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Minerals, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this study of the Bingham Canyon porphyry district, Utah, we report the widest range in the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of the Malyy (Little) Murun Massif, Aldan Shield of the Siberian Craton: A Simple Story for an Intricate Igneous Complex
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120602
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The Malyy (Little) Murun massif of the Aldan Shield of the Siberian Craton has long been a kind of Siberian Mecca for geologists. It has attracted thousands of geologists, prospectors, and mineral collectors despite its remote location. It is famous for a dozen
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The Malyy (Little) Murun massif of the Aldan Shield of the Siberian Craton has long been a kind of Siberian Mecca for geologists. It has attracted thousands of geologists, prospectors, and mineral collectors despite its remote location. It is famous for a dozen new and rare minerals, including the gemstones charoite and dianite (the latter is the market name for strontian potassicrichrerite), as well as for a range of uncommon alkaline igneous rocks. Despite this, the age of the Malyy Murun igneous complex and associated metasomatic and hydrothermal mineral associations has remained poorly constrained until now. In this paper, we provide extensive 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data to reveal its age and temporal history. It appears that, although unique in terms of rocks and constituent minerals, the Malyy Murun is just one of multiple alkaline massifs and lavas emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (~137–128 Ma) within a framework of the extensional setting of the Aldan Shield and nearby Transbaikalian region. The extension took place 40–60 million years after the supposed closure of the Mongolia–Okhotsk Ocean and orogenic peak in the Early–Middle Jurassic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Open AccessArticle Carmeltazite, ZrAl2Ti4O11, a New Mineral Trapped in Corundum from Volcanic Rocks of Mt Carmel, Northern Israel
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120601
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The new mineral species carmeltazite, ideally ZrAl2Ti4O11, was discovered in pockets of trapped melt interstitial to, or included in, corundum xenocrysts from the Cretaceous Mt Carmel volcanics of northern Israel, associated with corundum, tistarite, anorthite, osbornite, an
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The new mineral species carmeltazite, ideally ZrAl2Ti4O11, was discovered in pockets of trapped melt interstitial to, or included in, corundum xenocrysts from the Cretaceous Mt Carmel volcanics of northern Israel, associated with corundum, tistarite, anorthite, osbornite, an unnamed REE (Rare Earth Element) phase, in a Ca-Mg-Al-Si-O glass. In reflected light, carmeltazite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark brown to dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Under crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (%) (λ in nm)) are: 21.8, 22.9 (471.1); 21.0, 21.6 (548.3), 19.9, 20.7 (586.6); and 18.5, 19.8 (652.3). Electron microprobe analysis (average of eight spot analyses) gave, on the basis of 11 oxygen atoms per formula unit and assuming all Ti and Sc as trivalent, the chemical formula (Ti3+3.60Al1.89Zr1.04Mg0.24Si0.13Sc0.06Ca0.05Y0.02Hf0.01)Σ=7.04O11. The simplified formula is ZrAl2Ti4O11, which requires ZrO2 24.03, Al2O3 19.88, and Ti2O3 56.09, totaling 100.00 wt %. The main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are (d in Å (relative visual intensity)): 5.04 (65), 4.09 (60), 2.961 (100), 2.885 (40), and 2.047 (60). The crystal structure study revealed carmeltazite to be orthorhombic, space group Pnma, with unit-cell parameters a = 14.0951 (9), b = 5.8123 (4), c = 10.0848 (7) Å, V = 826.2 (1) Å3, and Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.0216 for 1165 observed reflections with Fo > 4σ(Fo). Carmeltazite exhibits a structural arrangement similar to that observed in a defective spinel structure. The name carmeltazite derives from Mt Carmel (“CARMEL”) and from the dominant metals present in the mineral, i.e., Titanium, Aluminum and Zirconium (“TAZ”). The mineral and its name have been approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (2018-103). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Modeling of the Epembe (Namibia) Nb-Ta-P-(LREE) Carbonatite Deposit: New Insights into Geometry Related to Rare Metal Enrichment
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120600
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Geological 3D modeling delivers essential information on the distribution of enrichment zones and structures in (complex) mineral deposits and fosters a better guidance to subsequent exploration stages. The Paleoproterozoic Epembe carbonatite complex showcases the close relation between enrichment of specific elements (Nb, Ta,
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Geological 3D modeling delivers essential information on the distribution of enrichment zones and structures in (complex) mineral deposits and fosters a better guidance to subsequent exploration stages. The Paleoproterozoic Epembe carbonatite complex showcases the close relation between enrichment of specific elements (Nb, Ta, P, Total Rare Earth Element (TREE) + Y) and shear zones by structural modeling combined with geochemical interpolation. Three-dimensional fault surfaces based on structural field observations, geological maps, cross-sections, and drillhole data are visualized. The model shows a complex, dextral transpressive fault system. Three-dimensional interpolation of geochemical data demonstrates enrichment of Nb, Ta, P, and TREE + Y in small, isolated, lens-shaped, high-grade zones in close spatial distance to faults. Based on various indicators (e.g., oscillating variograms, monazite rims around the apatite) and field evidence, we see evidence for enrichment during hydrothermal (re-)mobilization rather than due to magmatic differentiation related to the formation of the alkaline system. This is further supported by geostatistical analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of Nb, Ta, P, and Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) with respect to discrete shear zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Mineral Systems for HFSE Rare Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Counter-Current Leaching of Low-Grade Laterites with Hydrochloric Acid and Proposed Purification Options of Pregnant Solution
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120599
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
A hydrochloric acid hydrometallurgical process was evaluated for Ni and Co extraction from a low-grade saprolitic laterite. The main characteristics of the process were (i) the application of a counter-current mode of operation as the main leaching step (CCL), and (ii) the treatment
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A hydrochloric acid hydrometallurgical process was evaluated for Ni and Co extraction from a low-grade saprolitic laterite. The main characteristics of the process were (i) the application of a counter-current mode of operation as the main leaching step (CCL), and (ii) the treatment of pregnant leach solution (PLS) with a series of simple precipitation steps. It was found that, during CCL, co-dissolution of Fe was maintained at very low levels, i.e., about 0.6%, which improved the effectiveness of the subsequent PLS purification step. The treatment of PLS involved an initial precipitation step for the removal of trivalent metals, Fe, Al, and Cr, using Mg(OH)2. The process steps that followed aimed at separating Ni and Co from Mn and the alkaline earths Mg and Ca, by a combination of repetitive oxidative precipitation and dissolution steps. Magnesium and calcium remained in the aqueous phase, Mn was removed as a solid residue of Mn(III)–Mn(IV) oxides, while Ni and Co were recovered as a separate aqueous stream. It was found that the overall Ni and Co recoveries were 40% and 38%, respectively. About 45% of Ni and 37% of Co remained in the leach residue, while 15% Ni and 20% Co were lost in the Mn oxides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Hydro- and Biohydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Apatite Chemical Compositions from Acadian-Related Granitoids of New Brunswick, Canada: Implications for Petrogenesis and Metallogenesis
