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Water, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Deltas, such as the Mississippi River Delta, are innately dynamic systems and climate change adds a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Dissipation of Micropollutants in a Rewetted Fen Peatland: A Field Study Using Treated Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060449
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring.
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In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring. The highest concentrations of micropollutants in the treated wastewater were found for the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and diclofenac, some metabolites, the sweetener acesulfame, tolyl- and benzotriazole and diatrizoate. In the underlying, shallow groundwater where treated wastewater application for rewetting had been expected to have the greatest impact due to seeping and evapotranspiration processes, only a sporadic occurrence of micropollutants was found. The influence of dilution by groundwater movements was examined by applying a geohydrological model. The sorption of micropollutants onto the peaty soil also played a role, as found for carbamazepine. Further processes such as photolysis, microbial decay under low redox conditions and plant uptake can be assumed to be relevant for the removal of many substances. Ecotoxicity tests with the soil before and after rewetting did not indicate any negative impact on the soil habitat quality by wastewater application, but clearly pointed at ecotoxicologically relevant geogenic arsenic concentrations at the study site. Although a positive effect on receiving surface water systems is expected if wastewater is applied on land instead of discharged to water bodies, the rewetted soil may turn into a sink for micropollutants in the long term. Hence, the findings of the present field study encourage further investigations in order to identify the governing processes in the elimination of micropollutants in rewetted peatlands flooded with treated wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model of Suspended Solids Removal in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks for the Treatment of Urban Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060448
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence
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Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence of operational parameters, such as surface overflow rate, hydraulic retention time, and temperature, on the removal efficiency of suspended solids and organic matter by the measurement of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand in the primary sedimentation process. The research was carried out in a semi-technical primary settling tank which was fed with real wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant. The physical process was strictly controlled and without the intervention of chemical additives. Three cycles of operation were tested in relation to the surface overflow rate, in order to check their influence on the different final concentrations. The results obtained show that the elimination efficiency can be increased by 11% for SS and 9% for chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand, for variations in the surface overflow rate of around ±0.6 m3/m2·h and variations in hydraulic retention time of around ±2 h. The results also show that current design criteria are quite conservative. An empirical mathematical model was developed in this paper relating SS removal efficiency to q, influent SS concentration, and sewage temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beach Response to Wave Forcing from Event to Inter-Annual Time Scales at Grand Popo, Benin (Gulf of Guinea)
Water 2017, 9(6), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060447
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper assesses the morphological storm-event impact, seasonal cycles, trends of wave forcing, and beach’s response at the coastal area of Grand Popo, Benin. Three and a half years’ worth of data were collected from 2013 to 2016, using a video system calibrated
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This paper assesses the morphological storm-event impact, seasonal cycles, trends of wave forcing, and beach’s response at the coastal area of Grand Popo, Benin. Three and a half years’ worth of data were collected from 2013 to 2016, using a video system calibrated with field data collected during a 10 day experiment. A comparison was carried out with Wavewatch III IOWAGA wave hindcast data. The along-shore-averaged shoreline position exhibited a seasonal pattern, which was related more to the average wave height than the average storm intensity. Storms occur in austral winter (June, July, August, and September). Based on 12 storms, the results revealed that the average storm duration was 1.6 days, with a mean erosion of 3.1 m. The average post-storm beach recovery duration was 15 days, and the average recovery rate was 0.4 m/day. The impact of storms was more or less amplified depending on the eroding and accreting periods of the wave climate. There was an inter-annual eroding trend of about −1.6 m/year, but the causes of this trend could not be explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters)
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Open AccessCommunication Effects of Thinning on Flow Peaks in a Forested Headwater Catchment in Western Japan
Water 2017, 9(6), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060446
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
This study examined the changes in rainfall-runoff characteristics in the year prior to and after intensive thinning of 50% in number in a steep headwater catchment, covered with 46-year-old Japanese cedar and cypress in western Japan. The magnitude of event peak flow, event
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This study examined the changes in rainfall-runoff characteristics in the year prior to and after intensive thinning of 50% in number in a steep headwater catchment, covered with 46-year-old Japanese cedar and cypress in western Japan. The magnitude of event peak flow, event quick flow, event water yield, and event response time did not change after thinning. Because 70% of rainfall events had multiple flow peaks, relationships between each flow peak and the rainfall just prior to that peak were also analyzed. The increases in accumulated quick flow, flow rise and flow drop were significant after thinning. The flow drop following each flow peak increased, and led to a lower initial flow in subsequent peaks, resulting in no increase in peak size. The flow peaks in events with over 30 mm rainfall amount and over 2 mm/h average rainfall intensity showed significant increases in flow peak, flow rise, flow drop, and accumulated quick flow, which suggests that the catchment exhibited more shallow flow paths during large rainfall amounts after thinning. No changes were identified using event-based analysis, but changes in flow peaks were detected, which indicates the importance of examining all flow peaks when investigating rainfall-runoff characteristics of headwater catchments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urban Flood Simulation Using MODCEL—An Alternative Quasi-2D Conceptual Model
Water 2017, 9(6), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060445
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Urban flood modelling has been evolving in recent years, due to computational facilities as well as to the possibility of obtaining detailed terrain data. Flood control techniques have also been evolving to integrate both urban flood and urban planning issues. Land use control
[...] Read more.
