Special Issue "Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Krivovichev

Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Russia
Department of Crystallography, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mineralogy; crystallography; structural complexity; uranium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium, platinum-group elements, and other critical metals. The continuing melting of the sea ice due to the climate change makes these resources more accessible than in the past. However, the mineral exploration in the Arctic has always been a challenge, due to the climatic restrictions, remote location and vulnerability of Arctic ecosystems. This Special Issue will cover a broad range of topics related to the problem of Arctic mineral resources, including geological, geochemical and mineralogical aspects of their occurrence and formation, chemical technologies, environmental and economic problems of mineral exploration. We invite contributions dealing with various issues associated with mineralogical, geochemical and environmental problems of mineral exploration in the Arctic, chemical technologies, economical, historical and political aspects of the role of Arctic mineral resources in the future industrial and technological development.

Prof. Dr. Sergey V. Krivovichev
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Arctic zone
  • mineral resources
  • mineralogy
  • geochemistry
  • chemical technology
  • strategic mineral deposits
  • critical metals
  • advanced materials
  • economics

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Study of the Cu-Ni Productive Suite of the Pechenga Structure on the Russian-Norway Border Zone with the Use of MHD Installation “Khibiny”
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020096
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
The tracing of current-conducting channels of the Pechenga structure from Russian to Norwegian territory was the main task of this research. The study was carried out in the framework of the Soviet-Norwegian cooperation “Northern Region” to estimate the prospects for discovery of Cu-Ni [...] Read more.
The tracing of current-conducting channels of the Pechenga structure from Russian to Norwegian territory was the main task of this research. The study was carried out in the framework of the Soviet-Norwegian cooperation “Northern Region” to estimate the prospects for discovery of Cu-Ni deposits in northern Norway. In addition to previous publications of technical character, the emphasis here is on geological description. Experimental measurements have been performed in the field of the “Khibiny” dipole and with the use of DC electrical profiling. The “Khibiny” dipole consists of 160-ton aluminum cable flooded in the Barents Sea bays on opposite sides of the Sredny and Rybachy peninsulas. Measurements were implemented as in the mode of single pulses generated by 80 MW magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) generator “Khibiny” (“hot” launches) and in the accumulation mode of rectangular current pulses of 0.125 Hz frequency generated by a 29 kW car generator (“cold” launches). From results of measurements, it was concluded that the most promising potential for CU-Ni deposits Pil’gujarvi formation of the Northern wing of the Pechenga structure is rather quickly wedged out in Norway, while the conductive horizons of the Southern part of Pechenga, which have a weak prospect for CU-NI ores, follow into Norway nearly without a loss of power and integral electrical conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle The Main Anorthosite Layer of the West-Pana Intrusion, Kola Region: Geology and U-Pb Age Dating
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020071
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
The West-Pana intrusion belongs to the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova-Pana Complex of the Kola Region in NW Russia, which represents one of Europe’s most significant layered complexes in terms of total platinum group element (PGE) endowment. Numerous studies on the age of the West-Pana intrusion [...] Read more.
The West-Pana intrusion belongs to the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova-Pana Complex of the Kola Region in NW Russia, which represents one of Europe’s most significant layered complexes in terms of total platinum group element (PGE) endowment. Numerous studies on the age of the West-Pana intrusion have been carried out in the past; however, all published U-Pb isotope ages were determined using multi-grain ID-TIMS. In this study, the mineralized Main Anorthosite Layer from the upper portion of the intrusion was dated using SHRIMP-II for the first time. High Th/U (0.9–3.7) zircons gave an upper intercept age of 2509.4 ± 6.2 Ma (2σ), whereas the lower portion of the intrusion was previously dated at 2501.5 ± 1.7 Ma, which suggests an out-of-sequence emplacement of the West-Pana intrusion. Furthermore, high-grade PGE mineralization hosted by the anorthosite layer, known as “South Reef”, can be attributed to (1) downward percolation of PGE-enriched sulfide liquid from the overlying gabbronoritic magma or (2) secondary redistribution of PGEs, which may coincide with a post-magmatic alteration event recorded by low Th/U (0.1–0.9) zircon and baddeleyite at 2476 ± 13 Ma (upper intercept). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Long-Lived Mantle Plume and Polyphase Evolution of Palaeoproterozoic PGE Intrusions in the Fennoscandian Shield
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010059
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
The NE Fennoscandian Shield comprises the Northern Belt in Finland and the Southern Belt in Karelia. They host mafic-ultramafic layered Cu-Ni-Cr and Pt-Pd-bearing intrusions. Precise U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses indicate the 130-Ma evolution of these intrusions, with major events at 2.53, 2.50, 2.45, [...] Read more.