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120598
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The geochemistry of apatite crystals from fifteen fertile and infertile Acadian-related granitoids of New Brunswick (Canada) was studied in situ, using electron microprobe and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to further investigate petrogenesis and fertility index among these intrusions. The results indicate
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The geochemistry of apatite crystals from fifteen fertile and infertile Acadian-related granitoids of New Brunswick (Canada) was studied in situ, using electron microprobe and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to further investigate petrogenesis and fertility index among these intrusions. The results indicate a clear geochemical contrast between barren and mineralized samples where apatite grains from barren intrusions are the most hydrous (OH > 0.3 wt. %), with lowest Mn (<1700 ppm), Fe (<800 ppm), and Sn (<0.01 ppm). In contrast, apatite grains from Cu-Mo related intrusions are distinguished by higher Cl (>0.1 wt. %), (La/Yb)N ratios of 21.17, (Eu/Eu*)N ratios of 0.30, and LREE/HREE ratios of 6.03. Apatites from Sn-W related magmatic suites have the highest F (>3 wt. %), Mn (>5350 ppm), Fe (>2200 ppm), Y (>4900 ppm), Sn (>2 ppm), and the lowest Cl (<0.01 wt. %), Sr (<60 ppm), U (<18 ppm), Th (<29 ppm), (Eu/Eu*)N ratios (<0.01), and (La/Yb)N ratios (<0.88). Lastly, apatite grains from Mo-bearing systems have the lowest SiO2 (<0.4 wt. %), Sr (<33 ppm), Th (<28 ppm), a moderate Mn (~3800 ppm), Y (~3500 ppm), and highest FeOt (<0.9 wt. %). However, the results indicated apatite Mn, Sr, LREE/HREE, and (Eu/Eu*)N ratios as the best fertility indices used for discriminating barren from fertile granite intrusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Igneous Rocks: Minerals, Geochemistry and Ore Potential)
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Open AccessArticle The Process of the Intensification of Coal Fly Ash Flotation Using a Stirred Tank
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120597
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Pulp preconditioning using a stirred tank as a pretreatment process is vital to the flotation system, which can be used to improve the flotation efficiency of mineral particles. The kinetic energy that is dissipated in the stirred tank could strengthen the interaction process
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Pulp preconditioning using a stirred tank as a pretreatment process is vital to the flotation system, which can be used to improve the flotation efficiency of mineral particles. The kinetic energy that is dissipated in the stirred tank could strengthen the interaction process between mineral particles and flotation reagents to improve the flotation efficiency in the presence of the preconditioning. In this paper, the effect of the conditioning speed on the coal fly ash flotation was investigated using numerical simulations and conditioning-flotation tests. The large eddy simulation coupled with the Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid model was employed to simulate the turbulence flow field in the stirred tank, which was equipped with a six blade Rushton turbine. The impeller rotation was modelled using the sliding mesh. The simulation results showed that the large eddy simulation (LES) well matched the previous experimental data. The turbulence characteristics, such as the mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, power consumption and instantaneous structures of trailing vortices were analysed in detail. The turbulent length scale (η) decreased as the rotation speed increased, and the minimum value of η was almost unchanged when the rotation speed was more than 1200 rpm. The conditioning-flotation tests of coal fly ash were conducted using different conditioning speeds. The results showed that the removal of unburned carbon was greatly improved due to the strengthened turbulence in the stirred tank, and the optimal results were obtained with an LOI of 3.32%, a yield of 78.69% and an RUC of 80.89% when the conditioning speed was 1200 rpm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Separation and Enrichment)
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Open AccessReview Assessment of Bioleaching Microbial Community Structure and Function Based on Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120596
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
It is widely known that bioleaching microorganisms have to cope with the complex extreme environment in which microbial ecology relating to community structure and function varies across environmental types. However, analyses of microbial ecology of bioleaching bacteria is still a challenge. To address
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It is widely known that bioleaching microorganisms have to cope with the complex extreme environment in which microbial ecology relating to community structure and function varies across environmental types. However, analyses of microbial ecology of bioleaching bacteria is still a challenge. To address this challenge, numerous technologies have been developed. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing technologies enabling comprehensive sequencing analysis of cellular RNA and DNA within the reach of most laboratories have been added to the toolbox of microbial ecology. The next-generation sequencing technology allowing processing DNA sequences can produce available draft genomic sequences of more bioleaching bacteria, which provides the opportunity to predict models of genetic and metabolic potential of bioleaching bacteria and ultimately deepens our understanding of bioleaching microorganism. High-throughput sequencing that focuses on targeted phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA has been effectively applied to characterize the community diversity in an ore leaching environment. RNA-seq, another application of high-throughput sequencing to profile RNA, can be for both mapping and quantifying transcriptome and has demonstrated a high efficiency in quantifying the changing expression level of each transcript under different conditions. It has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for dissecting the relationship between genotype and phenotype, leading to interpreting functional elements of the genome and revealing molecular mechanisms of adaption. This review aims to describe the high-throughput sequencing approach for bioleaching environmental microorganisms, particularly focusing on its application associated with challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioleaching)
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Open AccessArticle Basic Treatment in Natural Clinoptilolite for Improvement of Physicochemical Properties
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120595
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Natural zeolites are low in cost and exhibit interesting properties for applications in adsorption and catalysis. However, the fact that they are natural materials, not obtained in pure form, and can incorporate various compensating ions can compromise their properties and restrict their use.