Urban flood modelling has been evolving in recent years, due to computational facilities as well as to the possibility of obtaining detailed terrain data. Flood control techniques have also been evolving to integrate both urban flood and urban planning issues. Land use control and flow generation concerns, as well as a set of possible distributed measures favouring storage and infiltration over the watershed, also gained importance in flood control projects, reinforcing the need to model the entire basin space. However, the use of 2D equations with highly detailed digital elevation models do not guarantee good results by their own. Urban geometry, including buildings shapes, walls, earth fills, and other structures may cause significant interference on flood paths. In this context, this paper presents an alternative urban flood model, focusing on the system behaviour and its conceptual interpretation. Urban Flood Cell Model-MODCEL is a hydrological-hydrodynamic model proposed to represent a complex flow network, with a set of relatively simple information, using average values to represent urban landscape through the flow-cell concept. In this work, to illustrate model capabilities, MODCEL is benchmarked in a test proposed by the British Environmental Agency. Then, its capability to represent storm drains is verified using measured data and a comparison with Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Finally, it is applied in a lowland area of the Venetian continental plains, representing floods in a complex setup at the city of Noale and in its surroundings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation, Pollution Assessment and Source Identification of Major Nutrients in Surface Sediments of Nansi Lake, China
Water 2017, 9(6), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060444
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic
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Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic carbon: TOC) in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake was conducted. Results showed that the mean contents of TP, TN and TOC were 1.13-, 5.40- and 2.50- fold higher than their background values respectively. Most of the TN and TOC contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were four times as high or higher and twice as high or higher than the background values except the Zhaoyang sub-lake, and the spatial distribution of TN and TOC contents were remarkably similar over a large area. Nearly all the TP contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were all higher than its background values except most part of the Zhaoyang sub-lake. Based on the enrichment factor (EF) and the organic pollution evaluation index (Org-index), TP, TOC and TN showed minor enrichment (1.13), minor enrichment (2.50) and moderately severe enrichment (5.40), respectively, and most part of the Dushan sub-lake and the vicinity of the Weishan island were in moderate or heavy sediments organic pollution, while the other parts were clean. Moreover, according to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, we deduced that anthropogenic TN and TOC were mainly came from industrial sources including enterprises distributed in Jining, Yanzhou and Zoucheng along with iron and steel industries distributed in the southern of the Weishan sub-lake, whereas TP mainly originated from runoff and soil erosion coming from agricultural lands located in Heze city and Weishan island, the local aquacultural activities as well as the domestic sewage discharge of Jining city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Groundwater Remediation Technologies Based on Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Approaches
Water 2017, 9(6), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060443
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the
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Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the environment and may endanger human health. Therefore, it is very important to remediate oil pollution in the subsurface. However, it is necessary to choose the appropriate remediation technology. In this paper, 18 technologies are evaluated through constructing a parameter matrix with each technology and seven performance indicators, and a comprehensive analysis model is presented. In this model, four MCDA methods are used. They are SWA (Simple Weighted Addition Method), WP (Weighted Product Method), CGT (Cooperative Game Theory), and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). Mean ranking and Borda ranking methods are used to integrate the results of SWA, WP, CGT, and TOPSIS. Then two selection priorities of each method (mean ranking and Borda ranking) are obtained. The model is proposed to help decide the best choice of remediation technologies. It can effectively reduce contingency, subjectivity, one-sidedness of the traditional methods and provide scientific reference for effective decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Transparency, Geomorphology and Mixing Regime Explain Variability in Trends in Lake Temperature and Stratification across Northeastern North America (1975–2014)
Water 2017, 9(6), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060442
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lake surface water temperatures are warming worldwide, raising concerns about the future integrity of valuable lake ecosystem services. In contrast to surface water temperatures, we know far less about what is happening to water temperature beneath the surface, where most organisms live. Moreover,