The NE Fennoscandian Shield comprises the Northern Belt in Finland and the Southern Belt in Karelia. They host mafic-ultramafic layered Cu-Ni-Cr and Pt-Pd-bearing intrusions. Precise U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses indicate the 130-Ma evolution of these intrusions, with major events at 2.53, 2.50, 2.45, and 2.40 Ga. Barren phases were dated at 2.53 Ga for orthopyroxenites and olivine gabbro in the Fedorovo-Pansky massif. PGE-bearing phases of gabbronorites (Pechenga, Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra massifs) and norites (Monchepluton) are 2.50 Ga old. Anorthosites of Mt. Generalskaya (Pechenga), the Fedorovo-Pansky, and Monchetundra massifs occurred at 2.45 Ga. This event produced layered PGE-bearing intrusions in Finland (Penikat, Kemi, Koitelainen) and mafic intrusions in Karelia. The Imandra lopolith dikes occurred at the final phase (2.40 Ga). Slightly negative εNd and ISr values (0.703–0.704) suggest that intrusions originated from an enriched mantle reservoir. Low 3He/4He ratios in accessory minerals (ilmenite and magnetite) indicate an upper mantle source. Large-scale correlations link the Fennoscandian Shield with the Superior and Wyoming cratons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Geodynamic Evolution and Metallogeny of Archaean Structural and Compositional Complexes in the Northwestern Russian Arctic
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120573
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper highlights the geodynamic evolution of the early Precambrian rock associations in the northwestern part of the Russian Arctic where the rocks are exposed in the Kola region (northeastern Baltic Shield). The evolution is shown to predetermine the metallogenic potential of the [...] Read more.
This paper highlights the geodynamic evolution of the early Precambrian rock associations in the northwestern part of the Russian Arctic where the rocks are exposed in the Kola region (northeastern Baltic Shield). The evolution is shown to predetermine the metallogenic potential of the area. It is emphasized that the Earth’s evolution is a non-linear process. Thus, we cannot draw direct analogies with Phanerozoic time or purely apply the principle of actualism, which is still widely used by experts in Precambrian geology to study the premetamorphic history of ancient deposits. In both cases, the principles should be adjusted. This article provides a novel technique for reconstructing geodynamic regimes of protolith formation in the early Precambrian. The technique identifies changing trends in geodynamic regimes during the formation of the Archean structural and compositional complexes in the Kola region. These trends fit into the earlier suggested general scheme of their formation, thus enhancing its reliability. The metallogeny of the ore areas is specified. The results of the geodynamic reconstructions explain most of the location patterns of minerals within the Kola region. Thus, the authors consider the metallogenic forecast based on geodynamic reconstructions to be a promising trend for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Age and Formation Conditions of U Mineralization in the Litsa Area and the Salla-Kuolajarvi Zone (Kola Region, Russia)
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120563
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
The Kola region (NE of Fennoscandian Shield) has high uranium potential. The most promising structures within the Kola region in respect to uranium enrichment are the Litsa area and the Salla-Kuolajarvi zone. The principal objective of the present study was to define sequence [...] Read more.
