Scale (Tennant et al. 2006) on arrival and course completion. Results: All measures of positive mental health and psychological need satisfaction showed statistically significant increases, with a large effect size, from baseline to course completion (mean ± SD change in positive mental health, competence, autonomy and relatedness were 7.19 ± 9.61, 0.46 ± 0.9, 0.27 ± 0.84, 0.26 ± 0.86, respectively, p < 0.05). While the average magnitude of the intervention effect for positive mental health (16%) is comparable or greater than other reported interventions, changes were achieved in a shorter time. Conclusion: Findings highlight the positive short-term effect adapted sport and adventurous activities have for WIS personnel. Declaration of interest: Work supported by The Royal British Legion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
Purposeful Outdoor Learning Empowers Children to Deal with School Transitions
Sports 2019, 7(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060134 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
UK schoolchildren are vulnerable to transitional stress between primary and secondary school, which may impact negatively upon their psychological health and academic achievement. This is experienced most acutely by children from ethnic minorities and lower socio-economic status (SES) households. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential [...] Read more.
UK schoolchildren are vulnerable to transitional stress between primary and secondary school, which may impact negatively upon their psychological health and academic achievement. This is experienced most acutely by children from ethnic minorities and lower socio-economic status (SES) households. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential programmes are purported to develop behavioural adaptations which enable positive educational transitions of children. Personal, social and academic skills (self-reliance, getting along with others, curriculum alignment) may be best acquired through bespoke nature-based residential OA programmes. A mixed methods study evaluated the efficacy of a bespoke OA programme for developing school children’s psychological well-being and self-determination during their transition into secondary school. Participants were representantives of ethnic minorities and lower SES groups. A bespoke OA residential programme achieved the strongest scale of change in children’s psychological well-being (F (30,69) = 1.97 < 0.05) and self-determination (effect size 0.25) compared to a generic OA residential and a non-OA school-based induction programme. Qualitative testimonies illuminated personal experiences and processes underpinning the perceived changes in the self-determination domains of Autonomy (the capacity to self-direct learning), Competence (the ability to complete tasks) and Relatedness (developing connections with others). Providing early opportunities for children to take control for their own learning through nature-based tailored OA programming improves their psychological well-being and adaptability to combat transitional stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Outdoor Adventure Builds Resilient Learners for Higher Education: A Quantitative Analysis of the Active Components of Positive Change
Sports 2019, 7(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050122 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The inability of young adults to adapt to university life has been attributed to their declining resilience. Resilience refers to any individuals’ capacity to change or modify behaviour in response to environmental hazards, so they thrive. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential programmes have helped [...] Read more.
The inability of young adults to adapt to university life has been attributed to their declining resilience. Resilience refers to any individuals’ capacity to change or modify behaviour in response to environmental hazards, so they thrive. Outdoor Adventure (OA) residential programmes have helped higher education inductees to acquire skills associated with resilience such as increased self-perception, better interpersonal relationships. However, this study addresses important gaps in existing literature by deploying a high-quality research design to examine the short-term impact of OA experiences on inductees’ resilience and to identify the active components of those experiences that best cultivate inductees’ adaptive capabilities. Multivariate analyses evaluated the efficacy of OA programming to build the resilience of over 2500 inductees. Significant positive gains were reported in the resilience of inductees attending 1-week residential OA programmes measured by an Effect size (ES) = 0.38 and 6.29% increase. Compared to students inducted at university, this represented an 8.35% greater increase in resilience (ES difference = –0.526). Camp-based experiences such as mastering new skills, developing new relationships and being female predicted heightened resilience. A defined blend of embodied, adventure-based meaningful challenges provides a template for helping university inductees to re-adjust, grow and persevere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Course on the Wellbeing of Recovering UK Military Personnel: An Exploratory Study
Sports 2019, 7(5), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050112 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 3Correction
Abstract
UK military personnel have faced increased demands over the last three decades; these have affected their wellbeing and caused multiple physical and mental health problems. Currently, bespoke rehabilitation systems may recommend participation in sports programmes. Although research attention has been drawn to the [...] Read more.