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Lake surface water temperatures are warming worldwide, raising concerns about the future integrity of valuable lake ecosystem services. In contrast to surface water temperatures, we know far less about what is happening to water temperature beneath the surface, where most organisms live. Moreover, we know little about which characteristics make lakes more or less sensitive to climate change and other environmental stressors. We examined changes in lake thermal structure for 231 lakes across northeastern North America (NENA), a region with an exceptionally high density of lakes. We determined how lake thermal structure has changed in recent decades (1975–2012) and assessed which lake characteristics are related to changes in lake thermal structure. In general, NENA lakes had increasing near-surface temperatures and thermal stratification strength. On average, changes in deepwater temperatures for the 231 lakes were not significantly different than zero, but individually, half of the lakes experienced warming and half cooling deepwater temperature through time. More transparent lakes (Secchi transparency >5 m) tended to have higher near-surface warming and greater increases in strength of thermal stratification than less transparent lakes. Whole-lake warming was greatest in polymictic lakes, where frequent summer mixing distributed heat throughout the water column. Lakes often function as important sentinels of climate change, but lake characteristics within and across regions modify the magnitude of the signal with important implications for lake biology, ecology and chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Responses of Lakes to Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle The Design of a Site-Calibrated Parker–Klingeman Gravel Transport Model
Water 2017, 9(6), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060441
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
The use of site-calibrated models for predicting bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers remains relatively rare, despite advances in methodology and computing technology, and its notable advantages in terms of predictive accuracy. This article presents a new algorithm for site calibration of the Parker–Klingeman
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The use of site-calibrated models for predicting bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers remains relatively rare, despite advances in methodology and computing technology, and its notable advantages in terms of predictive accuracy. This article presents a new algorithm for site calibration of the Parker–Klingeman (1982) model, along with a detailed discussion of considerations that influence model selection and calibration methodology. New visualization techniques are explored to demystify the calibration process, using three examples with progressively more challenging calibration conditions. The new method is particularly well suited to streams with high sediment loads, or cases where extrapolation of transport function estimates is necessary. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Methodology for Analyzing and Predicting the Runoff and Sediment into a Reservoir
Water 2017, 9(6), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060440
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
With the rapid economic growth in China, a large number of hydropower projects have been planned and constructed. The sediment deposition of the reservoirs is one of the most important disputes during the construction and operation, because there are many heavy sediment-laden rivers.
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With the rapid economic growth in China, a large number of hydropower projects have been planned and constructed. The sediment deposition of the reservoirs is one of the most important disputes during the construction and operation, because there are many heavy sediment-laden rivers. The analysis and prediction of the runoff and sediment into a reservoir is of great significance for reservoir operation. With knowledge of the incoming runoff and sediment characteristics, the regulator can adjust the reservoir discharge to guarantee the water supply, and flush more sediment at appropriate times. In this study, the long-term characteristics of runoff and sediment, including trend, jump point, and change cycle, are analyzed using various statistical approaches, such as accumulated anomaly analysis, the Fisher ordered clustering method, and Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA). Based on the characteristics, a prediction model is established using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARIMA) method. The whole analysis and prediction system is applied to The Three Gorges Project (TGP), one of the biggest hydropower-complex projects in the world. Taking hydrologic series from 1955 to 2010 as the research objectives, the results show that both the runoff and the sediment are decreasing, and the reduction rate of sediment is much higher. Runoff and sediment into the TGP display cyclic variations over time, with a cycle of about a decade, but catastrophe points for runoff and sediment appear in 1991 and 2001, respectively. Prediction models are thus built based on monthly average hydrologic series from 2003 to 2010. ARIMA (1, 1, 1) × (1, 1, 1)12 and ARIMA (0, 1, 1) × (0, 1, 1)12 are selected for the runoff and sediment predictions, respectively, and the parameters of the models are also calibrated. The analysis of autocorrelation coefficients and partial autocorrelation coefficients of the residuals indicates that the models built in this study are feasible for representing and predicting the runoff and sediment inflow into the TGP with a high accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China
Water 2017, 9(6), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060439
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC) and low-impact development (LID) have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate,
[...] Read more.
Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC) and low-impact development (LID) have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures) was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Advancing Water Footprint Assessment Research: Challenges in Monitoring Progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6
Water 2017, 9(6), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060438
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity
[...] Read more.
This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major risk to the global economy, sustainable management of water resources is a prerequisite to development. We introduce the papers in this special issue by relating them to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 6 of the United Nations, the goal on water. We will particularly articulate how each paper drives the understanding needed to achieve target 6.3 on water quality and pollution and target 6.4 on water-use efficiency and water scarcity. Regarding SDG 6, we conclude that it lacks any target on using green water more efficiently, and while addressing efficiency and sustainability of water use, it lacks a target on equitable sharing of water. The latter issue is receiving limited attention in research as well. By primarily focusing on water-use efficiency in farming and industries at the local level, to a lesser extent to using water sustainably at the level of total water systems (like drainage basins, aquifers), and largely ignoring issues around equitable water use, understanding of our water problems and proposed solutions will likely remain unbalanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Station Based Climate Database for SWAT and APEX Assessments in the US
Water 2017, 9(6), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060437
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily
[...] Read more.
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily climatic data are critical for accurate depiction of the hydrologic cycle, yet these data are among the most difficult to obtain and process. In this paper we describe the development of a national (US) database of preprocessed climate data derived from monitoring stations applicable to USGS 12-digit watersheds. Various sources and processing methods are explored and discussed. A relatively simple method was employed to choose representative stations for each of the 83,000 12-digit watersheds in the continental US. Fully processed climate data resulting from this research were published online to facilitate other SWAT and APEX modeling efforts in the US. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperAddendum Addendum: Montagnier, L.; Aïssa, J.; Capolupo, A.; Craddock, T.J.A.; Kurian, P.; Lavallee, C.; Polcari, A.; Romano, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G. Water Bridging Dynamics of Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Gauge Theory Paradigm of Quantum Fields. Water 2017, 9, 339
Water 2017, 9(6), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060436
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following addendum to their paper [1]:[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Bridges and Electrified Water)
Open AccessErratum Erratum: Chirindja, F., et al. Borehole Logging and Slug Tests for Evaluating the Applicability of Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Groundwater Exploration in Nampula Complex, Mozambique. Water 2017, 9, 95
Water 2017, 9(6), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060435
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle Singapore and Sydney: Regulation and Market-Making
Water 2017, 9(6), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060434
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
The different institutional forms of water utilities of Singapore and Sydney provide an interesting natural experiment on the role of a regulator in government-owned utilities (GOUs). In both cities, water is provided by GOUs. In Sydney, however, there is an independent regulator whereas
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The different institutional forms of water utilities of Singapore and Sydney provide an interesting natural experiment on the role of a regulator in government-owned utilities (GOUs). In both cities, water is provided by GOUs. In Sydney, however, there is an independent regulator whereas in Singapore the Public Utilities Board is a statutory board without a regulator. This paper compared the regulation and market-making efforts by water utilities of Singapore and Sydney. We find that both are similar in quality of service, operational and economic efficiencies, and private sector investments. The difference lies in their choice of the instrument for involving the private sector. Sydney does this by appointing a specific regulator whereas Singapore uses contracts. Indeed, it argues that the government-owned water utilities of both Sydney and Singapore seek to capture as many benefits as possible from market-making efforts, that is, from mimicking private sector behaviors and by operating from the basic tenets of the regulatory state. Both countries seek to make rules addressing the “market failure” of a monopoly. In Sydney, such efforts are seen in the explicit contestability of the market and the high engagement with customers whereas in Singapore the efforts are more muted on both counts and are instead motivated toward developing water businesses as a whole Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Anionic Surfactant on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Loamy Sand and Sandy Loam Soils
Water 2017, 9(6), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060433
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Surfactants released into the terrestrial environment in large amounts can potentially alter the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils, particularly the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Unfortunately findings regarding this process are quite limited. In this study, column tests were