The Kola region (NE of Fennoscandian Shield) has high uranium potential. The most promising structures within the Kola region in respect to uranium enrichment are the Litsa area and the Salla-Kuolajarvi zone. The principal objective of the present study was to define sequence and timing of uranium deposition within these areas. Isotopic (U-Pb and Rb-Sr) exploration of the rocks from Skal’noe and Dikoe U occurrences of the Litsa area and Ozernoe occurrences of the Salla-Kuolajarvi zone was carried out. As it follows from isotopic dating, the principal stages of uranium mineralization had taken place 2.3–2.2, 1.75–1.65, and 0.40–0.38 Ga ago, simultaneously with the stages of alkaline magmatism in the Kola region, which provided the uranium input. Uranium mineralization was related to hydrothermal and metasomatic events under medium to low temperature of ~550 °С at 2.3 Ga to ~280 °С at 0.4 Ga. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints on Magma Evolution and Late-Stage Crystallization History of the Breivikbotn Silicocarbonatite, Seiland Igneous Province in Northern Norway: Prerequisites for Zeolite Deposits in Carbonatite Complexes
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110537
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
The present work reports on new mineralogical and whole-rock geochemical data from the Breivikbotn silicocarbonatite (Seiland igneous province, North Norway), allowing conclusions to be drawn concerning its origin and the role of late fluid alteration. The rock shows a rare mineral association: calcite [...] Read more.
The present work reports on new mineralogical and whole-rock geochemical data from the Breivikbotn silicocarbonatite (Seiland igneous province, North Norway), allowing conclusions to be drawn concerning its origin and the role of late fluid alteration. The rock shows a rare mineral association: calcite + pyroxene + amphibole + zeolite group minerals + garnet + titanite, with apatite, allanite, magnetite and zircon as minor and accessory minerals, and it is classified as silicocarbonatite. Calcite, titanite and pyroxene (Di36–46 Acm22–37 Hd14–21) are primarily magmatic minerals. Amphibole of mainly hastingsitic composition has formed after pyroxene at a late-magmatic stage. Zeolite group minerals (natrolite, gonnardite, Sr-rich thomsonite-(Ca)) were formed during hydrothermal alteration of primary nepheline by fluids/solutions with high Si-Al-Ca activities. Poikilitic garnet (Ti-bearing andradite) has inclusions of all primary minerals, amphibole and zeolites, and presumably crystallized metasomatically during a late metamorphic event (Caledonian orogeny). Whole-rock chemical compositions of the silicocarbonatite differs from the global average of calciocarbonatites by elevated silica, aluminium, sodium and iron, but show comparable contents of trace elements (REE, Sr, Ba). Trace element distributions and abundances indicate within-plate tectonic setting of the carbonatite. The spatial proximity of carbonatite and alkaline ultramafic rock (melteigite), the presence of “primary nepheline” in carbonatite together with the trace element distributions indicate that the carbonatite was derived by crystal fractionation of a parental carbonated foidite magma. The main prerequisites for the extensive formation of zeolite group minerals in silicocarbonatite are revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Petrogenetic Implications of Apatite in the Khibiny Apatite-Nepheline Deposits (Kola Peninsula)
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110532
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Khibiny, one of the largest of the world’s peralkaline intrusions, hosts gigantic apatite deposits. Apatite is represented by F-apatite and it contains exceptionally high concentration of SrO. (4.5 wt % on average) and increased amounts of rare earth elements (REEs; up to 8891 [...] Read more.
Khibiny, one of the largest of the world’s peralkaline intrusions, hosts gigantic apatite deposits. Apatite is represented by F-apatite and it contains exceptionally high concentration of SrO. (4.5 wt % on average) and increased amounts of rare earth elements (REEs; up to 8891 ppm). Such enrichment of apatite ores in REEs defined Khibiny deposit as world-class deposit with resources reaching several millions tons REE2O3. Apatite from the Khibina alkaline complex is characterized by the significant enrichment in light REEs relative to the heavy REEs (with average Ce/Yb ratio of 682) and the absence of a negative Eu anomaly. The obtained geochemical signature of apatite suggests a residual character of the Khibiny alkaline magma and it indicates that the differentiation of the primary olivine-melanephelinitic magma developed without fractionation of plagioclase which is the main mineral-concentrator of Sr and Eu in basaltic magmatic systems. The compositional evolution of the Khibiny apatite in the vertical section of the intrusion reflects primary fractionation processes in the alkaline magma that differentiated in situ. The main mechanism for the formation of the apatite-nepheline deposits was the gravitational settling of large nepheline crystals in the lower part of the magma chamber, while very small apatite crystals were suspended in a convective magma, and, together with the melt, were concentrated in its upper part of the magmatic chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Alkali-Activated Binder Based on Milled Antigorite
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110503
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
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Abstract
Antigorite is a very common rock-forming mineral and it is often present in mining wastes. Utilization of these wastes is a very important issue from the environmental point of view. A potential use for mining wastes is for the production of building materials. [...] Read more.
