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Sleep Patterns, Alertness, Dietary Intake, Muscle Soreness, Fatigue, and Mental Stress Recorded before, during and after Ramadan Observance

1
UR15JS01: Education, Motricité, Sport et Santé (EM2S), High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
2
Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada
3
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax 3089, Tunisia
4
Institute of Sport Science, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, 39104 Magdeburg, Germany
5
Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Postgraduate School of Public Health, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
6
Institut Supérieur du Sport et de l’Education Physique de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
7
Activité Physique, Sport et Santé, UR18JS01, Observatoire National du Sport, Tunis 1003, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed as last authors.
Sports 2019, 7(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050118
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychophysiological Response in Sports)
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Abstract

Ramadan is one of the pillars of the Islamic creed. Its observance commonly causes chrono-biological changes. The present study examined sleep and alertness during Ramadan observance relative to data collected before and after Ramadan in a sample of young, physically active men. Information was also collected on dietary intake, muscle soreness, fatigue, and mental stress over the three periods. Fourteen physically active men (age: 21.6 ± 3.3 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, body-mass: 73.1 ± 9.0 kg) completed the Hooper questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and responded to the digit cancellation test (DCT) fifteen days before Ramadan, during the last ten days of Ramadan and 20 days after Ramadan. The PSQI results indicated that sleep duration was significantly longer before Ramadan (p = 0.003) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04) compared to during Ramadan and was longer before Ramadan than after Ramadan (p = 0.04). In addition, the sleep efficiency was lower during Ramadan in comparison to before Ramadan (p = 0.02) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04). The daytime dysfunction score increased during Ramadan in comparison with before Ramadan (p = 0.01) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04), and the sleep quality score was higher during (p = 0.003) and after Ramadan (p = 0.04) as compared to before Ramadan. The sleep disturbance score increased during Ramadan relative to before Ramadan (p = 0.04). However, Ramadan observance had no significant effect on sleep latency. Mental alertness also decreased at the end of Ramadan compared to before (p = 0.003) or after Ramadan (p = 0.01). Dietary intake, muscle soreness, fatigue, and mental stress as estimated by the Hooper questionnaire remained unchanged over the three periods of the investigation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Ramadan observance had an adverse effect on sleep quantity and on mental alertness, but not on sleep quality. However, dietary intake, muscle soreness, fatigue, and mental stress remained unaffected. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermittent fasting; sleep patterns; nutrition; fatigue intermittent fasting; sleep patterns; nutrition; fatigue
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Boukhris, O.; Trabelsi, K.; Shephard, R.J.; Hsouna, H.; Abdessalem, R.; Chtourou, L.; Ammar, A.; Bragazzi, N.L.; Chtourou, H. Sleep Patterns, Alertness, Dietary Intake, Muscle Soreness, Fatigue, and Mental Stress Recorded before, during and after Ramadan Observance. Sports 2019, 7, 118.

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