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Natural zeolites are low in cost and exhibit interesting properties for applications in adsorption and catalysis. However, the fact that they are natural materials, not obtained in pure form, and can incorporate various compensating ions can compromise their properties and restrict their use. As their textural and chemical properties are of great relevance for adsorption and catalysis applications, this work aims to study the modification of the natural zeolite clinoptilolite to obtain materials with better physicochemical properties. Clinoptilolite was treated with NaOH under various conditions. The treated material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, N2 adsorption and desorption at 77 K, CO2 adsorption at 273 K, and pyridine adsorption. The treatment allowed the removal of silicon from the material, improving the textural properties and preserving the structural Al. With the removal of Si, the Si/Al ratio decreased, and consequently, the number of acid and adsorptive sites increased. In addition, statistical planning revealed that the concentration of NaOH is the parameter that most influences the improvement of the textural properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Zeolites)
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Open AccessArticle The Significant Roles of Mg/Ca Ratio, Cl and SO42− in Carbonate Mineral Precipitation by the Halophile Staphylococcus epidermis Y2
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120594
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Carbonate precipitation induced by microorganisms has become a hot topic in the field of carbonate sedimentology, although the effects of magnesium on biomineral formation have rarely been studied. In experiments described here, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride were used to investigate the significant
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Carbonate precipitation induced by microorganisms has become a hot topic in the field of carbonate sedimentology, although the effects of magnesium on biomineral formation have rarely been studied. In experiments described here, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride were used to investigate the significant role played by Mg2+ on carbonate precipitation. In this study, Staphylococcus epidermidis Y2 was isolated and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) homology comparison and ammonia, pH, carbonic anhydrase, carbonate, and bicarbonate ions were monitored during laboratory experiments. The mineral phase, morphology, and elemental composition of precipitates were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. Ultrathin slices of bacteria were analyzed by HRTEM-SAED and STEM. The results show that this bacterium releases ammonia and carbonic anhydrase to increase pH, and raise supersaturation via the large number of carbonate and bicarbonate ions that are released through carbon dioxide hydration catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. The crystal cell density of monohydrocalcite is lower in a magnesium chloride medium, compared to one of magnesium sulfate. Crystals grow in the mode of a spiral staircase in a magnesium sulfate medium, but in a concentric circular pattern in a magnesium chloride medium. There was no obvious intracellular biomineralization taking place. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of biomineralization, and to the role of Mg2+ in crystal form. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gem-Quality Tourmaline from LCT Pegmatite in Adamello Massif, Central Southern Alps, Italy: An Investigation of Its Mineralogy, Crystallography and 3D Inclusions
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120593
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
In the early 2000s, an exceptional discovery of gem-quality multi-coloured tourmalines, hosted in Litium-Cesium-Tantalum (LCT) pegmatites, was made in the Adamello Massif, Italy. Gem-quality tourmalines had never been found before in the Alps, and this new pegmatitic deposit is of particular interest and
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In the early 2000s, an exceptional discovery of gem-quality multi-coloured tourmalines, hosted in Litium-Cesium-Tantalum (LCT) pegmatites, was made in the Adamello Massif, Italy. Gem-quality tourmalines had never been found before in the Alps, and this new pegmatitic deposit is of particular interest and worthy of a detailed characterization. We studied a suite of faceted samples by classical gemmological methods, and fragments were studied with Synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography, which evidenced the occurrence of inclusions, cracks and voids. Electron Microprobe combined with Laser Ablation analyses were performed to determine major, minor and trace element contents. Selected samples were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The specimens range in colour from colourless to yellow, pink, orange, light blue, green, amber, brownish-pink, purple and black. Chemically, the tourmalines range from fluor-elbaite to fluor-liddicoatite and rossmanite: these chemical changes occur in the same sample and affect the colour. Rare Earth Elements (REE) vary from 30 to 130 ppm with steep Light Rare Earth Elemts (LREE)-enriched patterns and a negative Eu-anomaly. Structural data confirmed the elbaitic composition and showed that high manganese content may induce the local static disorder at the O(1) anion site, coordinating the Y cation sites occupied, on average, by Li, Al and Mn2+ in equal proportions, confirming previous findings. In addition to the gemmological value, the crystal-chemical studies of tourmalines are unanimously considered to be a sensitive recorder of the geological processes leading to their formation, and therefore, this study may contribute to understanding the evolution of the pegmatites related to the intrusion of the Adamello pluton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems)
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Open AccessReview The Jbel Saghro Au(–Ag, Cu) and Ag–Hg Metallogenetic Province: Product of a Long-Lived Ediacaran Tectono-Magmatic Evolution in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120592
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
The Jbel Saghro is interpreted as part of a long-lived silicic large igneous province. The area comprises two lithostructural complexes. The Lower Complex consists of folded metagreywackes and N070–090°E dextral shear zones, which roughly results from a NW–SE to NNW–SSE shortening direction related
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The Jbel Saghro is interpreted as part of a long-lived silicic large igneous province. The area comprises two lithostructural complexes. The Lower Complex consists of folded metagreywackes and N070–090°E dextral shear zones, which roughly results from a NW–SE to NNW–SSE shortening direction related to a D1 transpressive tectonic stage. D1 is also combined with syntectonic plutons emplaced between ca. 615 and 575 Ma. The Upper Complex is defined by ash-flow caldera emplacements, thick and widespread ignimbrites, lavas and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks with related intrusives that were emplaced in three main magmatic flare ups at ca. 575, 565 and 555 Ma. It lies unconformably on the Lower Complex units and was affected by a D2 trantensive tectonic stage. Between 550 and 540 Ma, the magmatic activity became slightly alkaline and of lower extent. Ore deposits show specific features, but remain controlled by the same structural setting: a NNW–SSE shortening direction related to both D1 and D2 stages. Porphyry Au(–Cu–Mo) and intrusion-related gold deposits were emplaced in an earlier stage between 580 and 565 Ma. Intermediate sulfidation epithermal deposits may have been emplaced during lull periods after the second and (or) the third flare-ups (560–550 Ma). Low sulfidation epithermal deposits were emplaced late during the felsic alkaline magmatic stage (550–520 Ma). The D2 stage, therefore, provided extensional structures that enabled fluid circulations and magmatic-hydrothermal ore forming processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Control of Mineral Deposits: Theory and Reality)