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Surfactants released into the terrestrial environment in large amounts can potentially alter the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils, particularly the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Unfortunately findings regarding this process are quite limited. In this study, column tests were used to analyze the effects of Aerosol 22, a widely used anionic surfactant, on Ks of loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Solutions were injected into columns from the bottom with controlled pressure heads. Both the overall Ks of columns and the Ks of 6 layers at distances of 0–1 cm, 1–3 cm, 3–5 cm, 5–7 cm, 7–9 cm, and 9–10 cm from the bottom, were continuously monitored before and after the surfactant injections. Results showed that the overall Ks of all columns decreased after 2–4 pore volumes of the surfactant injections. However, stabilization and even increase at the beginning of the surfactant injection was also observed due to the different Ks variations in different layers. Specifically, a surfactant injection of 2–4 pore volumes continuously decreased the Ks of the 0–1 cm layers which yielded a Ks reduction of two orders of magnitude and dominated the Ks variations of the column. In contrast, an increase in the Ks of the 1–3 cm and 3–5 cm layers was more likely, while Ks variation of the 5–10 cm layers was less likely. We hypothetically attributed the Ks variations to the swelling of clay, the collapse of soil aggregates and subsequent particle displacements from surfactant adsorption, which caused pore clogging in the bottom 0–1 cm layer and higher porosities in the layers above. The adsorption of the surfactant aggregates and crystallization were also possibly thought to cause a pore clogging in the bottom layer thus decrease the surfactant concentration from the inlet, the severity of which affects these layers less at greater distances from the inlet. In view of the uncertainty showed by the experimental results, we also suggest to include more replicate columns in future studies, so as to increase the repeatability of the measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Solute Transport in Vadose Zone)
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Open AccessArticle Two-Dimensional Dam-Break Flood Analysis in Data-Scarce Regions: The Case Study of Chipembe Dam, Mozambique
Water 2017, 9(6), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060432
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the hypothetical dam break of Chipembe dam in Mozambique. The modeling approach is based on the software Iber, a freely available dam break and two-dimensional finite volume shallow water model. The shuttle radar
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This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the hypothetical dam break of Chipembe dam in Mozambique. The modeling approach is based on the software Iber, a freely available dam break and two-dimensional finite volume shallow water model. The shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) online digital elevation model (DEM) is used as main source of topographic data. Two different DEMs are considered as input for the hydraulic model: a DEM based on the original SRTM data and a hydrologically-conditioned DEM. A sensitivity analysis on the Manning roughness coefficient is performed. The results demonstrate the relevant impact of the DEM used on the predicted flood wave propagation, and a lower influence of the roughness value. The low cost modeling approach proposed in this paper can be an attractive option for modeling exceptional flood caused by dam break, when limited data and resources are available, as in the presented case. The resulting flood-inundation and hazard maps will enable the Regional Water Management Administration of Mozambique (ARA) to develop early warning systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrients and Phytoplankton in a Shallow, Hypereutrophic Urban Lake: Prospects for Restoration
Water 2017, 9(6), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060431
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
University Lake, a shallow, artificial, urban lake adjacent to the campus of Louisiana State University, has a long history of water quality problems, including algal blooms, fish kills, and high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Periodic dredging of the lake is necessary to
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University Lake, a shallow, artificial, urban lake adjacent to the campus of Louisiana State University, has a long history of water quality problems, including algal blooms, fish kills, and high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Periodic dredging of the lake is necessary to prevent its return to swampland. This study was undertaken to elucidate the roles of allochthonous versus autochthonous nutrients as causes of water quality problems in the lake, with the expectation that this information would help identify strategies for lake restoration. Photosynthetic rates and concentrations of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton pigments were measured over a period of one year. More than 90% of the chlorophyll a (chl a) in the lake was accounted for by Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, and Bacillariophyceae. Concentrations of chl a, which averaged 75 μg L−1, fluctuated weekly during dry weather by as much as a factor of four. Phytoplankton growth rates were about 30% higher 1–2 days after rain events than after periods of dry weather, the implication being that allochthonous nutrient loading has a significant effect on the dynamics of the phytoplankton community in the lake. Therefore, dredging of sediments will likely produce no long-term improvement in water quality. More than 100 storm drains currently discharge into the lake, and diversion of those drains may be the most cost-effective strategy for effecting a long-term improvement in water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Selected Root Exudate Components on Nitrogen Removal and Development of Denitrifying Bacteria in Constructed Wetlands
Water 2017, 9(6), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060430
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Root exudates, particularly low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) substrates, are major drivers of bacterial diversity and activity in the rhizosphere environment. However, it is not well understood how specific LMWC compounds—such as organic acids, soluble sugars, and amino acids—influence the community structures of