Antigorite is a very common rock-forming mineral and it is often present in mining wastes. Utilization of these wastes is a very important issue from the environmental point of view. A potential use for mining wastes is for the production of building materials. This study investigated the alkali activation of antigorite and antigorite-containing ore dressing tailings (AT) milled in a planetary ball mill in an air or CO2 atmosphere. The specific surface area, amorphisation, and dehydroxylation of milled antigorite and AT were examined, and their effect on the cementitious properties was investigated. Binders were prepared by mixing the milled antigorite or AT with liquid glass and curing at 20 ± 2 °C in dry (relative humidity of 65 ± 5%) or humid (relative humidity of 95 ± 5%) conditions for up to 28 days. Curing at dry conditions was found to produce binders with increased strengths. The compressive strength of the alkali-activated binder also increased with increased milling time. For AT milled in air for 4 min and cured in dry conditions for 28 days, the compressive strength was 49 MPa. The milling atmosphere (air or CO2) influenced the cementitious properties of the alkali activated binder to a small extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Zircon Macrocrysts from the Drybones Bay Kimberlite Pipe (Northwest Territories, Canada): A High-Resolution Trace Element and Geochronological Study
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110481
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
Zircon macrocrysts in (sub)volcanic silica-undersaturated rocks are an important source of information about mantle processes and their relative timing with respect to magmatism. The present work describes variations in trace element (Sc, Ti, Y, Nb, lanthanides, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, and U) and [...] Read more.
Zircon macrocrysts in (sub)volcanic silica-undersaturated rocks are an important source of information about mantle processes and their relative timing with respect to magmatism. The present work describes variations in trace element (Sc, Ti, Y, Nb, lanthanides, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, and U) and isotopic (U-Pb) composition of zircon from the Drybones Bay kimberlite, Northwest Territories, Canada. These data were acquired at a spatial resolution of ≤100 µm and correlated to the internal characteristics of macrocrysts (imaged using cathodoluminescence, CL). Six types of zircon were distinguished on the basis of its luminescence characteristics, with the majority of grains exhibiting more than one type of CL response. The oscillatory-zoned core and growth sectors of Drybones Bay zircon show consistent variations in rare-earth elements (REE), Hf, Th, and U. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are typical of macrocrystic zircon and exhibit extreme enrichment in heavy lanthanides and a positive Ce anomaly. Their Ti content decreases slightly from the core into growth sectors, but the Ti-in-zircon thermometry gives overlapping average crystallization temperatures (820 ± 26 °C to 781 ± 19 °C, respectively). There is no trace element or CL evidence for Pb loss or other forms of chemical re-equilibration. All distinct zircon types are concordant and give a U-Pb age of 445.6 ± 0.8 Ma. We interpret the examined macrocrysts as products of interaction between a shallow (<100 km) mantle source and transient kimberlitic melt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Vanadium Mineralization in the Kola Region, Fennoscandian Shield
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110474
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
In the northern Fennoscandian Shield, vanadium mineralization occurs in the Paleoproterozoic Pechenga–Imandra-Varzuga (PIV) riftogenic structure. It is localized in sulfide ores hosted by sheared basic and ultrabasic metavolcanics in the Pyrrhotite Ravine and Bragino areas and was formed at the latest stages of [...] Read more.