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Open AccessArticle Equation of State of a Natural Chromian Spinel at Ambient Temperature
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120591
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
A natural chromian spinel with the composition (Mg0.48(3)Fe0.52(3))(Fe0.06(1)Al0.28(1)Cr0.66(2))2O4 was investigated up to 15 GPa via synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. No phase transition was clearly
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A natural chromian spinel with the composition (Mg0.48(3)Fe0.52(3))(Fe0.06(1)Al0.28(1)Cr0.66(2))2O4 was investigated up to 15 GPa via synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. No phase transition was clearly observed up to the maximum experimental pressure. The pressure–volume data fitted to the third-order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state yielded an isothermal bulk modulus ( K T 0 ) of 207(5) GPa and its first pressure derivative ( K T 0 ) of 3.2(7), or K T 0 = 202(2) GPa with K T 0 fixed as 4. With this new experimental result and the results on some natural chromian spinels in the literature, a simple algorithm describing the relation between the K T 0 and the compositions of the natural chromian spinels was proposed. To examine this algorithm further, more compression experiments should be performed on natural chromian spinels with different chemical compositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spinel Group Minerals)
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Open AccessEditorial Editorial for the Special Issue: Experimental and Thermodynamic Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120590
Received: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
A number of excellent books and articles on the ore-forming processes, magmatic and hydrothermal systems, physicochemical conditions of the ore-forming fluids, and thermodynamic modeling in the geosciences have been published over the past 50 years [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Mycoextraction: Rapid Cadmium Removal by Macrofungi-Based Technology from Alkaline Soil
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120589
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Fungi are promising materials for soil metal bioextraction and thus biomining. Here, a macrofungi-based system was designed for rapid cadmium (Cd) removal from alkaline soil. The system realized directed and rapid fruiting body development for subsequent biomass harvest. The Cd removal efficiency of
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Fungi are promising materials for soil metal bioextraction and thus biomining. Here, a macrofungi-based system was designed for rapid cadmium (Cd) removal from alkaline soil. The system realized directed and rapid fruiting body development for subsequent biomass harvest. The Cd removal efficiency of the system was tested through a pot culture experiment. It was found that aging of the added Cd occurred rapidly in the alkaline soil upon application. During mushroom growth, the soil solution remained considerably alkaline, though a significant reduction in soil pH was observed in both Cd treatments. Cd and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil solution generally increased over time and a significant correlation between them was detected in both Cd treatments, suggesting that the mushroom‒substratum system has an outstanding ability to mobilize Cd in an alkaline environment. Meanwhile, the growth of the mushrooms was not affected relative to the control. The estimated Cd removal efficiency of the system was up to 12.3% yearly thanks to the rapid growth of the mushroom and Cd enrichment in the removable substratum. Transcriptomic analysis showed that gene expression of the fruiting body presented considerable differences between the Cd treatments and control. Annotation of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that cell wall sorption, intracellular binding, and vacuole storage may account for the cellular Cd accumulation. In conclusion, the macrofungi-based technology designed in this study has the potential to become a standalone biotechnology with practical value in soil heavy metal removal, and continuous optimization may make the system useful for biomining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Transformation and Mineralization Induced by Microorganisms)
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Open AccessArticle Post-Mineralization, Cogenetic Magmatism at the Sungun Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit (Northwest Iran): Protracted Melting and Extraction in an Arc System
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120588
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The Sungun porphyry ore deposit is located in Eastern Azarbaijan province, Northwestern Iran. The oldest intrusive pulse in the region is a quartz-monzonite pluton, which hosts the porphyry copper-molybdenum mineralization. The Sungun Copper Mine includes the mineralized Sungun porphyry as well as six
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The Sungun porphyry ore deposit is located in Eastern Azarbaijan province, Northwestern Iran. The oldest intrusive pulse in the region is a quartz-monzonite pluton, which hosts the porphyry copper-molybdenum mineralization. The Sungun Copper Mine includes the mineralized Sungun porphyry as well as six groups of cross-cutting and lithologically distinct post-mineralization dykes. The composition of these dykes ranges from quartz diorite, gabbro, diorite, dacite, lamprophyre, and microdiorite. Quartz diorite and dacite dykes are the oldest and youngest dykes, respectively. Based on their cross-cutting relationships, the composition of the dykes tend to become more primitive through time. The dykes strike Northwest–Southeast with Southwest dip, sub-parallel to the reverse faults within the deposit area. The lamprophyric dykes range from phonotephrite, to trachybasalt, tephrite, and basanite. The quartz-monzonite porphyry (SP) and the post-mineralization dykes (DK1-DK3) have clear and distinct negative anomalies of Ti, Zr, P, Pr, Ce, and Nb, as well as positive anomalies of Cs, U, K, Pb, and Nd with respect to primitive mantle. Microdioritic dykes (MDI) show depletion of Ti, Nb, P, Ta, Th, Yb, and Zr, and enrichment of Cs, Ba, U, Pb, Nd. The similarities in trace element abundances and patterns in the porphyry and post-mineralization calc-alkaline dykes implies a single source and fractional crystallization as the main mechanism controlling magmatic evolution in a collisional environment. Lamprophyric dykes have enrichment of LREE and LILE and depletion of HREE and HFSE such as Ti, Nb, and Ta. The parent magma of the lamprophyric dykes (LAM) was likely derived by low degrees of melting of a garnet lherzolite mantle peridotite. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.704617 to 0.706464 and from 0.512648 to 0.512773 for the dykes suggesting that the parental magmas came from a progressively more enriched mantle. Isotope ratios of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd support a cogenetic relationship of porphyry and calc-alkaline dykes, except for the microdiorite ones. A common primary melt underwent gravity differentiation in a deep magmatic chamber to form a dioritic magma. This subsequently migrated to shallower levels to evolve further and feed individual dyke groups into the Sungun porphyry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Significant Improvement in the Scheelite Heating Flotation with Sodium Sulfide
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120587
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
An efficiently optimized reagent regime was investigated to improve scheelite heating flotation. The scheelite grade and recovery in the plant were significantly improved by 5% and 6%, respectively, which remarkably augmented the economic profit by $260,000 per month. The interaction mechanisms of sodium