UK military personnel have faced increased demands over the last three decades; these have affected their wellbeing and caused multiple physical and mental health problems. Currently, bespoke rehabilitation systems may recommend participation in sports programmes. Although research attention has been drawn to the short-term positive effects of these programmes, their long-term impact on psychological wellbeing is unknown. To address this gap, the current study explored the long-term impact of a sports programme on UK military personnel’s ability to make changes in their day-to-day life through the lens of psychological wellbeing. For this purpose, UK military personnel (n = 97) completed an online survey aiming to provide a quantitative and qualitative picture of their experiences of an outdoor and adventure sports programme, underpinned by the basic psychological needs theory, six months following completion. Findings suggest that 75% of respondents found that the course was useful for facilitating adaptive changes. Content analysis suggests that elements of the course seem to satisfy their basic psychological needs of competence, relatedness and autonomy. Activities initiated six months after the course are mostly aligned with improved psychological wellbeing. Useful theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
‘Perhaps a Bit Different to What We Did Twenty Years Ago’: Senior Teachers’ Perceptions of Outdoor Adventure within Primary Education in England
Sports 2019, 7(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7040092 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Outdoor and adventurous activities (OAA) are now a compulsory component of the primary education curriculum in England, with senior leadership teams exerting significant influence on its delivery in schools. This study considers senior teachers’ perceptions and value of the OAA strand of the [...] Read more.
Outdoor and adventurous activities (OAA) are now a compulsory component of the primary education curriculum in England, with senior leadership teams exerting significant influence on its delivery in schools. This study considers senior teachers’ perceptions and value of the OAA strand of the Physical Education (PE) National Curriculum (NC) in primary education. Six senior teachers from across a large northern city took part in semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using an interpretivist paradigm incorporating a multistage thematic coding process. Findings centred on the lack of guidance given by the NC within OAA and ensuing issues for experienced and less confident teachers of the subject. Different interpretations of OAA were prevalent from traditional skills-based activities to personal and social development through basic activities delivered outside the classroom. Finally, all senior staff highly regarded OAA and offered a strong rationale for its inclusion within curriculum time. The full potential of OAA as a cross-curricular approach to learning in primary education is not being realised and can be partially mitigated by more purposeful integration within teacher education programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Kaiseler, M., et al. The Impact of an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Course on the Wellbeing of Recovering UK Military Personnel: An Exploratory Study. Sports 2019, 7(5), 112
Sports 2020, 8(9), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8090122 - 03 Sep 2020
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Reconsidering McKenzie’s Six Adventure Education Programming Elements Using an Ecological Dynamics Lens and Its Implications for Health and Wellbeing
Sports 2020, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8020020 - 11 Feb 2020
Abstract
Two decades ago, McKenzie’s meta-analysis of literature provided six fundamental elements of adventure education programme design still used to guide research and practice today. While the value of McKenzie’s early work should not be underestimated, adventure education has undergone considerable changes. Adventurous activities [...] Read more.
Two decades ago, McKenzie’s meta-analysis of literature provided six fundamental elements of adventure education programme design still used to guide research and practice today. While the value of McKenzie’s early work should not be underestimated, adventure education has undergone considerable changes. Adventurous activities are now available in urban and indoor contexts and used to facilitate a growing health and wellbeing agenda. The use of risk as part of adventure education programming has also been critiqued. This paper reflects on contemporary notions of adventure, risk and the emergent narratives emphasising the associated psychological benefits. The Ecological Dynamics framework, along with representative design delivery, are presented as a viable way of building on McKenzie’s work. Both consider how effective outcomes in adventure education programmes are achieved through designs that focus on the unique relationship between the individual and their environment. While McKenzie’s six elements recognise the importance of human relationships, Ecological Dynamics forefronts relational elements, not just between participants but, importantly, the task and the environment. Individual participant needs in relation to their everyday life therefore become the focus of adventure education expanding beyond the traditional long-standing narratives of risk and danger. Through these two important concepts, this paper advocates an approach to the design of adventure representative of a participant’s everyday environment. In this way, adventure education outcomes translate beyond the adventure-specific context and align more holistically with the needs of individual participants while also assuring emphasis on individual health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessCommentary
Rethinking Tourist Wellbeing through the Concept of Slow Adventure
Sports 2019, 7(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080190 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The necessity for humans inhabiting the 21st century to slow down and take time to carry out daily practices frames the discourse of this research note. We suggest reconceptualising tourist wellbeing through the concept of slow adventure, as a response to the cult [...] Read more.
The necessity for humans inhabiting the 21st century to slow down and take time to carry out daily practices frames the discourse of this research note. We suggest reconceptualising tourist wellbeing through the concept of slow adventure, as a response to the cult of speed and as a vehicle for engaging in deep, immersive and more meaningful experiences during journeys in the outdoors. We suggest that slow adventure has the potential to improve people’s general health and wellbeing through mindful enjoyment and consumption of the outdoor experience and thus bring people back to a state of mental and physical equilibrium. In so doing, we argue that extending the concept to include discussions around the psychological and social aspects of slow adventure is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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