In the northern Fennoscandian Shield, vanadium mineralization occurs in the Paleoproterozoic Pechenga–Imandra-Varzuga (PIV) riftogenic structure. It is localized in sulfide ores hosted by sheared basic and ultrabasic metavolcanics in the Pyrrhotite Ravine and Bragino areas and was formed at the latest stages of the Lapland–Kola orogeny 1.90–1.86 Ga ago. An additional formation of vanadium minerals was derived from contact metamorphism and metasomatism produced by the Devonian Khibiny alkaline massif in the Pyrrhotite Ravine area. Vanadium forms its own rare minerals (karelianite, coulsonite, kyzylkumite, goldmanite, mukhinite, etc.), as well as occurring as an isomorphic admixture in rutile, ilmenite, crichtonite group, micas, chlorites, and other minerals. Vanadium is inferred to have originated from two sources: (1) basic and ultrabasic volcanics initially enriched in vanadium; and (2) metasomatizing fluids that circulated along shear zones. The crystallization of vanadium and vanadium-bearing minerals was accompanied by chromium and scandium mineralization. Vanadium mineralization in Paleoproterozoic formations throughout the world is briefly considered. The simultaneous development of vanadium, chromium and scandium mineralizations is a unique feature of the Kola sulfide ores. In other regions, sulfide ores contain only two of these three mineralizations produced by one ore-forming process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Compositional and Textural Variations in Hainite-(Y) and Batievaite-(Y), Two Rinkite-Group Minerals from the Sakharjok Massif, Keivy Alkaline Province, NW Russia
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100458
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Compositional and textural variations in the rinkite group, seidozerite supergroup minerals, batievaite-(Y), hainite-(Y) and close to them titanosilicates from the Sakharjok massif were studied. Statistical analysis allowed for defining two major substitution schemes leading to batievaite-(Y) and cation-deficient titanosilicates forming: Ca2+ + [...] Read more.
Compositional and textural variations in the rinkite group, seidozerite supergroup minerals, batievaite-(Y), hainite-(Y) and close to them titanosilicates from the Sakharjok massif were studied. Statistical analysis allowed for defining two major substitution schemes leading to batievaite-(Y) and cation-deficient titanosilicates forming: Ca2+ + Na+ + F ↔ □ + Y3+ + (OH) and Ca2+ + Na+ ↔ □ + REE3+. Batievaite-(Y) and other cation-deficient titanosilicates are the earlier minerals formed by solid state transformation of the primary full-cation phase. Hainite-(Y) is a later mineral. It forms rims around earlier titanosilicates, or, less often, separate crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Titanite Ores of the Khibiny Apatite-Nepheline-Deposits: Selective Mining, Processing and Application for Titanosilicate Synthesis
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100446
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Geological setting and mineral composition of (apatite)-nepheline-titanite ore from the Khibiny massif enable selective mining of titanite ore, and its processing with sulfuric-acid method, without preliminary concentration in flotation cells. In this process flow diagram, titanite losses are reduced by an order of [...] Read more.
Geological setting and mineral composition of (apatite)-nepheline-titanite ore from the Khibiny massif enable selective mining of titanite ore, and its processing with sulfuric-acid method, without preliminary concentration in flotation cells. In this process flow diagram, titanite losses are reduced by an order of magnitude in comparison with a conventional flotation technology. Further, dissolution of titanite in concentrated sulfuric acid produces titanyl sulfate, which, in turn, is a precursor for titanosilicate synthesis. In particular, synthetic analogues of the ivanyukite group minerals, SIV, was synthesized with hydrothermal method from the composition based on titanyl-sulfate, and assayed as a selective cation-exchanger for Cs and Sr. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrometallurgical Processing of Low-Grade Sulfide Ore and Mine Waste in the Arctic Regions: Perspectives and Challenges
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100436
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
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Abstract
The authors describe the opportunities of low-grade sulfide ores and mine waste processing with heap and bacterial leaching methods. By the example of gold and silver ores, we analyzed specific issues and processing technologies for heap leaching intensification in severe climatic conditions. The [...] Read more.
The authors describe the opportunities of low-grade sulfide ores and mine waste processing with heap and bacterial leaching methods. By the example of gold and silver ores, we analyzed specific issues and processing technologies for heap leaching intensification in severe climatic conditions. The paper presents perspectives for heap leaching of sulfide and mixed ores from the Udokan (Russia) and Talvivaara (Finland) deposits, as well as technogenic waste dumps, namely, the Allarechensky Deposit Dumps (Russia). The paper also shows the laboratory results of non-ferrous metals leaching from low-grade copper-nickel ores of the Monchepluton area, and from tailings of JSC Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Shkatulkalite, a Rare Mineral from the Lovozero Massif, Kola Peninsula: A Re-Investigation
Minerals 2018, 8(7), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8070303
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
The crystal structure of shkatulkalite has been solved from the crystal from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is monoclinic, P2/m, a = 5.4638(19), b = 7.161(3), c = 15.573(6) Å, β = 95.750(9)°, V = 606.3(4) [...] Read more.