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An efficiently optimized reagent regime was investigated to improve scheelite heating flotation. The scheelite grade and recovery in the plant were significantly improved by 5% and 6%, respectively, which remarkably augmented the economic profit by $260,000 per month. The interaction mechanisms of sodium sulfide and sodium oleate with scheelite, calcite and fluorite were evaluated by adsorption amount and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. Sodium sulfide exhibited an excellent ability to promote the adsorption and desorption of sodium oleate on the scheelite surface and from the calcite and fluorite surfaces, thus facilitating the separation of scheelite from fluorite and calcite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Structure Refinement and Thermal Stability Studies of the Uranyl Carbonate Mineral Andersonite, Na2Ca[(UO2)(CO3)3]·(5+x)H2O
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120586
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
A sample of uranyl carbonate mineral andersonite, Na2Ca[(UO2)(CO3)3]·5−6H2O, originating from the Cane Springs Canyon, San Juan Co., UT, USA was studied using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction at various temperatures. Andersonite is trigonal,
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A sample of uranyl carbonate mineral andersonite, Na2Ca[(UO2)(CO3)3]·5−6H2O, originating from the Cane Springs Canyon, San Juan Co., UT, USA was studied using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction at various temperatures. Andersonite is trigonal, R−3m, a = 17.8448(4), c = 23.6688(6) Å, V = 6527.3(3) Å3, Z = 18, R1 = 0.018. Low-temperature SCXRD determined the positions of H atoms and disordered H2O molecules, arranged within the zeolite-like channels. The results of high-temperature PXRD experiments revealed that the structure of andersonite is stable up to 100 °C; afterwards, it loses crystallinity due to release of H2O molecules. Taking into account the well-defined presence of H2O molecules forming channels’ walls that to the total of five molecules p.f.u., we suggest that the formula of andersonite is Na2Ca[(UO2)(CO3)3]·(5+x)H2O, where x ≤ 1. The thermal behavior of andersonite is essentially anisotropic with the lowest values of the main thermal expansion coefficients in the direction perpendicular to the channels (plane (001)), while the maximal expansion is observed along the c axis—in the direction of channels. The thermal expansion around 80 °C within the (001) plane becomes negative due to the total release of “zeolitic” H2O molecules. The information-based structural complexity parameters of andersonite were calculated after the removal of all the disordered atoms, leaving only the predominantly occupied sites, and show that the crystal structure of the mineral should be described as complex, possessing 4.535 bits/atom and 961.477 bits/cell, which is comparative to the values for another very common natural uranyl carbonate, liebigite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actinide Mineralogy and Crystallography)
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Open AccessArticle Extracellular and Intracellular Biomineralization Induced by Bacillus licheniformis DB1-9 at Different Mg/Ca Molar Ratios
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120585
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Biomineralization has become a research hotspot and attracted widespread attention in the field of carbonate sedimentology. In this study, precipitation of carbonate minerals was induced by Bacillus licheniformis DB1-9 bacteria, (identity confirmed with its phylogenetic tree), to further explore the biomineralization mechanisms. During
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Biomineralization has become a research hotspot and attracted widespread attention in the field of carbonate sedimentology. In this study, precipitation of carbonate minerals was induced by Bacillus licheniformis DB1-9 bacteria, (identity confirmed with its phylogenetic tree), to further explore the biomineralization mechanisms. During experiments, lasting up to 24 days with varying Mg/Ca molar ratios and regular monitoring of conditions, ammonia and carbonic anhydrase are released by the bacteria, resulting in a pH increase. Carbonic anhydrase could have promoted carbon dioxide hydration to produce bicarbonate and carbonate ions, and so promoted supersaturation to facilitate the precipitation of carbonate minerals. These include rhombohedral, dumbbell-shaped, and elongated calcite crystals; aragonite appears in the form of mineral aggregates. In addition, spheroidal and fusiform minerals are precipitated. FTIR results show there are organic functional groups, such as C–O–C and C=O, as well as the characteristic peaks of calcite and aragonite; these indicate that there is a close relationship between the bacteria and the minerals. Ultrathin slices of the bacteria analyzed by HRTEM, SAED, EDS, and STEM show that precipitate within the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) has a poor crystal structure, and intracellular granular areas have no crystal structure. Fluorescence intensity and STEM results show that calcium ions can be transported from the outside to the inside of the cells. This study provides further insights to our understanding of biomineralization mechanisms induced by microorganisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Crystal Structure of Kristiansenite from Szklarska Poręba, Southwestern Poland
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120584
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Kristiansenite, ideally Ca2ScSn(Si2O7)(Si2O6OH), a rare late-stage hydrothermal Sc-bearing sorosilicate mineral, was found in a gadolinite-fergusonite-type pegmatite of the MI-REE subclass related to the Karkonosze granite, exposed in a quarry at Szklarska Poręba, Lower
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Kristiansenite, ideally Ca2ScSn(Si2O7)(Si2O6OH), a rare late-stage hydrothermal Sc-bearing sorosilicate mineral, was found in a gadolinite-fergusonite-type pegmatite of the MI-REE subclass related to the Karkonosze granite, exposed in a quarry at Szklarska Poręba, Lower Silesia, Poland. Kristiansenite occurs in an association with andradite, epidote, allanite-(Ce), titanite, fersmite, scheelite, Sc-bearing columbite-(Fe), a YNbO4 mineral as fergusonite-(Y) or fergusonite-(Y)-beta, silesiaite and wolframite. Single-crystal study of the mineral (R1 of 4.96%), with composition Ca2.00(Sn0.97Sc0.69Fe3+0.17Mn0.05Ti0.04Zr0.03Nb0.02Al0.02Ta0.01)Σ2(Si2O7)[(Si1.98Al0.02)Σ2O6.03(OH)0.97], corroborates its triclinic structure with space group-symmetry C1, Z = 2, and unit-cell parameters a = 10.0304(5), b = 8.4056(4), c = 13.3228(6) Å, α = 90.001(3), β = 109.105(3), γ = 89.997(3)° and V = 1061.40(9) Å3. In the structure of the mineral, the Ca and Si sites are dominantly occupied with Ca and Si, whereas the M1–M4 sites are disordered. The M3 and M4 sites are occupied dominantly by Sn and subordinately Sc, whereas the M1 and M2 sites are occupied dominantly by Sc and subordinately by remaining occupants, including Sn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Felsic Rocks in Oceanic Gabbros from IODP Hole U1473A: Implications for Evolved Melt Migration in the Lower Oceanic Crust
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120583
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Felsic rocks are minor in abundance but occur ubiquitously in International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1473A, Southwest Indian Ridge. The trace element abundances of high-Ti brown amphibole, plagioclase, and zircon in veins, as well as the presence of myrmekitic texture in the studied
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Felsic rocks are minor in abundance but occur ubiquitously in International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1473A, Southwest Indian Ridge. The trace element abundances of high-Ti brown amphibole, plagioclase, and zircon in veins, as well as the presence of myrmekitic texture in the studied felsic rocks support crystallization origin from highly-evolved melts, probably controlled by fractional crystallization. Based on geochemical criteria and texture of the mineral assemblage in felsic rocks and their relationship with host gabbros, they can be divided into three types: (1) Felsic rock with sharp boundaries is formed when felsic melt intrudes into fractures of host gabbros, resulting in minimal interaction between the melt and the wall minerals. (2) Replacive felsic rock, which is characterized by a pseudomorphic replacement of minerals in the host gabbro. This vein type is caused by the replacement of the host mineralogy by minerals in equilibrium with the felsic melts. (3) Felsic rock with diffused boundaries is formed either by infiltration of felsic melt into the solidifying gabbro body or crystallization of interstitial melts. Infiltration modes of felsic melts are likely controlled by the temperature condition of the cooling host gabbros. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Igneous Rocks: Minerals, Geochemistry and Ore Potential)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Method to Limit the Adverse Effect of Fine Serpentine on the Flotation of Pyrite
