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Open AccessArticle

Heart Rate Variability and Stress Recovery Responses during a Training Camp in Elite Young Canoe Sprint Athletes

Research Center for Sport and Physical Activity (CIDAF), Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3040-256, Portugal
Department of Human Resources Training, Portuguese Canoe Federation, Vila Nova de Gaia 4430-750, Portugal
Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio”, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti - Via dei Vestini 31, Italy
The College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia
Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto 4200-450, Portugal
Department of Kinesiology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(5), 126;
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
Training camps are typical in elite Canoeing preparation, during which, the care to assure adaptation to avoid undesired fatigue is not always present. This study aimed identifying a specific sex response in perceived training loads, recovery and stress balance, and cardiac autonomic responses. Twenty-one elite athletes (11 males and 10 females) of the Portuguese Canoeing National team participated in the investigation. The daily HRV (lnRMSSD) was monitored. The (RESTQ-52) questionnaire was used to access the recovery and stress state. The 10-day training camp was composed of two consecutive 5-day periods (P1 and P2). Data analyses were performed using confidence limits, effect size, and magnitude-based inference. In the females, Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), lnRMSSD, and its coefficient of variation did not change between P1 and P2. However, in males, lnRMSSD showed a small reduction from P1 to P2. Also, sRPE was higher in males over the training period, with a possibly small difference at P2. Regarding RESTQ-52, total stress most likely increased with large and very large differences in males and moderate differences in females during the training period. Male canoeists undertook higher perceived training loads than females, with a consequent higher level of total perceived stress and lnRMSSD during a 10-day training camp. View Full-Text
Keywords: canoeists; cardiac autonomic function; psychometrics; training impulse canoeists; cardiac autonomic function; psychometrics; training impulse
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Coelho, A.B.; Nakamura, F.Y.; Morgado, M.C.; Holmes, C.J.; Di Baldassarre, A.; Esco, M.R.; Rama, L.M. Heart Rate Variability and Stress Recovery Responses during a Training Camp in Elite Young Canoe Sprint Athletes. Sports 2019, 7, 126.

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