The crystal structure of shkatulkalite has been solved from the crystal from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is monoclinic, P2/m, a = 5.4638(19), b = 7.161(3), c = 15.573(6) Å, β = 95.750(9)°, V = 606.3(4) Å3, R1 = 0.080 for 1551 unique observed reflections. The crystal structure is based upon the HOH blocks consisting of one octahedral (O) sheet sandwiched between two heteropolyhedral (H) sheets. The blocks are parallel to the (001) plane and are separated from each other by the interlayer space occupied by Na1 atoms and H2O groups. The Na2, Na3, and Ti sites are located within the O sheet. The general formula of shkatulkalite can be written as Na5(Nb1−xTix)2(Ti1−yMn2+y)[Si2O7]2O2(OH)2·nH2O, where x + y = 0.5 and x ≈ y ≈ 0.25 for the sample studied. Shkatulkalite belongs to the seidozerite supergroup and is a member of the lamprophyllite group. The species most closely related to shkatulkalite are vuonnemite and epistolite. The close structural relations and the reported observations of pseudomorphs of shkatulkalite after vuonnemite suggest that, at least in some environments, shkatulkalite may form as a transformation mineral species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Three-D Mineralogical Mapping of the Kovdor Phoscorite-Carbonatite Complex, NW Russia: II. Sulfides
Minerals 2018, 8(7), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8070292
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
The world largest phoscorite-carbonatite complexes of the Kovdor (Russia) and Palabora (South Africa) alkaline-ultrabasic massifs have comparable composition, structure and metallogenic specialization, and can be considered close relatives. Distribution of rock-forming sulfides within the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex reflects gradual concentric zonation of the [...] Read more.
The world largest phoscorite-carbonatite complexes of the Kovdor (Russia) and Palabora (South Africa) alkaline-ultrabasic massifs have comparable composition, structure and metallogenic specialization, and can be considered close relatives. Distribution of rock-forming sulfides within the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex reflects gradual concentric zonation of the pipe: pyrrhotite with exsolution inclusions of pentlandite in marginal (apatite)-forsterite phoscorite, pyrrhotite with exsolution inclusions of cobaltpentlandite in intermediate low-carbonate magnetite-rich phoscorite and chalcopyrite (±pyrrhotite with exsolution inclusions of cobaltpentlandite) in axial carbonate-rich phoscorite and phoscorite-related carbonatite. Chalcopyrite (with relicts of earlier bornite and exsolution inclusions of cubanite and mackinawite) predominates in the axial carbonate-bearing phoscorite and carbonatite, where it crystallizes around grains of pyrrhotite (with inclusions of pentlandite-cobaltpentlandite and pyrite), and both of these minerals contain exsolution inclusions of sphalerite. In natural sequence of the Kovdor rocks, iron content in pyrrhotite gradually increases from Fe7S8 (pyrrhotite-4C, Imm2) to Fe9S10 (pyrrhotite-5C, C2 and P21) and Fe11S12 (pyrrhotite-6C) due to gradual decrease of crystallization temperature and oxygen fugacity. Low-temperature pyrrhotite 2C (troilite) occurs as lens-like exsolition inclusions in grains of pyrrhotite-4C (in marginal phoscorite) and pyrrhotite-5C (in axial phoscorite-related carbonatite). Within the phoscorite-carbonatite complex, Co content in pyrrhotite gradually increases from host silicate rocks and marginal forsterite-dominant phoscorite to axial carbonate-rich phoscorite and carbonatite at the expense of Ni and Fe. Probably, this dependence reflects a gradually decreasing temperature of the primary monosulfide solid solutions crystallization from the pipe margin toward its axis. The Kovdor and Loolekop phoscorite-carbonatite pipes in the Palabora massif have similar sequences of sulfide formation, and the copper specialization of the Palabora massif can be caused by higher water content in its initial melt allowing it to dissolve much larger amounts of sulfur and, correspondingly, chalcophile metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Three-D Mineralogical Mapping of the Kovdor Phoscorite-Carbonatite Complex, NW Russia: III. Pyrochlore Supergroup Minerals
Minerals 2018, 8(7), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8070277
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
The pyrochlore supergroup minerals (PSM) are typical secondary phases that replace (with zirconolite–laachite) earlier Sc-Nb-rich baddeleyite under the influence of F-bearing hydrothermal solutions, and form individual well-shaped crystals in surrounding carbonatites. Like primary Sc-Nb-rich baddeleyite, the PSM are concentrated in the axial carbonate-rich [...] Read more.
