Special Issue "Physiology of Paddle Sports"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Andrew Hatchett
Website
Guest Editor
Exercise and Sports Science, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC 29801, USA
Interests: exercise; performance; fitness; functional movement; non-pharmacuetical performance aids
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paddle sports have remained a popular form of physical activity and fitness for decades. Historically, rowing, canoe and kayak racing have been the mainstays in paddle performance events. Within the past few years, paddle sports have grown in popularity, with stand-up paddle boarding leading this growth. Prone paddling has also seen dramatic rise in participation in the recently. There are multiple events athletes can choose to compete in for each discipline. Each type of paddle sport offers unique physiologic demands. These demands can be emphasized based upon the event an athlete is competing. Although the amount of research available examining rowing is relatively robust, there is limited research available examining other paddle sports. With a strong foundation of research in rowing, novel techniques and strategies have been applied to enhance performance. Additionally, as competition in all paddle sports grows the need for evidence based practice in an effort to better understand the mechanisms driving outcomes is important.

The goal of this Special Issue is to add to the body of research for these popular and quickly growing sports. Original research, meta-analysis, reviews, and brief reports examining the physiology of paddle sports are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Andrew Hatchett
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • paddle
  • athlete performance
  • prone
  • physiologic
  • strength and conditioning
  • injury

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Increased Liveliness of Trunk Muscle Responses in Elite Kayakers and Canoeists
Sports 2020, 8(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8060078 - 29 May 2020
Abstract
Trunk stability functions play an important role in sport and everyday movements. The aim of this study was to analyze trunk strength, trunk muscles onset of activity, and rate of electromyographic rise (RER) in the case of self-inflicted and unexpected trunk loading. Thirty-two [...] Read more.
Trunk stability functions play an important role in sport and everyday movements. The aim of this study was to analyze trunk strength, trunk muscles onset of activity, and rate of electromyographic rise (RER) in the case of self-inflicted and unexpected trunk loading. Thirty-two healthy young adults (16 elite kayakers/canoeists and 16 non-athletes) were measured with a multi-purpose diagnostic machine. Trunk strength was assessed in standing position. Trunk muscles onset of activity and RER were assessed through unexpected loading over the hands and rapid shoulder flexion, respectively. In comparison with non-athletes, kayakers/canoeists did not significantly differ in trunk strength and showed lower trunk extension/flexion strength ratio (p = 0.008). In general, trunk muscles onset of activity did not significantly differ between the groups. On the contrary, kayakers/canoeists showed higher RER mean values in all the observed muscles (p < 0.041), except in multifidus muscle during self-inflicted movements. Similarly, higher RER variability was observed in the majority of the observed muscles among kayakers/canoeists. Higher RER among kayakers/canoeists could represent a protective mechanism that ensures spine stability and prevents low back pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Prevalence and Severity of External Auditory Exostosis in Young to Quadragenarian-Aged Warm-Water Surfers: A Preliminary Study
Sports 2020, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8020017 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
External auditory exostosis (EAE) has previously only been shown to occur in cold water surfers. We assessed young surfers living and surfing in Queensland, Australia, for EAE in water temp ranges from 20.6 °C (69.1 °F, Winter) to 28.2 °C (82.8 °F, Summer). [...] Read more.
External auditory exostosis (EAE) has previously only been shown to occur in cold water surfers. We assessed young surfers living and surfing in Queensland, Australia, for EAE in water temp ranges from 20.6 °C (69.1 °F, Winter) to 28.2 °C (82.8 °F, Summer). All participants underwent a bilateral otoscopic examination to assess the presence and severity of EAE. A total of 23 surfers participated with a mean age of 35.4 years (8.3 years) and a mean surfing experience of 20.0 years (9.9 years). Nearly two-thirds of participants (n = 14, 60.9%) had regular otological symptoms, most commonly water trapping (n = 13, 56.5%), pain (n = 8, 34.8%), and hearing loss (n = 6, 26.1%). Only 8.7% (n = 2) of all surfers reported regular use of protective equipment (e.g., earplugs) on a regular basis. The overall prevalence of exostosis was 69.6% (n = 16), and the majority (n = 12, 80.0%) demonstrated bilateral lesions of a mild grade (<33% obstruction of the external auditory canal). This is the first study assessing EAE in young surfers exposed to only warm waters (above 20.6 °C). The prevalence of EAE in this study highlights that EAE is not restricted to cold water conditions, as previously believed. Warm water surfing enthusiasts should be screened on a regular basis by their general medical practitioner and utilize prevention strategies such as earplugs to minimize exposure to EAE development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Skin Temperatures in Females Wearing a 2 mm Wetsuit during Surfing
Sports 2019, 7(6), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060145 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to examine regional skin temperatures in recreational female surfers’ wearing a 2 mm thick neoprene wetsuit while surfing and to compare these results to previously published data collected in males participating in an identical study. Female surfers [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to examine regional skin temperatures in recreational female surfers’ wearing a 2 mm thick neoprene wetsuit while surfing and to compare these results to previously published data collected in males participating in an identical study. Female surfers (n = 27) engaged in surfing for at least 40 min while wearing a commercially available 2 mm full wetsuit. Skin temperature of eight different anatomical locations were measured with wireless iButton thermal sensors. Regional skin temperatures significantly differed (p < 0.001) across almost all anatomical regions. Furthermore, regional skin temperatures significantly decreased across time at all skin regions throughout an average surfing session (p < 0.001). The greatest reduction in skin temperature was observed in the lower leg (−5.4 °C). Females in the current study exhibited a significantly greater skin temperature decrease in the lower back (−15.2% vs. −10.8%, p = 0.022) and lower arm (−13.6% vs. −10.8%, p < 0.001) when compared to previous data published in males. Overall, results of the current study are consistent with data previously published on male recreational surfers. However, the current study provides preliminary evidence that the magnitude of change in skin temperature may differ between male and female recreational surfers at some anatomical locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Heart Rate Variability and Stress Recovery Responses during a Training Camp in Elite Young Canoe Sprint Athletes
Sports 2019, 7(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7050126 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Training camps are typical in elite Canoeing preparation, during which, the care to assure adaptation to avoid undesired fatigue is not always present. This study aimed identifying a specific sex response in perceived training loads, recovery and stress balance, and cardiac autonomic responses. [...] Read more.
Training camps are typical in elite Canoeing preparation, during which, the care to assure adaptation to avoid undesired fatigue is not always present. This study aimed identifying a specific sex response in perceived training loads, recovery and stress balance, and cardiac autonomic responses. Twenty-one elite athletes (11 males and 10 females) of the Portuguese Canoeing National team participated in the investigation. The daily HRV (lnRMSSD) was monitored. The (RESTQ-52) questionnaire was used to access the recovery and stress state. The 10-day training camp was composed of two consecutive 5-day periods (P1 and P2). Data analyses were performed using confidence limits, effect size, and magnitude-based inference. In the females, Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), lnRMSSD, and its coefficient of variation did not change between P1 and P2. However, in males, lnRMSSD showed a small reduction from P1 to P2. Also, sRPE was higher in males over the training period, with a possibly small difference at P2. Regarding RESTQ-52, total stress most likely increased with large and very large differences in males and moderate differences in females during the training period. Male canoeists undertook higher perceived training loads than females, with a consequent higher level of total perceived stress and lnRMSSD during a 10-day training camp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Paddle Sports)
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