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Root exudates, particularly low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) substrates, are major drivers of bacterial diversity and activity in the rhizosphere environment. However, it is not well understood how specific LMWC compounds—such as organic acids, soluble sugars, and amino acids—influence the community structures of denitrifying bacteria or if there are specific functions of LMWC substrates that preferentially respond to nitrogen (N) removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). To address these knowledge gaps, we added mixtures of artificial exudates to CW microcosms containing N pollutant. N removal efficiency was observed over a 48-h experimental period, and at the end of the experiment, DNA was extracted from microbial samples for assessment of the bacterial community. The removal efficiencies of TN for the exudates treatments were higher than for control groups by 47.1–58.67%. Organic acid and soluble sugar treatments increased N removal, while amino acids were negative to N removal. The microbial community was changed when artificial exudates were added, but there were no significant relationships between LMWC compounds and bacterial community composition. These results indicate that although the responses of community structures of denitrifying bacteria to LMWC additions are still uncertain, there is evidence for N removal in response to exudate additions across LMWC types. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China
Water 2017, 9(6), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060429
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR) would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water
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Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR) would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model) to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID) in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0), which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop water requirement (CWR). CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Resilience Index Based on Flooding Damage in Urban Areas
Water 2017, 9(6), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060428
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Flooding volume in urban areas is not linearly proportional to flooding damage because, in some areas, no flooding damage occurs until the flooding depth reaches a certain point, whereas flooding damage occurs in other areas whenever flooding occurs. Flooding damage is different from
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Flooding volume in urban areas is not linearly proportional to flooding damage because, in some areas, no flooding damage occurs until the flooding depth reaches a certain point, whereas flooding damage occurs in other areas whenever flooding occurs. Flooding damage is different from flooding volume because each subarea has different components. A resilience index for urban drainage systems was developed based on flooding damage. In this study, the resilience index based on flooding damage in urban areas was applied to the Sintaein basin in Jeongup, Korea. The target watershed was divided into five subareas according to the status of land use in each subarea. The damage functions between flooding volume and flooding damage were calculated by multi-dimensional flood damage analysis. The extent of flooding damage per minute was determined from the results of flooding volume per minute using damage functions. The values of the resilience index based on flooding damages were distributed from 0.797292 to 0.933741. The resilience index based on flooding damage suggested in this study can reflect changes in urban areas and can be used for the evaluation of flood control plans such as the installation, replacement, and rehabilitation of drainage facilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Peracetic Acid (PAA) Disinfection: Inactivation of Microbial Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Plant
Water 2017, 9(6), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060427
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus
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Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus requiring wastewater effluents to be disinfected. In recent years, peracetic acid (PAA) has been adopted as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficiency of PAA at low doses (range 0.99–2.10 mg/L) against microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria in a municipal wastewater plant. Samples of untreated sewage and effluents before and after PAA treatment were collected seasonally for 1 year and were analysed for pathogenic Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes using molecular methods; moreover, the detection of specific microbial indicators (E. coli, faecal coliforms, enterococci, C. perfringens) and Salmonella spp. were carried out using culturing methods. Salmonella spp. DNA was found in all untreated sewage and effluent before PAA treatment, whereas it was recovered in 50% of the samples collected after PAA treatment. Although E. coli O157:H7 was never identified, the occurrence of Shiga-like toxin I amplicons was identified in 75% of the untreated sewage samples, in 50% of the effluents assayed before PAA treatment, and in 25% of the effluents assayed after PAA treatment, whereas the stx2 gene was never found. Campylobacter coli was only detected in one effluent sample before PAA treatment. In the effluents after PAA treatment, a lower load of indicator bacteria was observed compared to the effluents before treatment. The results of this study highlight that the use of low doses of PAA seems to lead to an improvement of the microbiological quality of the effluent, although it is not sufficient to guarantee its suitability for irrigation. These results underscore the need for additional studies to further assess the efficiency of PAA disinfection in municipal wastewater plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Disinfection of Wastewater)
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Open AccessArticle Dual-Control of Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Using Aeration and Solid Retention Time
Water 2017, 9(6), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060426