The pyrochlore supergroup minerals (PSM) are typical secondary phases that replace (with zirconolite–laachite) earlier Sc-Nb-rich baddeleyite under the influence of F-bearing hydrothermal solutions, and form individual well-shaped crystals in surrounding carbonatites. Like primary Sc-Nb-rich baddeleyite, the PSM are concentrated in the axial carbonate-rich zone of the phoscorite-carbonatite complex, so their content, grain size and chemical diversity increase from the pipe margins to axis. There are 12 members of the PSM in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex. Fluorine- and oxygen-dominant phases are spread in host silicate rocks and marginal carbonate-poor phoscorite, while hydroxide-dominant PSM occur mainly in the axial carbonate-rich zone of the ore-pipe. Ti-rich PSM (up to oxycalciobetafite) occur in host silicate rocks and calcite carbonatite veins, and Ta-rich phases (up to microlites) are spread in intermediate and axial magnetite-rich phoscorite. In marginal (apatite)-forsterite phoscorite, there are only Ca-dominant PSM, and the rest of the rocks include Ca-, Na- and vacancy-dominant phases. The crystal structures of oxycalciopyrochlore and hydroxynatropyrochlore were refined in the Fd3¯m space group with R1 values of 0.032 and 0.054 respectively. The total difference in scattering parameters of B sites are in agreement with substitution scheme BTi4+ + YOH = BNb5+ + YO2‒. The perspective process flow diagram for rare-metal “anomalous ore” processing includes sulfur-acidic cleaning of baddeleyite concentrate from PSM and zirconolite–laachite impurities followed by deep metal recovery from baddeleyite concentrate and Nb-Ta-Zr-U-Th-rich sulfatic product from its cleaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Three-D Mineralogical Mapping of the Kovdor Phoscorite–Carbonatite Complex, NW Russia: I. Forsterite
Minerals 2018, 8(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060260
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The Kovdor alkaline-ultrabasic massif (NW Russia) is formed by three consequent intrusions: peridotite, foidolite–melilitolite and phoscorite–carbonatite. Forsterite is the earliest mineral of both peridotite and phoscorite–carbonatite, and its crystallization governed evolution of magmatic systems. Crystallization of forsterite from Ca-Fe-rich peridotite melt produced Si-Al-Na-K-rich [...] Read more.