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120582
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
A novel method to limit the adverse effect of fine serpentine on the flotation of pyrite was investigated in this paper. The flotation results showed that coarser serpentine possessed a weaker depression effect on the pyrite flotation process, and the use of KAl(SO
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A novel method to limit the adverse effect of fine serpentine on the flotation of pyrite was investigated in this paper. The flotation results showed that coarser serpentine possessed a weaker depression effect on the pyrite flotation process, and the use of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O could efficiently limit the detrimental effect of fine serpentine on pyrite with a maximum increase of pyrite recovery from 14% to 86% at pH 9.0. The results of particle size measurements and rheological measurements exhibited that the addition of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O increased the particle size of serpentine buta hrdly affected the particle size of pyrite, then limited the formation of serpentine-pyrite aggregates. Adsorption test results showed that the adsorption density of potassium butyl xanthate (PBX) onto pyrite regained with the addition of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O, thereby achieving good flotation improvement. It can be concluded that KAl(SO4)2·12H2O is likely to be an effective pyrite flotation reagent, especially in the presence of fine serpentine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flotation Reagents)
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Open AccessReview The Fate of Platinum-Group Minerals in the Exogenic Environment—From Sulfide Ores via Oxidized Ores into Placers: Case Studies Bushveld Complex, South Africa, and Great Dyke, Zimbabwe
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120581
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
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Abstract
Diverse studies were performed in order to investigate the behavior of the platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the weathering cycle in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. Samples were obtained underground, from core, in surface outcrops, and from
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Diverse studies were performed in order to investigate the behavior of the platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the weathering cycle in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. Samples were obtained underground, from core, in surface outcrops, and from alluvial sediments in rivers draining the intrusions. The investigations applied conventional mineralogical methods (reflected light microscopy) complemented by modern techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mineral liberation analysis (MLA), electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), and LA-ICPMS analysis). This review aims at combining the findings to a coherent model also with respect to the debate regarding allogenic versus authigenic origin of placer PGM. In the pristine sulfide ores, the PGE are present as discrete PGM, dominantly PGE-bismuthotellurides, -sulfides, -arsenides, -sulfarsenides, and -alloys, and substantial though variable proportions of Pd and Rh are hosted in pentlandite. Pt–Fe alloys, sperrylite, and most PGE-sulfides survive the weathering of the ores, whereas the base metal sulfides and the (Pt,Pd)-bismuthotellurides are destroyed, and ill-defined (Pt,Pd)-oxides or -hydroxides develop. In addition, elevated contents of Pt and Pd are located in Fe/Mn/Co-oxides/hydroxides and smectites. In the placers, the PGE-sulfides experience further modification, whereas sperrylite largely remains a stable phase, and grains of Pt–Fe alloys and native Pt increase in relative proportion. In the Bushveld/Great Dyke case, the main impact of weathering on the PGM assemblages is destruction of the unstable PGM and PGE-carriers of the pristine ores and of the intermediate products of the oxidized ores. Dissolution and redistribution of PGE is taking place, however, the newly-formed products are thin films, nano-sized particles, small crystallites, or rarely µm-sized grains primarily on substrates of precursor detrital/allogenic PGM grains, and they are of subordinate significance. In the Bushveld/Great Dyke scenario, and in all probability universally, authigenic growth and formation of discrete, larger PGM crystals or nuggets in the supergene environment plays no substantial role, and any proof of PGM “neoformation” in a grand style is missing. The final PGM suite which survived the weathering process en route from sulfide ores via oxidized ores into placers results from the continuous elimination of unstable PGM and the dispersion of soluble PGE. Therefore, the alluvial PGM assemblage represents a PGM rest spectrum of residual, detrital grains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Factor Analysis to Determine the Interrelationships between the Engineering Properties of Aggregates from Igneous Rocks in Greece
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120580
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the interrelationships between the engineering properties of igneous aggregate rocks from Greece with the aid of the R-mode factor analysis. The collected samples represent mafic and ultramafic rocks from the ophiolite complexes of Gerania, Guevgueli, Veria-Naousa, and Edessa as well
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This paper investigates the interrelationships between the engineering properties of igneous aggregate rocks from Greece with the aid of the R-mode factor analysis. The collected samples represent mafic and ultramafic rocks from the ophiolite complexes of Gerania, Guevgueli, Veria-Naousa, and Edessa as well as intermediate-acidic rocks from the surrounding areas of the complexes. Factor analysis verifies the important interdependences among the engineering parameters like physical, mechanical, geometrical, and physicochemical properties by giving statistical significance. Variations of the petrographic characteristics of the investigated rocks influence their engineering properties as well as the interdependence among them. Factor 1, which is the most representative one (~36% of the total variance), shows interdependences between certain physical, mechanical, physicochemical properties such as total porosity (nt) with moisture content (w), nt with the Los Abrasion value (LA), and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) with point load index Is(50). Additionally, the second factor (~27% of the total data variability) correlates physical properties such as w, nt, physicochemical properties such as the methylene blue test (MBF), mechanical properties such as UCS, Is(50), and loss on ignition (LOI), which highlights the effect of mineralogy on these properties. Lastly, Factor 3 (~14% of the total data variability) expresses the interdependence of the flakiness index (IF), which is an elongation index (IE) relative to their alteration (LOI). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Kinetic Parameterization in a Reactive Transport Model Using the Exchange Monte Carlo Method
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120579
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
Water–rock interaction in surface and subsurface environments occurs in complex multicomponent systems and involves several reactions, including element transfer. Such kinetic information is obtained by fitting a forward model into the temporal evolution of solution chemistry or the spatial pattern recorded in the