Received: 11 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is an advanced sewage sludge treatment which allows compliance with increasingly demanding regulations. Concerning sludge pasteurization, a certain average temperature must be assured in the digester during batch treatment. Aeration flow is the variable most manipulated to regulate
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Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is an advanced sewage sludge treatment which allows compliance with increasingly demanding regulations. Concerning sludge pasteurization, a certain average temperature must be assured in the digester during batch treatment. Aeration flow is the variable most manipulated to regulate the digester temperature. Additionally, the manipulation of the batch sludge flow—which is related to the solid-retention-time—is considered to improve temperature regulation despite variations in air and sludge temperatures and the variability of raw sludge organic content. Thus, a dual-input control structure was provided where the aeration and solid-retention-time contributed as faster and slower inputs, respectively. Two controllers intervened, and the set-point for the batch average temperature was chosen to meet the minimum effluent quality established by the US regulations or European recommendations, considering that lower set point temperatures save aeration costs. A set-point for the aeration allowed us to achieve an extra goal, which aimed at either reducing operation costs or increasing production rates. The two feedback controllers were designed following the robust control methodology known as quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Improvements were compared with single-input (aeration-flow) control strategy and open-loop control strategy. Simulations were performed on a benchmark non-linear simulation model for ATAD. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bridging Glaciological and Hydrological Trends in the Pamir Mountains, Central Asia
Water 2017, 9(6), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060422
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
With respect to meteorological changes and glacier evolution, the southern Pamir Mountains are a transition zone between the Pamirs, Hindu Kush and Karakoram, which are water towers of Central Asia. In this study, we compare runoff and climate trends in multiple time periods
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With respect to meteorological changes and glacier evolution, the southern Pamir Mountains are a transition zone between the Pamirs, Hindu Kush and Karakoram, which are water towers of Central Asia. In this study, we compare runoff and climate trends in multiple time periods with glacial changes reported in the literature. Recent glacier evolution in the Southern Pamirs and its contribution to river runoff are studied in detail. Uncertainties of estimating glacier retreat contribution to runoff are addressed. Runoff trends in the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram region appear to be a strong proxy for glacier evolution because they exhibit the same spatial pattern as glacial change. There is an anomaly in the North-West Pamirs and Northern Karakoram, showing decreasing runoff trends. In the opposite way, there is a glacier and hydrological change experienced in the Southern Pamirs and Hindu Kush. The prevailing hypothesis for the Karakoram Anomaly, decreasing summer temperatures along with increasing precipitation rates, seems to be valid for the North-Western Pamirs, as well. In the Southern Pamirs, temperature trends have been rising since 1950. Here, the unique water cycle of exclusively winter precipitation does not protect glaciers from accelerated retreat. Snow cover is preset to melt within the seasonal water cycle, due to much lower precipitation amounts falling on glaciers. Therefore, a probable increase in westerly precipitation in both regions causes glacier mass gain in the Northern Pamirs and rising river flows in the Southern Pamirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Warming Impacts on Mountain Glaciers and Communities)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Water Tariff Reform on Water Consumption in Different Housing Typologies in Calvià (Mallorca)
Water 2017, 9(6), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060425
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
This study analyses water prices and residential water consumption using micro data for three different housing typologies in Calvia with contrasting household characteristics. We examine the effect of a price reform of the sanitation fee (implemented in 2013) on the average prices and
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This study analyses water prices and residential water consumption using micro data for three different housing typologies in Calvia with contrasting household characteristics. We examine the effect of a price reform of the sanitation fee (implemented in 2013) on the average prices and their water consumption in each of the areas. Our results conclude that the aggregate water consumption decreased only during the year of the reform, but increased the following year. The increase in the amount of water consumed by the houses of higher standards of living was greater than the small decrease in water consumption by families with medium and low-medium incomes. Thus, the reform had a very modest effect as regards reducing water consumption, and many households increased their consumption despite the higher prices. From a water policy perspective, we recommend a water tariff scheme differentiated according to the housing characteristics in order to find the most effective and fairest way to save water. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Water Policy Collection)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Analysis of Reservoir Operations Considering Short-Term Flood Control and Long-Term Water Supply: A Case Study for the Da-Han Creek Basin in Taiwan
Water 2017, 9(6), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060424
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
This study applies an integrated methodology to assess short-term over-levee risk and long-term water shortage risk in the Da-Han Creek basin, which is the most important flood control and water storage system in northern Taiwan. An optimization model for reservoir flood control and