The Kovdor alkaline-ultrabasic massif (NW Russia) is formed by three consequent intrusions: peridotite, foidolite–melilitolite and phoscorite–carbonatite. Forsterite is the earliest mineral of both peridotite and phoscorite–carbonatite, and its crystallization governed evolution of magmatic systems. Crystallization of forsterite from Ca-Fe-rich peridotite melt produced Si-Al-Na-K-rich residual melt-I corresponding to foidolite–melilitolite. In turn, consolidation of foidolite and melilitolite resulted in Fe-Ca-C-P-F-rich residual melt-II that emplaced in silicate rocks as a phoscorite–carbonatite pipe. Crystallization of phoscorite began from forsterite, which launched destruction of silicate-carbonate-ferri-phosphate subnetworks of melt-II, and further precipitation of apatite and magnetite from the pipe wall to its axis with formation of carbonatite melt-III in the pipe axial zone. This petrogenetic model is based on petrography, mineral chemistry, crystal size distribution and crystallochemistry of forsterite. Marginal forsterite-rich phoscorite consists of Fe2+-Mn-Ni-Ti-rich forsterite similar to olivine from peridotite, intermediate low-carbonate magnetite-rich phoscorite includes Mg-Fe3+-rich forsterite, and axial carbonate-rich phoscorite and carbonatites contain Fe2+-Mn-rich forsterite. Incorporation of trivalent iron in the octahedral M1 and M2 sites reduced volume of these polyhedra; while volume of tetrahedral set has not changed. Thus, trivalent iron incorporates into forsterite by schema (3Fe2+)oct → (2Fe3+ + □)oct that reflects redox conditions of the rock formation resulting in good agreement between compositions of apatite, magnetite, calcite and forsterite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessReview Beryllium Mineralogy of the Kola Peninsula, RussiaA Review
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010012
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper reviews the available information on the beryllium mineralogy of the different type of occurrences in the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia. Beryllium mineralization in the region is mainly associated with alkaline and felsic rocks, which differ significantly in petrological, geochemical, mineralogical features [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the available information on the beryllium mineralogy of the different type of occurrences in the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia. Beryllium mineralization in the region is mainly associated with alkaline and felsic rocks, which differ significantly in petrological, geochemical, mineralogical features and age. In total 28 beryllium minerals are established on the Kola Peninsula up today. Beryl is one of the ore minerals in the differentiated granite pegmatites of the Kolmozerskoe lithium deposit. A large diversity of beryllium minerals occur in the pegmatites and hydrothermal veins formed in the late stages of the Lovozero and Khibiny alkaline massifs. Most of these minerals, as leifite, lovdarite, odintsovite, sphaerobertrandite and tugtupite are rare in other environments and have unique properties. These minerals formed under conditions of extreme alkalinity and their formation was favored by abrupt changes in the alkalinity regimes. Some of minerals, as chrysoberyl in xenoliths of hornfels, genthelvite and unique intergrowth of meliphanite and leucophanite formed in contrasting geochemical fronts between felsic/intermediate and mafic rocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessReview Advanced Techniques of Saponite Recovery from Diamond Processing Plant Water and Areas of Saponite Application
Minerals 2018, 8(12), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120549
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
Methods of cleaning and processing of saponite-containing water from diamond processing plants in the Arkhangelsk region, Russia, are discussed. The advantages of electrochemical separation of saponite from process water enabling to change its structural-texture, physico-chemical and mechanical properties are demonstrated. Possible areas of [...] Read more.
Methods of cleaning and processing of saponite-containing water from diamond processing plants in the Arkhangelsk region, Russia, are discussed. The advantages of electrochemical separation of saponite from process water enabling to change its structural-texture, physico-chemical and mechanical properties are demonstrated. Possible areas of saponite and modified-saponite products application are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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Open AccessReview Geodynamics and Oil and Gas Potential of the Yenisei-Khatanga Basin (Polar Siberia)
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110510
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
The geodynamic development of the north–western (Arctic) margin of the Siberian craton is comprehensively analyzed for the first time based on our database as well as on the analysis of published material, from Precambrian-Paleozoic and Mesozoic folded structures to the formation of the [...] Read more.
The geodynamic development of the north–western (Arctic) margin of the Siberian craton is comprehensively analyzed for the first time based on our database as well as on the analysis of published material, from Precambrian-Paleozoic and Mesozoic folded structures to the formation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Yenisei-Khatanga sedimentary basin. We identify the main stages of the region’s tectonic evolution related to collision and accretion processes, mainly subduction and rifting. It is demonstrated that the prototype of the Yenisei-Khatanga basin was a wide late Paleozoic foreland basin that extended from Southern Taimyr to the Tunguska syneclise and deepened towards Taimyr. The formation of the Yenisei-Khatanga basin, as well as of the West-Siberian basin, was due to continental rifting in the Permian-Triassic. The study describes the main oil and gas generating deposits of the basin, which are mainly Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous mudstones. It is shown that the Lower Cretaceous deposits contain 90% of known hydrocarbon reserves. These are mostly stacked reservoirs with gas, gas condensate and condensate with rims. The study also presents data on oil and gas reservoirs, plays and seals in the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic Mineral Resources: Science and Technology)
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