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Water–rock interaction in surface and subsurface environments occurs in complex multicomponent systems and involves several reactions, including element transfer. Such kinetic information is obtained by fitting a forward model into the temporal evolution of solution chemistry or the spatial pattern recorded in the rock samples, although geochemical and petrological data are essentially sparse and noisy. Therefore, the optimization of kinetic parameters sometimes fails to converge toward the global minimum due to being trapped in a local minimum. In this study, we simultaneously present a novel framework to estimate multiple reaction-rate constants and the diffusivity of aqueous species from the mineral distribution pattern in a rock by using the reactive transport model coupled with the exchange Monte Carlo method. Our approach can estimate both the maximum likelihood and error of each parameter. We applied the method to the synthetic data, which were produced using a model for silica metasomatism and hydration in the olivine–quartz–H2O system. We tested the robustness and accuracy of our method over a wide range of noise intensities. This methodology can be widely applied to kinetic analyses of various kinds of water–rock interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Mineralogy and Geochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Study of the Products Formed on Sulfide Minerals Upon the Interaction with Aqueous Platinum (IV) Chloride Complexes
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120578
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
The interaction of aqueous solutions bearing platinum-group elements (PGEs) with sulfides is important for understanding the formation and weathering of PGE ore deposits, mineral processing, and synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the surface species formed upon the contact of the main sulfide minerals (pyrite,
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The interaction of aqueous solutions bearing platinum-group elements (PGEs) with sulfides is important for understanding the formation and weathering of PGE ore deposits, mineral processing, and synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the surface species formed upon the contact of the main sulfide minerals (pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite and valleriite) with the solutions of H2PtCl6 (pH 1.5, 20 °C) have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Uptake of Pt increased gradually with increasing interaction time, and depended, as well as the composition of immobilized products, on the mineral nature and the state of its surface, e.g., the chemical pre-treatment. The highest rate of Pt deposition was observed on galena and valleriite and the lowest on pyrite and pyrrhotite. The preliminary moderate oxidation of pyrrhotite promoted Pt deposition, which, however, was hindered under harsh reaction conditions. The pre-oxidation of pyrite in all cases resulted in a decrease of the Pt deposition. Initially, Pt(IV) chloride complexes adsorb onto the mineral surface, and then the reduction of Pt(IV) to Pt(II) and substitution of chloride ions with sulfide groups occur forming sulfides of Pt(II) and then, Pt(IV). The reduction of Pt species to the metallic state was observed at valleriite after 24 h, probably due the negative charge of the sulfide nanolayers of this sulfide-hydroxide composite mineral. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Petrographic Characteristics and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Aggregates on the Quality of Concrete
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120577
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper examines the effect of the aggregate type on concrete strength, and more specifically, how the petrographic characteristics of various aggregate rocks as well as their physico-mechanical properties influences the durability of C 25/30 strength class concrete. The studied aggregate rocks were
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This paper examines the effect of the aggregate type on concrete strength, and more specifically, how the petrographic characteristics of various aggregate rocks as well as their physico-mechanical properties influences the durability of C 25/30 strength class concrete. The studied aggregate rocks were derived from Veria-Naousa and Edessa ophiolitic complexes as well as granodiorite and albitite rocks from their surrounding areas in central Macedonia (Greece). Concretes were produced with constant volume proportions, workability, mixing and curing conditions using different sizes of each aggregate type. Aggregates were mixed both in dry and water saturated states in concretes. Six different types of aggregates were examined and classified in three district groups according to their physicomechanical properties, petrographic characteristics and surface texture. The classification in groups after the concrete compressive strength test verified the initial classification in the same three groups. Group I (ultramafic rocks) presented the lowest concrete strengths, depending on their high alteration degree and the low mechanical properties of ultramafic aggregates. Group II (mafic rocks and granodiorite) presented a wide range of concrete strengths, depending on different petrographic characteristics and mechanical properties. Group III (albite rocks) presented the highest concrete strengths, depending on their lowest alteration degree and their highest mechanical properties. Therefore, mineralogy and microstructure of the coarse aggregates affected the final strength of the concrete specimens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterisation of Mineralised Material from the Loki’s Castle Hydrothermal Vent on the Mohn’s Ridge
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120576
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Loki’s Castle on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) is an area of possible seafloor massive sulphide (SMS)-style mineralisation under Norwegian jurisdiction, which, due to mounting social pressure, may be a strategic future source of base and precious metals. The purpose of this study
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Loki’s Castle on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) is an area of possible seafloor massive sulphide (SMS)-style mineralisation under Norwegian jurisdiction, which, due to mounting social pressure, may be a strategic future source of base and precious metals. The purpose of this study is to characterise mineralised material from a hydrothermal vent system on the AMOR in detail for the first time, and to discuss the suitability of methods used; reflected light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), whole rock geochemistry, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and QEMSCAN. The primary sulphide phases, identifiable by microscopy, are pyrite and marcasite with minor pyrrhotite and galena, but multiple samples from the Loki’s Castle contain economically interesting quantities of copper (hosted in isocubanite and chalcopyrite) and zinc (hosted in sphalerite), as well as silver and gold. This reinforces the notion that slow spreading ridges may host significant base metal deposits. Micro-textures (chalcopyrite inclusions and exsolutions in sphalerite and isocubanite respectively) are typically undefinable by QEMSCAN, and require quantitative measurement by EPMA. QEMSCAN can be used to efficiently generate average grain size and mineral association data, as well as composition data, and is likely to be a powerful tool in assessing the effectiveness of SMS mineral processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Clinopyroxenes in Basaltic Pyroclastic Rocks from the Xisha Islands, Northwestern South China Sea
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120575
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
Cenozoic volcanic rocks were recently discovered during full-coring kilometer-scale major scientific drilling in the Xisha Islands, northwestern South China Sea. A systematic mineralogical study of these samples was performed for this paper. The results show that the volcanic rock samples are basaltic pyroclastic.