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This study applies an integrated methodology to assess short-term over-levee risk and long-term water shortage risk in the Da-Han Creek basin, which is the most important flood control and water storage system in northern Taiwan. An optimization model for reservoir flood control and water supply is adopted, to determine reservoir releases based on synthetic inflow hydrographs during typhoons, which are generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The release is then used to calculate the water level at a downstream control point using a novel developed back-propagation neural network-based model, to reduce computational complexity and achieve automatic-efficient risk evaluation. The calculated downstream water levels and final reservoir water levels after a typhoon event are used to evaluate the mapped over-levee risk and water shortage risk, respectively. The results showed that the different upper limit settings for the reservoir have a significant influence on the variation of 1.19 × 10−5% to 75.6% of the water shortage risk. This occurs because of the insufficient inflow and narrow storage capacity of the Shih-Men Reservoir during drought periods. However, the upper limit settings have a minor influence (with a variation of only 0.149% to 0.157%) on the over-levee risk in typhoon periods, because of the high protection standards for the downstream embankment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River
Water 2017, 9(6), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060423
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers
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Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a) a rainfall–runoff model; (b) a reservoir optimization model; and (c) a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Successes of Restoration and Its Effect on the Fish Community in a Freshwater Tidal Embayment of the Potomac River, USA
Water 2017, 9(6), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060421
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 11 June 2017
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Abstract
After a local wastewater treatment plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April to September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), once
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After a local wastewater treatment plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April to September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), once abundant in this freshwater tidal embayment, returned to the area in 1993. After additional reductions in nitrogen load starting in 2000, the system switched to an SAV-dominated state in 2005. Fish abundance did not change during these distinct phase changes, but the fish community structure did. Increases in SAV provided refuge and additional spawning substrate for species with adhesive eggs such as Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), which is now the most abundant species in the embayment. Other changes observed were a decrease in the relative contribution of open water dwelling species such as White Perch (Morone americana), and an increase of visual predators such as Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). The 30-year record of data from this Potomac River tributary has revealed important long-term trends that validate the effectiveness of initiatives to reduce excess nutrient inputs, and will aid in the continued management of the watershed and point-source inputs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterising Bedrock Aquifer Systems in Korea Using Paired Water-Level Monitoring Data
Water 2017, 9(6), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060420
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level
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This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level changes in shallow alluvial and deep bedrock monitoring wells. The spectral analysis could identify the aquifer conditions (i.e., unconfined, semi-confined and confined) of 58.5% of bedrock wells and 42.8% of alluvial wells: 93 and 68 wells out of 159 wells, respectively. Even among the bedrock wells, 50 wells (53.7%) exhibited characteristics of the unconfined condition, implying significant vulnerability of the aquifer to contaminants from the land surface and shallow depths. It appears to be better approach for deep bedrock aquifers than shallow alluvial aquifers. However, significant portions of the water-level changes remained unclear for categorising aquifer conditions due to disturbances in data continuity. For different aquifer conditions, PCA could show typical pattern and factor scores of principal components. Principal component 1 due to wet-and-dry seasonal changes and water-level response time was dominant covering about 55% of total variances of each aquifer conditions, implying the usefulness of supplementary method of aquifer characterisation. Cross-correlation and time-lag analysis in the water-level responses to precipitations clearly show how the water levels in shallow and deep wells correspond in time scale. No significant differences in time-lags was found between shallow and deep wells. However, clear time-lags were found to be increasing from unconfined to confined conditions: from 1.47 to 2.75 days and from 1.78 to 2.75 days for both shallow alluvial and deep bedrock wells, respectively. In combination of various statistical methods, three types of water-level fluctuation patterns were identified from the water-level pairs: Type I of identical aquifer systems (77.8%), Type II of the different aquifer systems with different recharge flow paths (9.5%), and Type III of unmatched aquifer system pairs and correlations (12.7%). Type I and II could be used as verification of aquifer condition in the paired monitoring system. However, Type III shows the complexity of water-level fluctuation in different aquifer conditions. This study showed that confined or not-confined conditions are not directly related to the depth of wells in the aquifer. Therefore, the utilisation of groundwater as a water-supply source should be carefully designed, tested for its hydrogeologic conditions, and managed to ensure sustainable quantity and quality. Full article
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