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Cenozoic volcanic rocks were recently discovered during full-coring kilometer-scale major scientific drilling in the Xisha Islands, northwestern South China Sea. A systematic mineralogical study of these samples was performed for this paper. The results show that the volcanic rock samples are basaltic pyroclastic. The major elements demonstrate that the clinopyroxenes are diopside and fassaite, which contain high Al2O3 (5.33–11.2 wt. %), TiO2 (2.13–4.78 wt. %) and CaO (22.5–23.7 wt. %). Clinopyroxenes have high REE abundances (104–215 ppm) and are strongly enriched in LREE (LREE/HREE = 3.56–5.14, La/YbN = 2.61–5.1). Large-ion lithophile elements show depleted characteristics. Nb/Ta shows obvious fractionation features: Nb is lightly enriched, relative to primitive mantle, but Ta is heavily depleted, relative to primitive mantle. The parental magma of the basaltic pyroclastic rocks belongs to a silica-undersaturated alkaline series, characterized by a high temperature, low pressure, and low oxygen fugacity. The AlIV content increases with decreasing Si concentration. The Si-unsaturated state causes Si-Al isomorphic replacement during the formation of clinopyroxene. The electric charge imbalance caused by the replacement of Si by Al is mainly compensated by Fe3+. The clinopyroxene discrimination diagrams show that the parental magma formed in an intraplate tectonic setting environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Igneous Rocks: Minerals, Geochemistry and Ore Potential)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of pH and Contaminant Redox Form on the Competitive Removal of Arsenic and Antimony from Aqueous Media by Coagulation
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120574
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
In most countries, arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are regulated pollutants, due to their significant impacts on the environment and human health. Iron-based (Fe) coagulants play a fundamental role in the removal of both elements from aqueous media. This study aims to investigate
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In most countries, arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are regulated pollutants, due to their significant impacts on the environment and human health. Iron-based (Fe) coagulants play a fundamental role in the removal of both elements from aqueous media. This study aims to investigate the competitive removal of As and Sb in relation to Fe solubility. Coagulation experiments were conducted in synthetic water under various pH and contaminant loading, using ferric chloride (FC) as a coagulant. In the single system, the pentavalent species significantly reduced the Fe solubility and thereby enhanced the mobility of As and Sb under these environmental conditions. The coexistence of pentavalent and trivalent species in the binary system considerably decreases the Fe solubility at acidic conditions while enhancing the dissolution under alkaline conditions, thus affecting the overall removal of both species. The presence of four redox species in the quaternary system decreases the Fe solubility remarkably over a wide pH range, with better Sb removal, as compared to As under similar conditions. The adsorption study of the single system showed a decrease in As(V) adsorption capacity at higher concentration, while in the binary system, the Sb(III) showed strong adsorption potential, compared to other species. In the quaternary system, the presence of all four redox species has a synergistic effect on total Sb adsorption, in comparison to the total As. Furthermore, the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of FC composite contaminant flocs confirm that the combined effect of charge neutralization and inner sphere complexation might be a possible removal mechanism. These findings may facilitate the fate, transport and comparative removal of redox species in the heterogeneous aquatic environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic Geochemistry and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Geodynamic Evolution and Metallogeny of Archaean Structural and Compositional Complexes in the Northwestern Russian Arctic
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120573
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper highlights the geodynamic evolution of the early Precambrian rock associations in the northwestern part of the Russian Arctic where the rocks are exposed in the Kola region (northeastern Baltic Shield). The evolution is shown to predetermine the metallogenic potential of the
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This paper highlights the geodynamic evolution of the early Precambrian rock associations in the northwestern part of the Russian Arctic where the rocks are exposed in the Kola region (northeastern Baltic Shield). The evolution is shown to predetermine the metallogenic potential of the area. It is emphasized that the Earth’s evolution is a non-linear process. Thus, we cannot draw direct analogies with Phanerozoic time or purely apply the principle of actualism, which is still widely used by experts in Precambrian geology to study the premetamorphic history of ancient deposits. In both cases, the principles should be adjusted. This article provides a novel technique for reconstructing geodynamic regimes of protolith formation in the early Precambrian. The technique identifies changing trends in geodynamic regimes during the formation of the Archean structural and compositional complexes in the Kola region. These trends fit into the earlier suggested general scheme of their formation, thus enhancing its reliability. The metallogeny of the ore areas is specified. The results of the geodynamic reconstructions explain most of the location patterns of minerals within the Kola region. Thus, the authors consider the metallogenic forecast based on geodynamic reconstructions to be a promising trend for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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